Ancient Greece; session viii Hellenism
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Ancient Greece; session viii Hellenism

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The concluding session of Ancient Greece describes the places and culture of the Successor states between the death of Alexander the Great and the rise of Rome

The concluding session of Ancient Greece describes the places and culture of the Successor states between the death of Alexander the Great and the rise of Rome

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Ancient Greece; session viii Hellenism Ancient Greece; session viii Hellenism Presentation Transcript

  • ANCIENT GREECE viii-Hellenism
  • ANCIENT GREECE viii-Hellenism Pergamon Altar, Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • PRINCIPAL TOPICSI. The Hellenistic WorldII. HellenizationIII. Hellenistic CultureIV. ArtV. Religion and PhilosophyVI. Science
  • This [session] is...about a second generation, the trials of their migration,whom they met and what they said and, above all, what they did with theirinheritance. The first generation was that of the Hellenes, the Greeks fromHomer to Aristotle; the second generation had no name. Some of them wereGreeks, but more were Macedonians, Romans, Syrians, Jews and Egyptians.They all had their own styles, born in some cases, of long and glitteringtraditions. But they fell, all of them, under the spell of the Hellenes and sobecame a second generation, condemned or blessed to reap where theirspiritual fathers had sown. (continued) F. E. Peters, The Harvest of Hellenism, p. 18
  • The harvest has been gathered for centuries. We are part of it and cannumber our own generations across a familiar landscape back to the Romansand then to the Age of Pericles. It is an attractive and generally satisfyinggenealogical narrative, passing in review most of the monuments of ourculture. The history of Hellenism appears to be identical with the spiritualhistory of the West. Ibid.
  • I. THE HELLENISTIC WORLD
  • I. THE HELLENISTIC WORLD
  • Within the boundaries established by the conquests of Alexander there weredramatic cultural changes as Hellenization spread thousands of miles overthe whole of the Middle East. This process used to be seen through rose-tinted spectacles as the innocent gift of civilization to the benightedbarbarians; after all the British were doing precisely the same thing in theirempire. No doubt the Greeks themselves saw matters in this way. But ourown post-colonial age is more aware that culture is imminently bound upwith politics: we can see that Greek culture dominated other, ancientcultures, and that this process of Hellenization was in part a product of thepower of kings. The creation of new Greek cities was fundamental to the process ofHellenization. Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World. p. 315
  • Alexander himself was reported to have founded over seventy cities (theactual figure may have been half that), while the Selucids created over sixtynew settlements in the area from western Turkey to Iran. Some of these ‘new’cities were in fact old settlements with a new, dynastic name and a Greekconstitution. Ibid.
  • After Alexander the Great conquered the Near East in 334BCE, the existing settlement [Baalbek] was namedHeliopolis (Ἡλιούπολις) from helios, Greek for sun, andpolis, Greek for city. The city retained its religious functionduring Greco-Roman times, when the sanctuary of theHeliopolitan Jupiter-Baal was a pilgrimage site. Wikipedia
  • After Alexander the Great conquered the Near East in 334BCE, the existing settlement [Baalbek] was namedHeliopolis (Ἡλιούπολις) from helios, Greek for sun, andpolis, Greek for city. The city retained its religious functionduring Greco-Roman times, when the sanctuary of theHeliopolitan Jupiter-Baal was a pilgrimage site. Wikipedia
  • The extreme license of the Heliopolitan worship of Aphrodite was oftencommented upon by early Christian writers, who competed with one anotherto execrate her worship. Eusebius of Caesarea [263-339 AD], down the coast,averred that men and women vie with one another to honour their shamelessgoddess; husbands and fathers let their wives and daughters publicly prostitutethemselves to please Astarte. Constantine [272-337 AD], making an effort tocurb the Venus cult, built a basilica in Heliopolis. Theodosius I [347-395 AD]erected another, with a western apse, occupying the main court of the Jupitertemple, as was Christian practice everywhere. The vast stone blocks of its wallswere taken from the temple. Today nothing of the Theodosian basilicaremains. Wikipedia
  • Alexander himself was reported to have founded over seventy cities (theactual figure may have been half that), while the Selucids created over sixtynew settlements in the area from western Turkey to Iran. Some of these ‘new’cities were in fact old settlements with a new, dynastic name and a Greekconstitution. Others were in areas previously not highly urbanized.For example, the second Selucid king founded a new city...namingit Antioch after himself [actually, after his son and successor]... Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World. p. 315
  • Alexander himself was reported to have founded over seventy cities (theactual figure may have been half that), while the Selucids created over sixtynew settlements in the area from western Turkey to Iran. Some of these ‘new’cities were in fact old settlements with a new, dynastic name and a Greekconstitution. Others were in areas previously not highly urbanized.For example, the second Selucid king founded a new city...namingit Antioch after himself [actually, after his son and successor]... Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World. p. 315
  • Seleucus I Nicator won the territory of Syria, and he proceeded to found four "sistercities" in northwestern Syria, one of which was Antioch. Like the other three, Antiochwas named by Seleucus for a member of his family. Seleucus founded Antioch on a site chosen through ritual means. An eagle, the birdof Zeus, had been given a piece of sacrificial meat and the city was founded on the siteto which the eagle carried the offering. He did this in the twelfth year of his reign.Antioch soon rose...to become the Syrian capital. The original city of Seleucus was laid out in imitation of the grid plan of Alexandriaby the architect Xenarius. The citadel was on Mt. Silpius and the city lay mainly on thelow ground to the north, fringing the river. Two great colonnaded streets intersected inthe centre. Shortly afterwards a second quarter was laid out, probably on the east andby Antiochus I, which appears to have been the native, as contrasted with the Greek,town. It was enclosed by a wall of its own. Wikipedia
  • Seleucus I Nicator won the territory of Syria, and he proceeded to found four "sistercities" in northwestern Syria, one of which was Antioch. Like the other three, Antiochwas named by Seleucus for a member of his family. Seleucus founded Antioch on a site chosen through ritual means. An eagle, the birdof Zeus, had been given a piece of sacrificial meat and the city was founded on the siteto which the eagle carried the offering. He did this in the twelfth year of his reign.Antioch soon rose...to become the Syrian capital. The original city of Seleucus was laid out in imitation of the grid plan of Alexandriaby the architect Xenarius. The citadel was on Mt. Silpius and the city lay mainly on thelow ground to the north, fringing the river. Two great colonnaded streets intersected inthe centre. Shortly afterwards a second quarter was laid out, probably on the east andby Antiochus I, which appears to have been the native, as contrasted with the Greek,town. It was enclosed by a wall of its own. Wikipedia AERIAL VIEW OF ANTIOCH ON THE ORONTES (modern Antakya in south-eastern Turkey). It shows the typical gridiron plan of the Selucid foundations, with five avenues running south-west to north-east and at least twenty streets running cross-wise. Ibid.
  • In the Orontes, north of the city, lay a large island, and on this Seleucus IICallinicus began a third walled "city," which was finished by Antiochus III. A fourthand last quarter was added by Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC); andthenceforth Antioch was known as Tetrapolis. From west to east the whole wasabout 6 km in diameter and little less from north to south, this area including manylarge gardens.The new city was populated by a mix of local settlers that Athenians brought fromthe nearby city of Antigonia, Macedonians, and Jews (who were given full statusfrom the beginning). The total free population of Antioch at its foundation has beenestimated at between 17,000 and 25,000, not including slaves and native settlers.During the late Hellenistic period and Early Roman period, Antioch populationreached its peak of over 500,000 inhabitants (estimates vary from 400,000 to600,000) and was the third largest city in the world after Rome and Alexandria. Bythe 4th century, Antiochs declining population was about 200,000 according toChrysostom, a figure which again does not include slaves.About 6 km west and beyond the suburb Heraclea lay the paradise of Daphne, apark of woods and waters, in the midst of which rose a great temple to the PythianApollo, also founded by Seleucus I and enriched with a cult-statue of the god, asMusagetes, by Bryaxis. Wikipedia
  • In the Orontes, north of the city, lay a large island, and on this Seleucus II Callinicus began a third walled "city," which was finished by Antiochus III. A fourth and last quarter was added by Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC); and thenceforth Antioch was known as Tetrapolis. From west to east the whole was about 6 km in diameter and little less from north to south, this area including many large gardens. The new city was populated by a mix of local settlers that Athenians brought from the nearby city of Antigonia, Macedonians, and Jews (who were given full status from the beginning). The total free population of Antioch at its foundation has been estimated at between 17,000 and 25,000, not including slaves and native settlers. During the late Hellenistic period and Early Roman period, Antioch population reached its peak of over 500,000 inhabitants (estimates vary from 400,000 to 600,000) and was the third largest city in the world after Rome and Alexandria. By the 4th century, Antiochs declining population was about 200,000 according to Chrysostom, a figure which again does not include slaves. About 6 km west and beyond the suburb Heraclea lay the paradise of Daphne, a park of woods and waters, in the midst of which rose a great temple to the Pythian Apollo, also founded by Seleucus I and enriched with a cult-statue of the god, as Musagetes, by Bryaxis. WikipediaDaphne near Antioch, Copperplate print by AbrahamOrtelius, Antwerpen, early 17th century
  • The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Kingdomof Thrace.The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, father of Philetaerus who came topower in 281 BC following the collapse of the Kingdom of Thrace, were amongthe most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I(241-197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during thefirst and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II (197-158 BC),against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For supportagainst the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleuciddomains in Asia Minor.The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents surviveshowing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sendingin skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in theirdomains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek culturalsites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. Theyremodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens. WhenAttalus III (138-133 BC) died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed thewhole of Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war.According to Christian teaching and tradition, Pergamum is where Satandwells, where his throne is, and the first bishop of Pergamon, Antipas, wasmartyred there in ca. 92 AD. (Revelation 2:13) Wikipedia
  • The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Kingdomof Thrace.The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, father of Philetaerus who came topower in 281 BC following the collapse of the Kingdom of Thrace, were amongthe most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I(241-197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during thefirst and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II (197-158 BC),against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For supportagainst the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleuciddomains in Asia Minor.The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents surviveshowing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sendingin skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in theirdomains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek culturalsites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. Theyremodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens. WhenAttalus III (138-133 BC) died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed thewhole of Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war.According to Christian teaching and tradition, Pergamum is where Satandwells, where his throne is, and the first bishop of Pergamon, Antipas, wasmartyred there in ca. 92 AD. (Revelation 2:13) Wikipedia
  • The Great Altar of Pergamon is in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. The base of thisaltar remains on the upper part of the Acropolis. It was perhaps this altar, believedto be dedicated to Zeus, that John of Patmos referred to as "Satans Throne" in hisBook of Revelation (Revelation 2:13).Other notable structures still in existence on the upper part of the Acropolis include: ■ The Hellenistic Theater with a seating capacity of 10,000. This had the steepest seating of any known theater in the ancient world. Wikipedia
  • The new settlements varied enormously in size and status. First, there were themilitary colonies founded by the Selucids in various parts of their kingdom, fromwestern Turkey to Kurdistan. These settlements might be small, with only a fewhundred men, and they had few autonomous institutions and little independencefrom the king….Secondly, there were the new, independent cities with populations ofseveral thousands, ranging up to Alexandria, a great cultural centre, which in the firstcentury BC was reckoned to be the largest city in the (Mediterranean) world. Boardman, op. cit. p. 316
  • ALEXANDRIA
  • In a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general, Ptolemy (laterPtolemy I of Egypt) succeeded in bringing Alexanders body to Alexandria.Alexanders tomb became a famous tourist destination for ancient travelers(including Julius Caesar). Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre [Alexander’s seven month siege] andbecoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabianand Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger thanCarthage. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world andfor some centuries more, was second only to Rome. It became the main Greekcity of Egypt, with an extraordinary mix of Greeks from many cities andbackgrounds. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism but was also home to thelargest Jewish community in the world. The Septuagint, a Greek translation ofthe Hebrew Bible (the Torah and other writings), was produced there. The earlyPtolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into theleading Hellenistic centre of learning (Library of Alexandria) but were careful tomaintain the distinction of its populations three largest ethnicities: Greek,Jewish, and Egyptian.
  • THE LIBRARY According to the earliest source of information the library was initially organized by Demetrius of Phaleron, a student of Aristotle, under the reign of Ptolemy I Soter. Built in the Brucheion (Royal Text Quarter) in the style of Aristotles Lyceum, adjacent to and in service of the Musaeum (a Greek Temple or "House of Muses", hence the term "museum"), the library comprised a Peripatos walk, gardens, a room for shared dining, a reading room, lecture halls and meeting rooms. However, the exact layout is not known. The influence of this model may still be seen today in the layout of university campuses.
  • THE PHAROSThe Lighthouse of Alexandria( ὁ Φάρος Ἀλεξανδρινóς), was a towerbuilt between 280 and 247 BC on theisland of Pharos. Its purpose was toguide sailors into the port of Alexandria.With a height variously estimated atsomewhere between 393 and 450 ft., itwas for many centuries among the tallestman-made structures on Earth. It wasone of the Seven Wonders of the AncientWorld.
  • After Alexander the horizons of the Greek world extended as far as India.Even Alexander had been surprised by the size of it all: he wondered if theCaspian Sea was the outer ocean of the world, and in India he began bythinking that the Indus River ran cosily round into Egypt’s Nile. The newhorizons were not altogether lost on those whom the Greeks bordered.Around 260 BC the Indian king Asoka dispatched an edict for inscriptionaround his realm which referred to the ‘world my children’. ["All men are my children.I am like a father to them. As every father desires the good and the happiness of his children, I wish that all men shouldbe happy always." --Wikipedia] It listed exactly the Hellenistic kings from his Asianborder through Egypt and Macedon to Cyrene in North Africa. A copy stoodin Greek near the Greek and Macedonian settlement at Kandahar. Robin Lane Fox, “Hellenistic Culture,” in Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World, p. 332
  • After Alexander the horizons of the Greek world extended as far as India.Even Alexander had been surprised by the size of it all: he wondered if theCaspian Sea was the outer ocean of the world, and in India he began bythinking that the Indus River ran cosily round into Egypt’s Nile. The newhorizons were not altogether lost on those whom the Greeks bordered.Around 260 BC the Indian king Asoka dispatched an edict for inscriptionaround his realm which referred to the ‘world my children’. ["All men are my children.I am like a father to them. As every father desires the good and the happiness of his children, I wish that all men shouldbe happy always." --Wikipedia] It listed exactly the Hellenistic kings from his Asianborder through Egypt and Macedon to Cyrene in North Africa. A copy stoodin Greek near the Greek and Macedonian settlement at Kandahar. Robin Lane Fox, “Hellenistic Culture,” in Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World, p. 332
  • After Alexander the horizons of the Greek world extended as far as India.Even Alexander had been surprised by the size of it all: he wondered if theCaspian Sea was the outer ocean of the world, and in India he began bythinking that the Indus River ran cosily round into Egypt’s Nile. The newhorizons were not altogether lost on those whom the Greeks bordered.Around 260 BC the Indian king Asoka dispatched an edict for inscriptionaround his realm which referred to the ‘world my children’. ["All men are my children.I am like a father to them. As every father desires the good and the happiness of his children, I wish that all men shouldbe happy always." --Wikipedia] It listed exactly the Hellenistic kings from his Asianborder through Egypt and Macedon to Cyrene in North Africa. A copy stoodin Greek near the Greek and Macedonian settlement at Kandahar. Robin Lane Fox, “Hellenistic Culture,” in Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World, p. 332
  • After Alexander the horizons of the Greek world extended as far as India.Even Alexander had been surprised by the size of it all: he wondered if theCaspian Sea was the outer ocean of the world, and in India he began bythinking that the Indus River ran cosily round into Egypt’s Nile. The newhorizons were not altogether lost on those whom the Greeks bordered.Around 260 BC the Indian king Asoka dispatched an edict for inscriptionaround his realm which referred to the ‘world my children’. ["All men are my children.I am like a father to them. As every father desires the good and the happiness of his children, I wish that all men shouldbe happy always." --Wikipedia] It listed exactly the Hellenistic kings from his Asianborder through Egypt and Macedon to Cyrene in North Africa. A copy stoodin Greek near the Greek and Macedonian settlement at Kandahar. Robin Lane Fox, “Hellenistic Culture,” in Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World, p. 332
  • II. HELLENIZATION
  • So-called Ludovisi Gaul and his wife, or “TheGalatian Suicide.” Marble, Roman copy after anHellenistic original from a monument built by Attalus I of Pergamon after his victory over Gauls, ca. 220 BC
  • A DEFINITIONHellenization is a term used to describe the spread ofancient Greek culture, and, to a lesser extent, language, overforeign peoples conquered by Greece or in its sphere ofinfluence. It is mainly used to describe the spread ofHellenistic civilization during the Hellenistic period followingthe campaigns of Alexander the Great of Macedon. The resultof Hellenization was that elements of Greek origin combinedin various forms and degrees with local elements, which isknown as Hellenism. Wikipedia
  • Hellenization during the Hellenistic period, however, had its limitations. Case inpoint, areas of southern Syria that were affected by Greek culture mostly entailedSeleucid urban centers where Greek was commonly spoken. The countryside, onthe other hand, was largely unaffected since most of its inhabitants spoke Syriacand continued to maintain their native traditions. Moreover, Hellenization did notnecessarily involve assimilation of non-Greek ethnic groups since HellenisticGreeks in regions such as Asia Minor were conscious of their ancestral lineages.[That is, the Greek elites maintained a sort of apartheid over the natives whomthey had conquered.] Wikipedia
  • The culture of [the] cities was strongly Greek. At the most obvious level theredeveloped a new Greek language, the koinē or common language, whichtranscended the divisions of the old Greek dialects (Dorian, Ionic, and so on). [Italso has a simpler grammatical structure than the classical literature]. Boardman loc.sit.
  • 1 Παῦλος(ἀπ+στολος,(οὐκ(ἀπ1(ἀνθρ5πων(οὐδὲ(δι1(ἀνθρ5που(ἀλλὰ(διὰ(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ( καὶ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(τοῦ(ἐγεDραντος(αὐτὸν(ἐκ(νεκρῶν,( 2καὶ(οἱ(σὺν(ἐIοὶ(πJντες(ἀδελφοD,( ταῖς( ἐκκλησ&αις( τῆς( ΓαλατDας:( 3χJρις( ὑIῖν(καὶ(εἰρTνη( ἀπὸ( θεοῦ(πατρὸς( ἡIῶν( καὶ( κυρDου(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ,1 Paul the apostle (not from men or through men, but from Jesus Christ and God theFather who raised him from the dead) 2 and all the brothers who are with me, to theassembly [ekklēsiais] of the Galatians: 3 Grace to you and peace from God the Fatherand the Lord Jesus Christ.The assembly [church] of the Galatians in central Asia Minor are theChristianized descendants of the companions of that dying Gaul and his wifewhose statue illustrated the title of this section.
  • 1 Παῦλος(ἀπ+στολος,(οὐκ(ἀπ1(ἀνθρ5πων(οὐδὲ(δι1(ἀνθρ5που(ἀλλὰ(διὰ(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ( καὶ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(τοῦ(ἐγεDραντος(αὐτὸν(ἐκ(νεκρῶν,( 2καὶ(οἱ(σὺν(ἐIοὶ(πJντες(ἀδελφοD,( ταῖς( ἐκκλησ&αις( τῆς( ΓαλατDας:( 3χJρις( ὑIῖν(καὶ(εἰρTνη( ἀπὸ( θεοῦ(πατρὸς( ἡIῶν( καὶ( κυρDου(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ,1 Paul the apostle (not from men or through men, but from Jesus Christ and God theFather who raised him from the dead) 2 and all the brothers who are with me, to theassembly [ekklēsiais] of the Galatians: 3 Grace to you and peace from God the Fatherand the Lord Jesus Christ.The assembly [church] of the Galatians in central Asia Minor are theChristianized descendants of the companions of that dying Gaul and his wifewhose statue illustrated the title of this section.
  • 1 Παῦλος(ἀπ+στολος,(οὐκ(ἀπ1(ἀνθρ5πων(οὐδὲ(δι1(ἀνθρ5που(ἀλλὰ(διὰ(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ( καὶ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(τοῦ(ἐγεDραντος(αὐτὸν(ἐκ(νεκρῶν,( 2καὶ(οἱ(σὺν(ἐIοὶ(πJντες(ἀδελφοD,( ταῖς( ἐκκλησ&αις( τῆς( ΓαλατDας:( 3χJρις( ὑIῖν(καὶ(εἰρTνη( ἀπὸ( θεοῦ(πατρὸς( ἡIῶν( καὶ( κυρDου(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ,1 Paul the apostle (not from men or through men, but from Jesus Christ and God theFather who raised him from the dead) 2 and all the brothers who are with me, to theassembly [ekklēsiais] of the Galatians: 3 Grace to you and peace from God the Fatherand the Lord Jesus Christ.The assembly [church] of the Galatians in central Asia Minor are theChristianized descendants of the companions of that dying Gaul and his wifewhose statue illustrated the title of this section.
  • 1 Παῦλος(ἀπ+στολος,(οὐκ(ἀπ1(ἀνθρ5πων(οὐδὲ(δι1(ἀνθρ5που(ἀλλὰ(διὰ(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ( καὶ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(τοῦ(ἐγεDραντος(αὐτὸν(ἐκ(νεκρῶν,( 2καὶ(οἱ(σὺν(ἐIοὶ(πJντες(ἀδελφοD,( ταῖς( ἐκκλησ&αις( τῆς( ΓαλατDας:( 3χJρις( ὑIῖν(καὶ(εἰρTνη( ἀπὸ( θεοῦ(πατρὸς( ἡIῶν( καὶ( κυρDου(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ,1 Paul the apostle (not from men or through men, but from Jesus Christ and God theFather who raised him from the dead) 2 and all the brothers who are with me, to theassembly [ekklēsiais] of the Galatians: 3 Grace to you and peace from God the Fatherand the Lord Jesus Christ.The assembly [church] of the Galatians in central Asia Minor are theChristianized descendants of the companions of that dying Gaul and his wifewhose statue illustrated the title of this section. Paul’s letters, written in koinē Greek, are the treasured basis of today’s ἐκκλησ&α((church)
  • THE PHARONICCORPORATIONPtolemy I Soter found Egypt a sound if sluggish giant. The land was rich and therewas a kind of primitive efficiency in the manner in which it was controlled. At thehead of the state was the divine Pharaoh. He ruled Egypt as his own property, apersonal monopoly governed in his name by an army of bureaucrats and a secondarmy of priests, both of which rested on the broad base of the peasantry, who tilledthe soil and paid the taxes and rents. It was the way Egypt had been ruled forcenturies, a method sanctioned both by immemorial tradition and unmistakablesuccess. No one had ever succeeded in radically altering the system. (continued) Peters, Harvest, p. 165
  • Ptolemy I and his successors merely grafted a new class between the body and thehead. The Ptolemies ruled as somewhat newfangled Pharaohs, but to do theirbidding they had a new class of Hellenes---Greek and Macedonian---to govern thestate, fight its battles, enhance its commercial life, and add that intellectual panachefor which Egypt became famous during the Hellenistic age. Ibid.
  • III. HELLENISTIC CULTURE
  • Jewel for hair 3rd century BC Athens Museum
  • son of well-to-do Athenian parents, founder of the New Comedy enjoyed the patronage of dictator Demetrius of Phalerum. Won many prizes for his plays declined invitation to Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter. He preferred to remain at his villa at Peiraeus of his more than 100 plays only one survives in its entirety he was widely copied by Roman playwrights such as Terrance Menander Μένανδρος, Menandros ca. 342–291 many of his wittiest one-liners were requiredRoman copy of the Imperial era after a Greek original memorization in the schools, thus have come down
  • THE NEW COMEDY Attic comedy in the days of Aristophanes (c. 446-c. 386) was, like the oratory ofDemosthenes, a form of political communication. Even during the latter years ofAristophanes that had ceased to be true, and by the time of Menander politics was analien ingredient in comedy. The New Comedian wrote with ease and elegance; theturns of phrase were facile and eminently quotable, but they proceeded from a corpusthat was almost dead. In antiquity Menander was frequently praised for his realism, and his characters dobear a strong resemblance to the types that walked the streets of Athens at the end ofthe fourth century. Indeed they are those types, detailed with the archetypal featuresthat graced his friend Theophrastus’ Characters. Both...are faultlessly lifelike, butthey are not alive. (continued)
  • Menander was popular with a Hellenistic readership that was cut off from politicalcomment and solaced itself with situation comedy played by the familiar types ofmiddle-class life in Athens, soldiers slaves, courtesans, and ingénues. The plots arecomplex, if highly predictable; the action is amorous, though never erotic. NewComedy is Euripides vulgarized, without the saving grandeur of the myths or theexcitement of the pathology, closer to life yet far more remote. Style had not yetdeserted the Athenian spirit, but it was increasingly a style without artistic substance. Menander died in B.C. 292 and by that date Athens had already begun her declinefrom a political power to a university town. Peters, Harvest of Hellenism, pp. 117-118
  • THE SCHOOLS In an earlier day Athens’ propagandists could claim that the city was the “school ofGreek culture.” At the turn into the third century that statement was more literallytrue than when it was first uttered [by Pericles in 430]. There were still poets anddramatists at Athens---none of them the equal of the earlier giants---as well as theerrant street Cynics spawned by Socrates. But from the time that Plato turned fromthe Socratic tradition and founded his Academy in B.C. 387, the intellectual life of thecity, and through it the whole oikoumene, was dominated by the great schools ofphilosophy. It was their methods and interests, particularly Aristotle’s Lyceum, thatprovided models for the new centers of Hellenism at Alexandria, Antioch, Pergamumand eventually Rome. Peters, p. 106
  • THE LYCEUM Some of the men working in the Lyceum at Aristotle’s death in B.C.322 went back tothe old days with Plato...Theophrastus, Aristotle’s successor in the Lyceum, hadbeen a fellow student with Aristotle at the Academy. Others were Aristotle’s ownstudents: Eudemus of Rhodes, Aristoxenus of Tarentum, and Dicaearchus ofMessene. Finally, there were the younger men trained by Theophrastus: Cassander’sfuture governor, Demetrius of Phalerum, Strato of Lampsacus, Duris andChamaeleon. Ibid.
  • THE LYCEUM Some of the men working in the Lyceum at Aristotle’s death in B.C.322 went back tothe old days with Plato...Theophrastus, Aristotle’s successor in the Lyceum, hadbeen a fellow student with Aristotle at the Academy. Others were Aristotle’s ownstudents: Eudemus of Rhodes, Aristoxenus of Tarentum, and Dicaearchus ofMessene. Finally, there were the younger men trained by Theophrastus: Cassander’sfuture governor, Demetrius of Phalerum, Strato of Lampsacus, Duris andChamaeleon. Ibid.
  • THE LYCEUM Some of the men working in the Lyceum at Aristotle’s death in B.C.322 went back tothe old days with Plato...Theophrastus, Aristotle’s successor in the Lyceum, hadbeen a fellow student with Aristotle at the Academy. Others were Aristotle’s ownstudents: Eudemus of Rhodes, Aristoxenus of Tarentum, and Dicaearchus ofMessene. Finally, there were the younger men trained by Theophrastus: Cassander’sfuture governor, Demetrius of Phalerum, Strato of Lampsacus, Duris andChamaeleon. Ibid.
  • THE ARISTOTELIAN METHODIn general these scholars remained faithful to the patterns of researchset out by Aristotle: detailed analytical studies based on as wide a sampling of material as possible, whether in politics, in literature or in botany an interest in ethical questions and character typology already noted in connection with the lives of Alexander and later to have an important influence on biography the pursuit of historical antecedents op. cit., pp. 106-107
  • IV. ART
  • Mosaic emblema with doves.IV. ART Roman copy after Sosos of Pergamon original from the 2nd century BC. From the Villa Adriana, 1737
  • Aphrodite of Milos (Greek: Ἀφροδίτη τῆςΜήλου, Aphroditē tēs Mēlou), better knownas the Venus de Milo, is an ancient Greekstatue and one of the most famous works ofancient Greek sculpture. It is believed todepict Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) theGreek goddess of love and beauty. It is amarble sculpture, slightly larger than life size.Its arms and original plinth have been lost.From an inscription that was on its plinth, itis thought to be the work of Alexandros ofAntioch; it was earlier mistakenly attributedto the master sculptor Praxiteles. It iscurrently on permanent display at the LouvreMuseum in Paris.It was discovered by a peasant on April 8,1820, inside a buried niche within the ancientcity ruins of Milos on the Aegean island ofMilos (also Melos, or Milo). Wikipedia
  • The statue of Laocoön and His Sons is amonumental sculpture in marble now in the Vatican Museums, Rome. The statue is attributed by the Roman author Pliny the Elder to three sculptors from the island of Rhodes: Agesander, Athenodoros and Polydorus. It shows the Trojan priestLaocoön and his sons Antiphantes and Thymbraeus being strangled by sea serpents.
  • The Winged Victory of Samothrace, alsocalled the Nike of Samothrace, is a 2ndcentury BC marble sculpture of the Greekgoddess Nike (Victory). Since 1884, it has beenprominently displayed at the Louvre and isone of the most celebrated sculptures in theworld.The Nike of Samothrace, discovered in 1863, isestimated to have been created around 190 BC.It was created to not only honor the goddess,Nike, but to honor a sea battle. It conveys asense of action and triumph as well asportraying artful flowing drapery through itsfeatures which the Greeks considered idealbeauty.Modern excavations suggest that the Victoryoccupied a niche in an open-air theater andalso suggest it accompanied an altar that waswithin view of the ship monument ofDemetrius I Poliorcetes (337–283 BC).Rendered in white Parian marble, the figureoriginally formed part of the Samothracetemple complex dedicated to the Great gods,Megaloi Theoi.
  • V. RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY
  • Ἐγ,-εἰ0ι-ὁ-ποι0ὴν-ὁ-καλ6ς egō$eimi$ho$poimēn$ho$kalos“I am the good shepherd,” Jn 10: 11
  • Hellenistic religion is any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of thepeople who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenisticperiod and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE). There was much continuity inHellenistic religion: the Greek gods continued to be worshiped, and the same riteswere practiced as before.Change came from the addition of new religions from other countries, such asincluding the Egyptian god(esse)s of Isis and Serapis, and the Syrian gods of Atargatisand of Hadad, which provided a new outlet for people seeking fulfillment in both thepresent life and the afterlife. The worship of Hellenistic rulers was also a feature ofthis period, most notably in Egypt, where the Ptolemies adopted earlier pharaonicpractice, and established themselves as god-kings. Elsewhere rulers might receivedivine status without the full status of a god.Magic was practiced widely, and these too, were a continuation from earlier times.Throughout the Hellenistic world, people would consult oracles, and use charms andfigurines to deter misfortune or to cast spells. Also developed in this era was thecomplex system of astrology, which sought to determine a persons character andfuture in the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. The systems of Hellenisticphilosophy, such as Stoicism and Epicureanism, offered an alternative to traditionalreligion, even if their impact was largely limited to the educated elite. Wikipedia
  • Hellenistic religion is any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of thepeople who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenisticperiod and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE). There was much continuity inHellenistic religion: the Greek gods continued to be worshiped, and the same riteswere practiced as before.Change came from the addition of new religions from other countries, such asincluding the Egyptian god(esse)s of Isis and Serapis, and the Syrian gods of Atargatisand of Hadad, which provided a new outlet for people seeking fulfillment in both thepresent life and the afterlife. The worship of Hellenistic rulers was also a feature ofthis period, most notably in Egypt, where the Ptolemies adopted earlier pharaonicpractice, and established themselves as god-kings. Elsewhere rulers might receivedivine status without the full status of a god.Magic was practiced widely, and these too, were a continuation from earlier times.Throughout the Hellenistic world, people would consult oracles, and use charms andfigurines to deter misfortune or to cast spells. Also developed in this era was thecomplex system of astrology, which sought to determine a persons character andfuture in the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. The systems of Hellenisticphilosophy, such as Stoicism and Epicureanism, offered an alternative to traditionalreligion, even if their impact was largely limited to the educated elite. Wikipedia
  • Hellenistic religion is any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of thepeople who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenisticperiod and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE). There was much continuity inHellenistic religion: the Greek gods continued to be worshiped, and the same riteswere practiced as before.Change came from the addition of new religions from other countries, such asincluding the Egyptian god(esse)s of Isis and Serapis, and the Syrian gods of Atargatisand of Hadad, which provided a new outlet for people seeking fulfillment in both thepresent life and the afterlife. The worship of Hellenistic rulers was also a feature ofthis period, most notably in Egypt, where the Ptolemies adopted earlier pharaonicpractice, and established themselves as god-kings. Elsewhere rulers might receivedivine status without the full status of a god.Magic was practiced widely, and these too, were a continuation from earlier times.Throughout the Hellenistic world, people would consult oracles, and use charms andfigurines to deter misfortune or to cast spells. Also developed in this era was thecomplex system of astrology, which sought to determine a persons character andfuture in the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. The systems of Hellenisticphilosophy, such as Stoicism and Epicureanism, offered an alternative to traditionalreligion, even if their impact was largely limited to the educated elite. Wikipedia
  • ee-set becomes Isis in Greek when theancient Egyptian cult becomes aHellenistic staplePlutarch, a Greek scholar (46 CE-120 CE)wrote Isis and Osiris: “a goddess exceptionally wise and a lover of wisdom...the statue of Athena in Sais, whom they believe to be Isis “I am all that has been, and is, and shall be…”“Queen of Heaven” Isis Ἶσις 2nd century Roman statue
  • ee-set becomes Isis in Greek when theancient Egyptian cult becomes aHellenistic staplePlutarch, a Greek scholar (46 CE-120 CE)wrote Isis and Osiris: “a goddess exceptionally wise and a lover of wisdom...the statue of Athena in Sais, whom they believe to be Isis “I am all that has been, and is, and shall be…”“Queen of Heaven”reintroduction of the Magna Mater Isis Ἶσις 2nd century Roman statue
  • a Graeco-Egyptian god. Serapis was devised during the 3rd century BC on the orders of Ptolemy I of Egypt as a means to unify the Greeks and Egyptians in his realm depicted as Greek in appearance, but with Egyptian trappings, and combined iconography from a great many cults, signifying both abundance and resurrection Serapis Σέραπιςstatuette from Afghanistan
  • a Graeco-Egyptian god. Serapis was devised during the 3rd century BC on the orders of Ptolemy I of Egypt as a means to unify the Greeks and Egyptians in his realm depicted as Greek in appearance, but with Egyptian trappings, and combined iconography from a great many cults, signifying both abundance and resurrection the Ptolemaic kings also built a splendid Serapeum in Alexandria Serapis Σέραπιςstatuette from Afghanistan
  • a Graeco-Egyptian god. Serapis was devised during the 3rd century BC on the orders of Ptolemy I of Egypt as a means to unify the Greeks and Egyptians in his realm depicted as Greek in appearance, but with Egyptian trappings, and combined iconography from a great many cults, signifying both abundance and resurrection the Ptolemaic kings also built a splendid Serapeum in Alexandria 389 AD-the destruction of the Serapeum by a mob led by the Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria is one Serapis of the key events in the downfall of ancient Σέραπις paganismstatuette from Afghanistan
  • HELLENISTICJUDAISM...a movement which existed in the Jewish diaspora that sought toestablish a Hebraic-Jewish religious tradition within the culture andlanguage of Hellenism. The major literary product of the contact ofJudaism and Hellenistic culture is the Septuagint translation from BiblicalHebrew and Biblical Aramaic to Koine Greek, which began in the 3rdcentury BCE in Alexandria. The decline of Hellenistic Judaism in the 2ndcentury CE is obscure. It may be that it was marginalized by, absorbed intoor became Early Christianity. Wikipedia
  • Antiochus IV Epiphanes Ἀντίοχος Ἐπιφανής (God Manifest) c. 215 BC – 164 BC
  • ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death Antiochus IV Epiphanes Ἀντίοχος Ἐπιφανής (God Manifest) c. 215 BC – 164 BC
  • ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his deatha son of King Antiochus III the GreatNotable events during the reign of Antiochus IVinclude his near-conquest of Egypt and the rebellion ofthe Jewish MaccabeesThe First and Second Book of Macabees painted theMaccabean Revolt as a national resistance of a foreignpolitical and cultural oppression. Modern scholarsargue that the king was intervening in a civil warbetween the traditionalist Jews in the country and theHellenized Jews in Jerusalemhis often eccentric behavior and capricious actions led Antiochus IV Epiphanessome of his contemporaries to call him Epimanes Ἀντίοχος Ἐπιφανής("The Mad One"), a word play on his title Epiphanes. (God Manifest) c. 215 BC – 164 BC
  • DRAWING A LINE INTHE SANDIn 168 BC Antiochus led a second attack on Egypt and also sent a fleet tocapture Cyprus. Before reaching Alexandria, his path was blocked by a single,old Roman ambassador named Gaius Popillius Laenas, who delivered amessage from the Roman Senate directing Antiochus to withdraw his armiesfrom Egypt and Cyprus, or consider themselves in a state of war with theRoman Republic. Antiochus said he would discuss it with his council,whereupon the Roman envoy drew a line in the sand around him and said,"Before you cross this circle I want you to give me a reply for the RomanSenate" – implying that Rome would declare war if the King stepped out ofthe circle without committing to leave Egypt immediately. Weighing hisoptions, Antiochus decided to withdraw. Only then did Popillius agree toshake hands with him. Wikipedia
  • THE TOHU WA BOHU 1 MACCABEESWhen Epiphanes became ruler, the High Priest in Jerusalem was OniasIII. To Antiochus, the High Priest was merely a local governor within hisrealm, who could be appointed or dismissed at will, while to orthodoxJews he was divinely appointed.Jason, the brother of Onias, bribed Antiochus to make him High Priestinstead. Jason abolished the traditional theocracy and constitutedJerusalem as a Greek polis. Menelaus then bribed Antiochus and wasappointed High Priest in place of Jason. Menelaus had Oniasassassinated. Menelaus brother Lysimachus stole holy vessels from theTemple, causing riots that led to his death. Menelaus was arrested forOnias murder, and was arraigned before Antiochus, but he bribed hisway out of trouble. Jason subsequently drove out Menelaus and becameHigh Priest again.Antiochus pillaged the Temple, attacked Jerusalem and "led captive thewomen and children". Wikipedia
  • From this point onwards, Antiochus pursued a zealous Hellenizing policy: He made possession of the Torah a capital offense and burned the copies he could find He banned many traditional Jewish religious practices: Jewish sacrifice was forbidden, sabbaths and feasts were banned Circumcision was outlawed, and mothers who circumcised their babies were killed along with their families Altars to Greek gods were set up and animals prohibited to Jews were sacrificed on them. The idol of Olympian Zeus was placed on the altar of the Temple [the “abomination of desolation” (tohu wa bohu--Hebrew)--jbp]. The motives of Antiochus are unclear. He may have been incensed at the overthrow of his appointee, Menelaus, or he may have been responding to an orthodox Jewish revolt that drew on the Temple and the Torah for its strength and was encouraged by a group of radical Hellenizers among the Jews. Wikipedia
  • ATARGATISAtargatis[ (in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah), was a Syrian deity, " great goddess of northernSyria","the great mistress of the North Syrian lands,” commonly known to the ancientGreeks by a shortened form of the name, Aphroditeprimarily she was a goddess of fertility, but, as the baalat (“mistress”) of her city andpeople, she was also responsible for their protection and well-beingpopularly described as the mermaid-goddess, from her fish-bodied appearance atAscalon and in Diodorus Siculusdoves and fish were considered sacred by her, doves as an emblem of the Love-Goddess, and fish as symbolic of the fertility and life of the waters
  • Coin of Demetrius III.Obv: Diademed head of Demetrius III.Rev: Figure of Atargatis, veiled, holding flower, barley stalks ateach shoulder. Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ "King Demetrius, God, Father-lovingand Saviour".
  • Demetrius III (died 88 BC), called Eucaerus was a ruler of the Seleucid kingdom, the sonof Antiochus VIII Grypus and his wife Tryphaena.By the assistance of Ptolemy IX Lathyros, king of Egypt, he recovered part of his fathersSyrian dominions ca 95 BC, and held his court at Damascus, from where he tried to enlargehis dominions. To the south he defeated the Maccabean king Alexander Jannaeus in battle,but the hostility of the Jewish population forced him to withdraw.While attempting to dethrone his brother, Philip I Philadelphus, he was defeated by the Arabsand the Parthian Empire, and taken prisoner. He was kept in confinement in Parthia byMithridates II until his death in 88.
  • a northwest Semitic storm and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad Hadad was often called simply Ba‘al (Lord), but this title was also used for other gods The bull was the symbolic animal of Hadad. He appeared as a bearded deity, often shown as holding a club and thunderbolt while wearing bull horned headdress Hadad was equated with the Anatolian storm-god Teshub; the Egyptian god Osiris; the Greek god Zeus; and the Roman god Jupiter the lord of the sky who governs the rain and thus the germination of plants with the power of his desire that they be fertile. He is the protector of life and growth to the Baal Hadad 15th-13th century BC.Found at the acropolis in Ras Shamra agricultural people of the region (ancient city of Ugarit)
  • The supremacy of the [Egyptian] royal family over all levels of society was symbolizedby the institution of an official cult of the living ruler and his ancestors. Monarchsencouraged belief in their own divinity as a way of legitimizing their use of absolutepower, while subjects enjoyed participating in ruler cults as a means of demonstratingpatriotism, loyalty and gratitude. In recognition of their belief in monotheism and oftheir support of the regime, only the [Egyptian] Jews were formally excused fromthese observances. Ptolemy II used both sculpture and coinage to announce the apotheosis [ Gk. wordmeaning becoming divine] of members of his family. In ruler cults [a practice derivingfrom Alexander] men generally represented themselves as Dionysus or Heracles,while females were portrayed as Aphrodite. Through syncretism, however, they wereoften equated with Osiris and Isis and considered to be actual incarnations of thedivinities. Pomeroy, et al., pp. 483-484
  • a Greek NeoPythagorean philosopher from the town of Tyanain the Roman province of Cappadocia in Asia Minor Apollonius of Tyana Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; ca. 15?–ca. 100? CE
  • a Greek NeoPythagorean philosopher from the town of Tyanain the Roman province of Cappadocia in Asia Minor Apollonius of Tyana Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; ca. 15?–ca. 100? CE
  • a Greek NeoPythagorean philosopher from the town of Tyanain the Roman province of Cappadocia in Asia Minor“...appears to have been a wandering ascetic/philosopher/wonderworker of a type common to the eastern part of theearly empire.“Philostratus describes Apollonius as a wandering teacher ofphilosophy and miracle worker who was mainly active inGreece and Asia Minor but also traveled to Italy, Spain andNorth Africa and even to Mesopotamia, India, and Ethiopia.“[he also] implies that upon his death, he underwent heavenlyassumption.“...Being a 1st-century orator and philosopher around the timeof Christ, he was compared with Jesus of Nazareth by Apollonius of TyanaChristians Wikipedia Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; ca. 15?–ca. 100? CE
  • a Jewish wandering ascetic/philosopher/wonderworker of a type common to the eastern part of the early empire. c. 49-66(?) Saul of Tarsus, the last and “least” (or greatest?) of the Apostles wrote the earliest surviving descriptions of his life. He also implies that upon his death, he underwent heavenly assumption “Most modern historians agree that Jesus existed and was a Jewish teacher from Galilee in Roman Judaea, who was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified in Jerusalem on the orders of the Roman Prefect, Pontius Pilate. “Scholars have offered competing descriptions and portraits of Jesus, which at times share a number of overlapping attributes, such as a rabbi, a charismatic healer, the leader of an apocalyptic movement, a self-described Messiah, a sage and philosopher, or a social reformer who preached of the Jesus "Kingdom of God" [η βασελεια του θεου] as a means for Ἰησοῦς personal and egalitarian social transformation. Wikipedia7–2 BC/BCE to 30–36 AD/CE
  • “...in scholarly circles over the past hundred years, researchers have beenlooking at Western textual or historical evidence for who Jesus was and whathe said. In some extreme viewpoints, the factual evidence of Jesus wasconsidered a myth and was presumed to have no reality outside the text. Inothers, presuppositions about the nature of early Christianity prejudiced theopinions of scholars about which strands of text were the oldest and so themost historically accurate. In addition, since the primary Western andOrthodox church texts were in Greek, scholars saw no point in looking atAramaic or Hebrew versions. To do so would have underlined Jesus’Jewishness. Most often, scholars interpreted Jesus according toGreek or Hellenistic influences of his time [emphasis added], ratherthan Middle Eastern ones. The “historical Jesus” emerged as a multitude ofconflicting figures, varying according to the disposition of the scholar and thefacts she or he selected. Neil Douglas-Klotz, The Hidden Gospel, pp. 2-3
  • c. 49-66(?) Saul of Tarsus, the last and greatest of the Apostleswrote the earliest surviving descriptions of Jesus’ life. He alsoimplies that upon his death, he underwent heavenly assumption Paul Παυλος c. 5-67 AD
  • c. 49-66(?) Saul of Tarsus, the last and greatest of the Apostleswrote the earliest surviving descriptions of Jesus’ life. He alsoimplies that upon his death, he underwent heavenly assumption Tarsus Paul Παυλος c. 5-67 AD
  • c. 49-66(?) Saul of Tarsus, the last and greatest of the Apostleswrote the earliest surviving descriptions of Jesus’ life. He alsoimplies that upon his death, he underwent heavenly assumption“of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, an Hebrew of theHebrews; as touching the law, a Pharisee.” Phil. 3:5although definitely not a Hellenized Jew, Saul/Paul wrote in koineGreek and styled himself apostle (αποστολος) to the Gentiles, i.e.,the Hellenized world outside of Judaismmany modern theologians criticize him as first of the HellenizingPatres Graeces (Greek Fathers) who injected Platonic, Persiandualist, and other alien concepts into the teachings of Jesusironically, that is just what modern missionaries are taught to do!Address the prospects with ideas which match their culture Paul Wikipedia Παυλος c. 5-67 AD
  • Facial composite of Saint Paul; created by experts of the Landeskriminalamt ofNorth Rhine-Westphalia using historical sources, proposed by Düsseldorfhistorian Michael Hesemann Wikipedia
  • Some have suggested that this Greek-speaking Jew, ratherthan Jesus, rather than Saint Peter, is the true founder ofChristianity. A lively debate on this topic is available on theweb. Just Google: Saint Paul founder of Christianity. See alsothe Wiki article “Pauline Christianity”.
  • Regardless of the polemic (πολεµος) over who is the founder, Paul’s conversion, journeys and epistles postdate the “birthday of the Church” -- the most enduring of the Hellenistic religions
  • Πεντηκοστή [ἡµέρα], Pentēkostē [hēmera], "the Fiftieth [day] Western depiction of the Pentecost, painted by Jean Restout, 1732 Wikipedia
  • “...in the large multiethnic hellenistic states, the average man was no longeras intensely invested in politics as he had been in, say, Classical Athens.Private life occupied a larger share of people’s energy. Schools of thought likeStoicism, Epicureanism, Cynicism and Skepticism addressed the samefeelings of stress and anxiety that trouble men and women today. Whereasthe philosophies of Plato and Aristotle were designed for affluent men whocould expect to participate in the government of their poleis, the philosophiesthat developed during the Hellenistic Age spoke to a broader spectrum of thehuman community including women. Pomeroy et al., Ancient Greece, p. 463
  • not to be confused with Zeno of Elea. The word zēnōn means stranger or foreigner. He is from the Phoenician polis of Citium 300BC-founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. It is named after their meeting place, the painted portico (Στοα Ποικιλη, stoa poikilē) in the Athenian agora. The Stoics were “Porchers”Zeno of Citium Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς Zēnōn ho Kitiéŭsc. 334 BC – c. 262 BC
  • not to be confused with Zeno of Elea. The word zēnōn means stranger or foreigner. He is from the Phoenician polis of Citium 300BC-founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. It is named after their meeting place, the painted portico (Στοα Ποικιλη, stoa poikilē) in the Athenian agora. The Stoics were “Porchers”Zeno of Citium Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς Zēnōn ho Kitiéŭsc. 334 BC – c. 262 BC
  • not to be confused with Zeno of Elea. The word zēnōn means stranger or foreigner. He is from the Phoenician polis of Citium 300BC-founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. It is named after their meeting place, the painted portico (Στοα Ποικιλη, stoa poikilē) in the Athenian agora. The Stoics were “Porchers”Zeno of Citium Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς Zēnōn ho Kitiéŭsc. 334 BC – c. 262 BC
  • not to be confused with Zeno of Elea. The word zēnōn means stranger or foreigner. He is from the Phoenician polis of Citium 300BC-founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. It is named after their meeting place, the painted portico (Στοα Ποικιλη, stoa poikilē) in the Athenian agora. The Stoics were “Porchers” urged his followers to attain an inner tranquillity (ἀπάθεια apatheia absence of passion) as a defense against excessive pleasure or pain he taught under the classic categories of logic, physics, and ethicsZeno of Citium Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς Zēnōn ho Kitiéŭsc. 334 BC – c. 262 BC his patron was King Antigonus II Gonatas, (319-239)
  • ZENO’S LOGICZeno said that there were four stages in the process leading to trueknowledge (γνῶσις gnōsis), which he illustrated with the example of theflat, extended hand, and the gradual closing of the fist: Zeno stretched out his fingers, and showed the palm of his hand, - "Perception," - he said, - "is a thing like this."- Then, when he had closed his fingers a little, - "Assent is like this." - Afterwards, when he had completely closed his hand, and showed his fist, that, he said, was Comprehension. From which simile he also gave that state a new name, calling it (κατάλεπσις katalepsis). But when he brought his left hand against his right, and with it took a firm and tight hold of his fist: - "Knowledge" - he said, was of that character; and that was what none but a wise person (σοφός sophos) possessed. Wikipedia
  • 306-moved to Athens from Samos and established a school for men andwomen in his house called “the Garden”the universe (ὃ κοσµὸς ho cosmos) was composed of atoms whichmade up a multiplicity of substances “...the entire universe combinedby chance….This construction left little room for the gods….After death,the atoms that had comprised the soul and body of each person merelydissolved“In the absence of eternal rewards and punishments, [he] viewedhappiness on earth as the purpose of life...Greece and the HellenisticWorld’s first humanist philosopher….“He defined happiness as the attainment of ataraxia, an untroubledstate free from excessive pleasure and pain, much like [Zeno’s] Epicurus“Unlike Zeno, he advocated withdrawal from politics (which the Stoics Ἐπίκουροςhad praised)….Despite their differences [both sought] tranquillity in a "ally, comrade" 341 BC – 270 BCturbulent world.”--Pomeroy et al., pp. 479-480
  • “A similar aim [tranquillity in a turbulent world]characterized two other schools ofthought that evolved around the same time, Cynicism and Skepicism. The principaltheorist of the Cynic movement was Diogenes of Sinope (c. 400-325 BC), who identifiedhimself as a “citizen of the world” (kosmopolitēs), He encouraged his followers to becomeself-sufficient by shedding the trappings of civilization for the naturalness of animals. [He]scandalized contemporaries and earned for himself the [opprobrious] name of the Cynic(κυων kuōn=dog) by brazenly maintaining that people should follow instincts just asanimals do---urinating or masturbating in public, for example. The heirs to the Cynics’rejection of civilized norms were the Skeptics, who also shared the Epicureans’disillusionment with public life. Skepticism, associated with the name of Pyrrhon of Elis(c. 365-275 BC), became popular around 200 BC. Stressing the impossibility of certainknowledge, Skeptics urged people to withdraw from the world….The quest for truth, afterall, was hopeless, as was the quest for power….the philosophies we associate with theHellenistic world contrast sharply with those of Plato and Aristotle, who really believedthat knowledge was possible and could be gained through education. Pomeroy et al., p. 481
  • “A similar aim [tranquillity in a turbulent world]characterized two other schools ofthought that evolved around the same time, Cynicism and Skepicism. The principaltheorist of the Cynic movement was Diogenes of Sinope (c. 400-325 BC), who identifiedhimself as a “citizen of the world” (kosmopolitēs), He encouraged his followers to becomeself-sufficient by shedding the trappings of civilization for the naturalness of animals. [He]scandalized contemporaries and earned for himself the [opprobrious] name of the Cynic(κυων kuōn=dog) by brazenly maintaining that people should follow instincts just asanimals do---urinating or masturbating in public, for example. The heirs to the Cynics’rejection of civilized norms were the Skeptics, who also shared the Epicureans’disillusionment with public life. Skepticism, associated with the name of Pyrrhon of Elis(c. 365-275 BC), became popular around 200 BC. Stressing the impossibility of certainknowledge, Skeptics urged people to withdraw from the world….The quest for truth, afterall, was hopeless, as was the quest for power….the philosophies we associate with theHellenistic world contrast sharply with those of Plato and Aristotle, who really believedthat knowledge was possible and could be gained through education. Pomeroy et al., p. 481
  • “A similar aim [tranquillity in a turbulent world]characterized two other schools ofthought that evolved around the same time, Cynicism and Skepicism. The principaltheorist of the Cynic movement was Diogenes of Sinope (c. 400-325 BC), who identifiedhimself as a “citizen of the world” (kosmopolitēs), He encouraged his followers to becomeself-sufficient by shedding the trappings of civilization for the naturalness of animals. [He]scandalized contemporaries and earned for himself the [opprobrious] name of the Cynic(κυων kuōn=dog) by brazenly maintaining that people should follow instincts just asanimals do---urinating or masturbating in public, for example. The heirs to the Cynics’rejection of civilized norms were the Skeptics, who also shared the Epicureans’disillusionment with public life. Skepticism, associated with the name of Pyrrhon of Elis(c. 365-275 BC), became popular around 200 BC. Stressing the impossibility of certainknowledge, Skeptics urged people to withdraw from the world….The quest for truth, afterall, was hopeless, as was the quest for power….the philosophies we associate with theHellenistic world contrast sharply with those of Plato and Aristotle, who really believedthat knowledge was possible and could be gained through education. Pomeroy et al., p. 481
  • “A similar aim [tranquillity in a turbulent world]characterized two other schools ofthought that evolved around the same time, Cynicism and Skepicism. The principaltheorist of the Cynic movement was Diogenes of Sinope (c. 400-325 BC), who identifiedhimself as a “citizen of the world” (kosmopolitēs), He encouraged his followers to becomeself-sufficient by shedding the trappings of civilization for the naturalness of animals. [He]scandalized contemporaries and earned for himself the [opprobrious] name of the Cynic(κυων kuōn=dog) by brazenly maintaining that people should follow instincts just asanimals do---urinating or masturbating in public, for example. The heirs to the Cynics’rejection of civilized norms were the Skeptics, who also shared the Epicureans’disillusionment with public life. Skepticism, associated with the name of Pyrrhon of Elis(c. 365-275 BC), became popular around 200 BC. Stressing the impossibility of certainknowledge, Skeptics urged people to withdraw from the world….The quest for truth, afterall, was hopeless, as was the quest for power….the philosophies we associate with theHellenistic world contrast sharply with those of Plato and Aristotle, who really believedthat knowledge was possible and could be gained through education. Pomeroy et al., p. 481
  • VI. SCIENCES
  • The AntikytheraVI. SCIENCES Mechanism the world’s first known analog computer
  • An ancient analog computer designed to calculate astronomical positions. It wasrecovered in 1900–1901 from the Antikythera wreck, but its significance andcomplexity were not understood until a century later. Technological artifactsapproaching its complexity and workmanship did not appear again until the 14thcentury A.D., when mechanical astronomical clocks began to be built in WesternEurope.Professor Michael Edmunds of Cardiff University, who led the most recent study ofthe mechanism, said: "This device is just extraordinary, the only thing of its kind. Thedesign is beautiful, the astronomy is exactly right. The way the mechanics aredesigned just makes your jaw drop. Whoever has done this has done it extremelycarefully ... in terms of historic and scarcity value, I have to regard this mechanism asbeing more valuable than the Mona Lisa."The Antikythera mechanism is displayed at the National Archaeological Museum ofAthens, accompanied by a reconstruction made and donated to the museum by YaleUniversity Professor Derek de Solla Price. His published interpretation arguedconvincingly that the object was a calendar computer. From gear settings andinscriptions on the mechanisms faces, he concluded that the mechanism was madeabout 87 BC and lost only a few years later. Wikipedia
  • It has more than 30gears, although MichaelWright has suggestedthere may have been asmany as 72 gears, withteeth formed throughequilateral triangles. Front panel of aWhen a date was entered 2007 modelvia a crank (now lost),the mechanismcalculated the position ofthe Sun and Moon orother astronomicalinformation, such as thelocations of planets.
  • Anaximander (c. 610 – 546 BCE)Reconstruction of Anaximanders mapAnaximander is credited with having created one of the first maps of the world, which was circular in form and showed the knownlands of the world grouped around the Aegean Sea at the center. This was all surrounded by the ocean.
  • Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 550 – 476 BCE)Reconstruction of Hecataeus mapHecataeus of Miletus is credited with a work entitled Ges Periodos ("Travels round the Earth" or "World Survey), in two bookseach organized in the manner of a periplus, a point-to-point coastal survey.
  • Eratosthenes (276 – 194 BCE)1883 reconstruction of Eratosthenes map[6]Eratosthenes drew an improved world map, incorporating information from the campaigns of Alexander the Great and hissuccessors. Asia became wider, reflecting the new understanding of the actual size of the continent. Eratosthenes was also the firstgeographer to incorporate parallels and meridians within his cartographic depictions, attesting to his understanding of thespherical nature of the earth.
  • Posidonius (c. 150 – 130 BCE)A 1628 reconstruction of Posidonius ideas about the positions of continents (many details couldnt have been known by Posidonius)Posidonius (or Poseidonius) of Apameia (c. 135 BCE - 51 BCE), was a Greek stoic philosopher[7] who traveled throughout theRoman world and beyond and was a celebrated polymath throughout the Greco-Roman world, like Aristotle and Eratosthenes.
  • Ptolemy (c. 150)A 15th century manuscript copy of the Ptolemy world map, reconstituted from Ptolemys GeographiaThe Ptolemy world map is a map based on the description of the world contained in Ptolemys book Geographia, written Circa150. Although authentic maps of Ptolemy have never been found, the Geographia contains thousands of references to variousparts of the old world, with coordinates for most, which seem to have influenced early Islamic maps, and allowed Europeancartographers to reconstruct Ptolemys world view when an ancient Greek manuscript was translated into Latin around 1300.
  • Eratosthenes measurement of the Earths circumferenceSyene (S) is located on the Tropic ofCancer, so that at summer solsticethe sun appears at the zenith, directlyoverhead. In Alexandria (A) the sunis φ south of the zenith at the sametime. So the circumference of earthcan be calculated being 360º/φ timesthe distance δ between S and A .Erastothenes measured the angle tobe 1/50 of a circle and his access toknowledge of the size of Egypt gave anorth/south distance betweenAlexandria and Syene of 5000 stadia.His circumference of the Earth wastherefore 250 000 stadia. Certainaccepted values of the length of thestadia in use at the time give an errorof less than 6% for the true value forthe polar circumference. Wikipedia
  • Measurements taken at Alexandria andSyene. Eratosthenes calculated thecircumference of the Earth withoutleaving Egypt. Eratosthenes knew that onthe summer solstice at local noon in theAncient Egyptian city of Swenet (knownin Greek as Syene, and in the modern dayas Aswan) on the Tropic of Cancer, thesun would appear at the zenith, directlyoverhead (he had been told that theshadow of someone looking down a deepwell would block the reflection of the Sunat noon). He also knew, frommeasurement, that in his hometown ofAlexandria, the angle of elevation of thesun was 1/50th of a circle (7°12) south ofthe zenith on the solstice noon. Assumingthat the Earth was spherical (360°), andthat Alexandria was due north of Syene,he concluded that the meridian arcdistance from Alexandria to Syene musttherefore be 1/50 = 7°12/360°, and wastherefore 1/50 of the total circumferenceof the Earth. Wikipedia
  • Archimedes and his principle of buoyant force “…[Like Alexandria] Syracuse continued serenely as one of the great centers of Greek life, although its social life had had its ups and downs between radical revolution and despotic, oligarchic oppression. Fortunately, in the third century B.C., Syracuse came under the power of a comparatively enlightened ruler, Hieron II, who reigned for 54 years according to Polybius “without killing, exiling, or injuring a single citizen.” Under Hieron worked one of the foremost of the Greek men of science. Archimedes, observing that water ran out of his bath as he himself got in, evolved the physical principle for which he is best known: A body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight ofhere he is immersing a gold wreath in a the displaced fluid.”basin of water and preparing to measurethe amount of water displaced Everyday Life in Ancient Times, p. 265
  • While taking a bath, he noticed that the level of thewater in the tub rose as he got in, and realized thatthis effect could be used to determine the volume ofthe crownFor practical purposes water is incompressible, so thesubmerged crown would displace an amount of waterequal to its own volume. By dividing the mass of thecrown by the volume of water displaced, the density ofthe crown could be obtained. This density would belower than that of gold if cheaper and less densemetals had been addedArchimedes then took to the streets naked, so excitedby his discovery that he had forgotten to dress, crying"Eureka!" ("εὕρηκα!," meaning "I have found it!").The test was conducted successfully, proving thatsilver had indeed been mixed in.
  • ARCHIMEDES’ SCREW The Archimedes screw, also called the screwpump, is a machine historically used for transferring water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation ditches. The screw pump is commonly attributed to Archimedes on the occasion of his visit to Egypt, but this tradition may reflect only that the apparatus was unknown before Hellenistic times and introduced in his lifetime by unknown Greek engineers. Wikipedia
  • When Syracuse was besieged by theRomans a few years after the death ofHieron, Archimedes invented all sorts ofengines of war: grapnels that drew enemyships up out of the water by one end andthen allowed them to fall back and sink:great engines for hurling stones: andmirrors that concentrated the sun’s raysand set the ships afire. Although the Roman general Marcellushad given strict orders to spare his life, hewas killed by an impetuous Roman soldierwhom he declined to accompany until hehad finished a mathematical problem. Everyday Life in Ancient Times, p. 265
  • ΕΠΙΛΟΓΟΣ(EPILOGUE)
  • ...Alexander’s rejection of constitutional government, of civic militarism, andof municipal autonomy ensured that his conquests would never result in astable Hellenic civilization in Asia, or even liberty in Greece--but simply theSuccessor’s kingdoms (323-31 B.C.) of his like-minded marshals whofollowed. For three centuries theocrats--Macedonians, Epirotes, Selucids,Ptolemies, Attalids--would rule, fight, plunder and live in splendor amid aHellenic veneer of court elites and professionals in Asia and Africa until atlast they were subdued by the legions of republican Rome. The latter, unlike the Hellenistic Greeks, really would combine the ideas ofHellenic politics, civic militarism, and decisive battle, to forge vast and deadlyforces of voting citizens, whose government created the army, rather than thearmy the government. Hanson, Carnage and Culture, p. 82But, that’s another story...