Nineteenth Century Europe
                           PART 3
            Imperialism; 1815-1914
Major Themes of This Session




Encountering the “Other” on “the Last Frontier”
Thoughts About Imperialism
From Coloniali...
THE “OTHER”

The “white race” & the “colored races”
a long standing
    prejudice
Winthrop Jordan’s book tells how
 our language bears witness to
       deep seated beliefs:
...
Sir Robert Clive’s Family
      with Their Indian Maid




Painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1765
Thomas Jones Barker, The Secret of England’s Greatness
                      (1863)
Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie receive the obeisance
                of their colored subjects
German postcard from their Chinese “sphere of influence”
Even Albert
 Schweitzer has
been criticized for
     racism!
The African is indeed my brother,
     but my junior brother
...
Frederick John
 Dealtry Lugard,
1st Baron Lugard
   GCMG,CB,DSO,PC
Frederick John
  Dealtry Lugard,
 1st Baron Lugard
         GCMG,CB,DSO,PC



 Chaplain’s son, British soldier, African
  ...
The essential point in dealing with Africans is to establish
a respect for the European. Upon this---the prestige of the
w...
Beginning in January, 1879, things began to change




    Zulu Land, the battle of Isandlwana
At Adwa, Ethiopians beat Italians, 1896
At Tsushima, a Japanese beat a Russian Admiral, 1905
This wasn’t in the script
This wasn’t in the script


everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing
This wasn’t in the script


everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing
   WEB Dubois in America
This wasn’t in the script


everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing
   WEB Dubois in America
   Ho Chi Minh in French I...
This wasn’t in the script


everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing
   WEB Dubois in America
   Ho Chi Minh in French I...
This wasn’t in the script


everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing
   WEB Dubois in America
   Ho Chi Minh in French I...
This wasn’t in the script


everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing
   WEB Dubois in America
   Ho Chi Minh in French I...
This wasn’t in the script


everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing
   WEB Dubois in America
   Ho Chi Minh in French I...
Other Explanations for the European Century
Other Explanations for the European Century
Whatever happens we have got
The Maxim gun, and they have not.
                         Hilaire Belloc
“THE LAST FRONTIER”

 Victorian Gentlemen Adventurers
“THE LAST FRONTIER”

 Victorian Gentlemen Adventurers



      Sir Richard Burton
        in Arabic dress
Africa, the Dark Continent




                                               STANLEY
DR. LIVINGSTONE
    I presume!
Still!
A Gallery of such
A Gallery of such
A Gallery of such
A Gallery of such
A Gallery of such
A Gallery of such
A Gallery of such
A Gallery of such
A Gallery of such
A Gallery of such
Mass Media, the Masses and
                Democracy
Mass Media, the Masses and
                Democracy




                   first edition, 1842
the new Daily Telegraph offices
the industrial revolution and newspapers

America pioneered the penny press
sold by street vendors in 1833

    prior to t...
politics, humor and democracy


Boss Tweed offered cartoonist
Thomas Nast $500,000 to “take a
trip and forget this “ring b...
mass media and imperialism


a lithograph of Afghan warriors
during the second Afghan war

the illustrations in posters an...
jingoism and overseas adventures


popular interest in faraway places
was stoked by the press

another source was missiona...
THOUGHTS ABOUT IMPERIALISM
THOUGHTS ABOUT IMPERIALISM




 Comrade Lenin CLEANSES
   the world of the unworthy
THOUGHTS ABOUT IMPERIALISM




 Comrade Lenin CLEANSES
   the world of the unworthy
Lenin’s classic
       written in 1916

kept in print by the dwindling
  group of faithful Marxist
          professors
Imperialism--from glory to shame

in 1916, Lenin, tsarist exile,
“nobody” writes Imperialism, The
Highest Stage of Capital...
The economic taproot of
imperialism is excess capital in
    search of investment.

                    Hobson’s thesis
Imperialism compared to Colonialism
Imperialism compared to Colonialism

•The term arises in the 16th century
to describe the overseas activities of
Portugal,...
Imperialism compared to Colonialism

•The term arises in the 16th century
to describe the overseas activities of
Portugal,...
Imperialism compared to Colonialism

•The term arises in the 16th century
to describe the overseas activities of
Portugal,...
Imperialism compared to Colonialism

•The term arises in the 16th century
to describe the overseas activities of
Portugal,...
Imperialism compared to Colonialism

•The term arises in the 16th century     •The term is as old as the practice of
to de...
Imperialism compared to Colonialism

•The term arises in the 16th century     •The term is as old as the practice of
to de...
Imperialism compared to Colonialism

•The term arises in the 16th century     •The term is as old as the practice of
to de...
Imperialism compared to Colonialism

•The term arises in the 16th century     •The term is as old as the practice of
to de...
“survival of the fittest”

writing 2 years before Darwin’s
Origin of Species, Spencer began
the ethical argument later call...
“White Man’s Burden; The U.S. and the Philippine Islands”
                             McClures, 1899



Take up the White...
belief gives way to cynicism




                         “… a potent force
                          for brightening
    ...
belief gives way to cynicism
belief gives way to cynicism
belief gives way to cynicism
The Thin Red Line


          God of our fathers, known of old--
          Lord of our far-flung battle line--
          Be...
“Suez, the lifeline to India”

one colonial possession “requires”
another to protect or supply it

Britain “has to” gain c...
Bases and Coaling Stations
here a satellite photo of US territory Wake Island, annexed in 1899
“Painting the Map Red”




               1815-1914
     10 million more square miles
       400 million more people
     ...
“Painting the Map Red”




               1815-1914
     10 million more square miles
       400 million more people
     ...
“Painting the Map Red”




               1815-1914
     10 million more square miles
       400 million more people
     ...
From Colonialism to Imperialism
                     1815-1870
From Colonialism to Imperialism
                     1815-1870


                Victoria
                   as
          ...
The Raj
“brightest jewel in the imperial crown”
The Raj
“brightest jewel in the imperial crown”




               Governors General flag, 1855-1947
Indirect Rule




                 British India
                    (pink)
                       vs
                Prin...
the Honourable East India Company (HEIC)
                               1600-1858
the long history of HEIC
the long history of HEIC

chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth
the long history of HEIC

chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth
fought and schemed against France, Portuga...
the long history of HEIC

chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth
fought and schemed against France, Portuga...
the long history of HEIC

chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth
fought and schemed against France, Portuga...
the long history of HEIC

chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth
fought and schemed against France, Portuga...
the long history of HEIC

chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth
fought and schemed against France, Portuga...
the long history of HEIC

chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth
fought and schemed against France, Portuga...
the long history of HEIC

chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth
fought and schemed against France, Portuga...
the long history of HEIC

chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth
fought and schemed against France, Portuga...
Benevolence...misguided?
Benevolence...misguided?
“Cultural Imperialism” or crime prevention?




Sir Wm Henry Sleeman suppresses Thugs and Dacoits, 1835
“Cultural Imperialism” or crime prevention?




Sir Wm Henry Sleeman suppresses Thugs and Dacoits, 1835
Growth of the British East India Company (1765-1857)
Growth of the British East India Company (1765-1857)
Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr?
Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr?

February, 1857, the 19th Bengal
Native Infantry gets a new weapon
Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr?

February, 1857, the 19th Bengal
Native Infantry gets a new weapon

“the demon of...
Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr?

February, 1857, the 19th Bengal
Native Infantry gets a new weapon

“the demon of...
Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr?

February, 1857, the 19th Bengal
Native Infantry gets a new weapon

“the demon of...
Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr?

February, 1857, the 19th Bengal
Native Infantry gets a new weapon

“the demon of...
Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr?

February, 1857, the 19th Bengal
Native Infantry gets a new weapon

“the demon of...
Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr?

February, 1857, the 19th Bengal
Native Infantry gets a new weapon

“the demon of...
Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr?

February, 1857, the 19th Bengal
Native Infantry gets a new weapon

“the demon of...
Retribution--”The Devil’s Wind”
Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence?
Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence?


 July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere
 milit...
Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence?


 July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere
 milit...
Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence?


 July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere
 milit...
Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence?


 July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere
 milit...
Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence?


 July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere
 milit...
Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence?


 July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere
 milit...
An Act for the Better Government of India (1858)



PM Palmerston decided to liquidate the British East India Company
“The...
Proclamation to the People of India, 1858




      announcing their new status
“...no hatred to a brown skin, none…”
“...no hatred to a brown skin, none…”

In a letter to the governor-general, Lord Canning ,
she urged him to ensure that th...
The Scramble
  1870-1914
The Scramble
           1870-1914



Rhodes
Colossus
 Punch
error
Zulu!
Zulu!
the best study
 Donald Morris, c. 1958
Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879)
Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879)

complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the
Boers (white Africa...
Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879)

complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the
Boers (white Africa...
Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879)

complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the
Boers (white Africa...
Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879)

complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the
Boers (white Africa...
Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879)

complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the
Boers (white Africa...
Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879)

complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the
Boers (white Africa...
Zulu Land and Its Neighbors
CHELMSFORD’S
    PLAN
Boer
Homelands




            CHELMSFORD’S
                PLAN
Boer
Homelands
                            Native
                           Reserves




            CHELMSFORD’S
       ...
Boer
Homelands
                            Native
                           Reserves




                            Cets...
Boer
Homelands
                            Native
                           Reserves




                            Cets...
Isandlwana
Isandlwana
Isandlwana
Isandlwana
Isandlwana
Isandlwana
Rorke’s Drift
4,000 to 5,000 Zulus
139 British soldiers
       11 VCs
Rorke’s Drift
4,000 to 5,000 Zulus
139 British soldiers
       11 VCs
Rorke’s Drift
4,000 to 5,000 Zulus
139 British soldiers
       11 VCs
Rorke’s Drift
4,000 to 5,000 Zulus
139 British soldiers
       11 VCs
Rorke’s Drift
4,000 to 5,000 Zulus
139 British soldiers
       11 VCs
Rorke’s Drift
4,000 to 5,000 Zulus
139 British soldiers
       11 VCs
Rorke’s Drift
4,000 to 5,000 Zulus
139 British soldiers
       11 VCs
Rorke’s Drift
4,000 to 5,000 Zulus
139 British soldiers
       11 VCs
Khartoum
War in the Sudan
Khartoum
War in the Sudan
Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956)
Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956)

as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent
rulers, Ke...
Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956)

as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent
rulers, Ke...
Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956)

as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent
rulers, Ke...
Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956)

as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent
rulers, Ke...
Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956)

as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent
rulers, Ke...
Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956)

as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent
rulers, Ke...
Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956)

as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent
rulers, Ke...
Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956)

as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent
rulers, Ke...
Lord Cromer & Egypt
      Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer, GCB, OM, GCMG, KCSI, CIE, PC, FRS (1841-1917)




statesman, ...
Muhammad Ahmad ibn as Sayyid Abd Allah (otherwise known as The Mahdi
or Muhammad Ahmed Al Mahdi) (1844-1885)




 “Mahdi” ...
Major-General Charles George Gordon, CB (1833-1885)



a general’s son, trained at
Woolwich as an engineer

1854-56, Crime...
the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885
the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885
the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885
the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885
the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885
the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885
The Mahdist
   State
 1881-1898
Omdurman
2 September 1898




                 WLS Churchill, 1895
                        4th Hussars
  delighted to come...
Horatio Lord Kitchener
        1st Earl of Khartoum

commanded the British force in
               the River War
Churchill’s account
   published in 1899
How dreadful are the curses which Mohammedanism lays on its votaries!
Besides the fanatical frenzy, which is as dangerous ...
Maxim guns and Dum-dums
the charge of the 21st Lancers
Fashoda
18 September1898
Fashoda
          18 September1898


Britain
Fashoda
       18 September1898


vs France
Fashoda
18 September1898
conflicting master plans
conflicting master plans

                          Rhodes’
                          Cape-to-
                           C...
conflicting master plans

                                        Rhodes’
                                        Cape-to-
...
in the crosshairs, Fashoda




      Omdurman



                             Kodok is
                             the po...
The Laggards
The Laggards

Italy

Germany

Belgium

Russia
FIRST ITALO-ETHIOPIAN WAR
                  1895-1896
FIRST ITALO-ETHIOPIAN WAR
                  1895-1896
FIRST ITALO-ETHIOPIAN WAR
                  1895-1896
Black over White

Italy began her imperial quest in Ethiopia
(Abyssinia) in the 1880s

in return for Eritrea on the Red Se...
KAISER, KAISER, SHINING BRIGHT!
KAISER, KAISER, SHINING BRIGHT!

You have given us a fright!
With your belts and straps and sashes,
And your skyward-turne...
Germany’s “place in the sun”
In spite of the fact that we have no such fleet as we should
have, we have conquered for ourselves a place in the sun. It
w...
the support of German
financial and commercial
   interests for overseas
ventures is one of the best
 arguments for Hobson’...
Cameroon (Kamerun)classroom
     note the kaiser’s picture on the wall
German colonial troops in SW Afrika
Togo native police and their white commander
new trends in art
Belgium
Imperialist Horror Story
Belgium
Imperialist Horror Story
Leopold II (1835-1865-1909)

brother of Empress Carlotta of
Mexico, first cousin to Queen
Victoria

chiefly remembered as th...
Among other measures, the Congress of Berlin confirmed
            Leopold’s possession in 1885
failure to meet
  quotas by child
      laborers
agents were required to bring
 back smoked hands to prove
       their di...
Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916)
Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916)

1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered
to investigate
Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916)

1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered
to investigate


1904, delivered a lo...
Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916)

1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered
to investigate


1904, delivered a lo...
Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916)

1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered
to investigate


1904, delivered a lo...
Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916)

1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered
to investigate


1904, delivered a lo...
Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916)

1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered
to investigate


1904, delivered a lo...
Royal Monster


in addition to tolerating the savage
conduct of his overseers, Leopold’s
private life was disgraceful

he ...
РОССИЯ
РОССИЯ
Siberia, internal empire




 Иркутск, переправа 1886
Trans-Siberian Railway

Russia’s internal empire turned east
with renewed energy after acquiring
Vladivostok (1860)

a Sib...
the finished lines




              Lake Baikal
Moscow




                             Vladivostok
the finished lines




              Lake Baikal
Moscow




                                   Vladivostok
                ...
Manchuria(red) & Tsarist Far East (pink)

                                     Khabarovsk




                       Port ...
Racism, Russian style
Racism, Russian style

At the [Khabarovsk] railway station, foreign visitors were
reminded of British India:

Instead, how...
The Newcomers
The Newcomers




Japan


United States
The New Imperialists
The New Imperialists
The Meiji Reforms (1868-1912)
The Meiji Reforms (1868-1912)
The Meiji Reforms (1868-1912)
First Sino-Japanese War (Aug, 1894-Apr,1895)
              Punch (29 September 1894)
Japan




The Boxer Rebellion, 1899-1900
  “the relief of the legations”
“Corée (Korea) the fish they all want to catch”
                    1887 cartoon




                                   RUS...
Port Arthur (8-9 February 1904)




Wasn’t it bully, the way the Japs began the war!
               TR in a letter to a fr...
a Russian painting (1908) of the next day’s action
Russo-Japanese War Theater




     Vladivostok
Russo-Japanese War Theater


                   since Vladivostok was iced over
                   6 months of the year, P...
1
2



1
2

3
    1
2

    3
        1


4
battle of Nanshan (25 May 1904) two views
battle of Nanshan (25 May 1904) two views
a grim war
a grim war
a grim war
the war at sea


                 1905
Zinovi Petrovich
Rozhdestvensky
 Ill fated Russian Admiral
Fleet Admiral Marquis Koshaku Togo Heihachiro
                               (1848-1934)




termed by Western journalists...
Togo crosses the “T”




            From Max Boot, War Made New
battle and aftermath
battle and aftermath
battle and aftermath
battle and aftermath
battle and aftermath
Losses
RUSSIAN            JAPANESE
Losses
            RUSSIAN                          JAPANESE



•4,380 KIA
•5,917 POWs (including 2 Admirals)
•battleships...
Losses
            RUSSIAN                                JAPANESE



•4,380 KIA
                                         ...
Uncle Sam
Uncle Sam
U.S.S. Maine
U.S.S. Maine
new far-flung responsibilities
Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1902
Spain


Philippines




          Enough
         for now?
“Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead!” --TR (1904)




                                       But
                           ...
“Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead!” --TR (1904)




                                       But
                           ...
19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914
19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914
19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914
19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914
19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914
19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914
19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914
19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914
19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914
19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914
19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914
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19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914

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major themes: "Encountering 'The Other' on "the last frontier'"; Thoughts on Imperialism; From Colonialism to Imperialism, 1815-1870; and "The Scramble, 1870-1914

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19th Century Europe,Part 3, Imperialism, 1815-1914

  1. 1. Nineteenth Century Europe PART 3 Imperialism; 1815-1914
  2. 2. Major Themes of This Session Encountering the “Other” on “the Last Frontier” Thoughts About Imperialism From Colonialism to Imperialism, 1815-1870 The Scramble, 1870-1914
  3. 3. THE “OTHER” The “white race” & the “colored races”
  4. 4. a long standing prejudice Winthrop Jordan’s book tells how our language bears witness to deep seated beliefs: white = good black = evil
  5. 5. Sir Robert Clive’s Family with Their Indian Maid Painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1765
  6. 6. Thomas Jones Barker, The Secret of England’s Greatness (1863)
  7. 7. Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie receive the obeisance of their colored subjects
  8. 8. German postcard from their Chinese “sphere of influence”
  9. 9. Even Albert Schweitzer has been criticized for racism! The African is indeed my brother, but my junior brother (1875-1965)
  10. 10. Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard GCMG,CB,DSO,PC
  11. 11. Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard GCMG,CB,DSO,PC Chaplain’s son, British soldier, African explorer and colonial administrator, Governor of Hong Kong (1907-1912) & Governor-General of Nigeria (1914-1919)
  12. 12. The essential point in dealing with Africans is to establish a respect for the European. Upon this---the prestige of the white man---depends his influence, often his very existence, in Africa. If he shows by his surroundings, by his assumption of superiority, that he is far above the native, he will be respected, and his influence will be proportionate to the superiority he assumes and bears out by his higher accomplishments and mode of life. Lugard, The Rise of Our East African Empire, 1893. vol. II, p.74
  13. 13. Beginning in January, 1879, things began to change Zulu Land, the battle of Isandlwana
  14. 14. At Adwa, Ethiopians beat Italians, 1896
  15. 15. At Tsushima, a Japanese beat a Russian Admiral, 1905
  16. 16. This wasn’t in the script
  17. 17. This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing
  18. 18. This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing WEB Dubois in America
  19. 19. This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing WEB Dubois in America Ho Chi Minh in French Indo-China
  20. 20. This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing WEB Dubois in America Ho Chi Minh in French Indo-China Mao Tse Tung in China
  21. 21. This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing WEB Dubois in America Ho Chi Minh in French Indo-China Mao Tse Tung in China Mohandas K Gandhi in South Africa
  22. 22. This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing WEB Dubois in America Ho Chi Minh in French Indo-China Mao Tse Tung in China Mohandas K Gandhi in South Africa the myth of white supremacy and invincibility began to crumble
  23. 23. This wasn’t in the script everywhere “colored peoples” were noticing WEB Dubois in America Ho Chi Minh in French Indo-China Mao Tse Tung in China Mohandas K Gandhi in South Africa the myth of white supremacy and invincibility began to crumble it moved from being conventional wisdom to the status of core belief to an increasingly small and bitter fringe group
  24. 24. Other Explanations for the European Century
  25. 25. Other Explanations for the European Century
  26. 26. Whatever happens we have got The Maxim gun, and they have not. Hilaire Belloc
  27. 27. “THE LAST FRONTIER” Victorian Gentlemen Adventurers
  28. 28. “THE LAST FRONTIER” Victorian Gentlemen Adventurers Sir Richard Burton in Arabic dress
  29. 29. Africa, the Dark Continent STANLEY DR. LIVINGSTONE I presume!
  30. 30. Still!
  31. 31. A Gallery of such
  32. 32. A Gallery of such
  33. 33. A Gallery of such
  34. 34. A Gallery of such
  35. 35. A Gallery of such
  36. 36. A Gallery of such
  37. 37. A Gallery of such
  38. 38. A Gallery of such
  39. 39. A Gallery of such
  40. 40. A Gallery of such
  41. 41. Mass Media, the Masses and Democracy
  42. 42. Mass Media, the Masses and Democracy first edition, 1842
  43. 43. the new Daily Telegraph offices
  44. 44. the industrial revolution and newspapers America pioneered the penny press sold by street vendors in 1833 prior to that newspapers cost six cents and were by subscription illustrations and humor broadened the market and increased profits technology made this all possible rotary steam press lithography later, linotype machines first edition, 1841
  45. 45. politics, humor and democracy Boss Tweed offered cartoonist Thomas Nast $500,000 to “take a trip and forget this “ring business” “I don’t care what they write about me. My people can’t read. but these goddam pictures are killing me!” the illustrated press began what newsreels and tv have advanced in the 20th century, for better or worse, the mobilization of mass democracy
  46. 46. mass media and imperialism a lithograph of Afghan warriors during the second Afghan war the illustrations in posters and the penny press created a broader emotional impact than the “cool” text medium of “The Times” William Russell’s “copy” from the Crimean war was “punched up” by engraved illustrations, 1854-56
  47. 47. jingoism and overseas adventures popular interest in faraway places was stoked by the press another source was missionary activity in an age when Sunday attendance was much higher than today when “exotic savages” killed “civilized emissaries” there was tremendous popular pressure on government to avenge them Gordon’s death, 1885
  48. 48. THOUGHTS ABOUT IMPERIALISM
  49. 49. THOUGHTS ABOUT IMPERIALISM Comrade Lenin CLEANSES the world of the unworthy
  50. 50. THOUGHTS ABOUT IMPERIALISM Comrade Lenin CLEANSES the world of the unworthy
  51. 51. Lenin’s classic written in 1916 kept in print by the dwindling group of faithful Marxist professors
  52. 52. Imperialism--from glory to shame in 1916, Lenin, tsarist exile, “nobody” writes Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism he was influenced by British socialist J.A. Hobson’s Imperialism, A Study (1902) like Hobson, Lenin argued that capitalist greed rather than nationalist rivalry, or Kipling’s “White Man’s Burden” was at the heart of the imperialist scramble for colonies
  53. 53. The economic taproot of imperialism is excess capital in search of investment. Hobson’s thesis
  54. 54. Imperialism compared to Colonialism
  55. 55. Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century to describe the overseas activities of Portugal, Spain, Britain and France
  56. 56. Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century to describe the overseas activities of Portugal, Spain, Britain and France •The key concept is extending power and sovereignty, creating an empire
  57. 57. Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century to describe the overseas activities of Portugal, Spain, Britain and France •The key concept is extending power and sovereignty, creating an empire •Empires may be contiguous like Russia’s or separated like Britain’s
  58. 58. Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century to describe the overseas activities of Portugal, Spain, Britain and France •The key concept is extending power and sovereignty, creating an empire •Empires may be contiguous like Russia’s or separated like Britain’s •Usually the term is applied to our period, post 1870, when Africa was “opened”
  59. 59. Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century •The term is as old as the practice of to describe the overseas activities of extending settlement and control beyond Portugal, Spain, Britain and France your borders •The key concept is extending power and sovereignty, creating an empire •Empires may be contiguous like Russia’s or separated like Britain’s •Usually the term is applied to our period, post 1870, when Africa was “opened”
  60. 60. Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century •The term is as old as the practice of to describe the overseas activities of extending settlement and control beyond Portugal, Spain, Britain and France your borders •The key concept is extending •The key concept is planting settlements, power and sovereignty, creating an creating colonies empire •Empires may be contiguous like Russia’s or separated like Britain’s •Usually the term is applied to our period, post 1870, when Africa was “opened”
  61. 61. Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century •The term is as old as the practice of to describe the overseas activities of extending settlement and control beyond Portugal, Spain, Britain and France your borders •The key concept is extending •The key concept is planting settlements, power and sovereignty, creating an creating colonies empire •Colonies, like Empires, have economic •Empires may be contiguous like and security costs as well as a potential Russia’s or separated like Britain’s for profits •Usually the term is applied to our period, post 1870, when Africa was “opened”
  62. 62. Imperialism compared to Colonialism •The term arises in the 16th century •The term is as old as the practice of to describe the overseas activities of extending settlement and control beyond Portugal, Spain, Britain and France your borders •The key concept is extending •The key concept is planting settlements, power and sovereignty, creating an creating colonies empire •Colonies, like Empires, have economic •Empires may be contiguous like and security costs as well as a potential Russia’s or separated like Britain’s for profits •Usually the term is applied to our •The term in modern usage is often a period, post 1870, when Africa was pejorative used to describe the evil “opened” effects on peoples who have thrown off their former colonial masters
  63. 63. “survival of the fittest” writing 2 years before Darwin’s Origin of Species, Spencer began the ethical argument later called Social Darwinism not only was it often the case that might triumphed, it was “according to nature,” thus right Europeans were “fitter,” their military successes proved it therefore it was right and just for them to rule over “backward” colonial subjects Herbert Spencer
  64. 64. “White Man’s Burden; The U.S. and the Philippine Islands” McClures, 1899 Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need… this famous poem captures the Late Victorian beliefs of noblesse oblige, Social Darwinism, racism, imperialism originally written for Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee (1897) but set aside for “Recessional” Kipling rewrote it as an appeal to America to join the other imperialist powers in la Mission Civilisatrice Kipling in his study, 1895
  65. 65. belief gives way to cynicism “… a potent force for brightening the dark corners of the earth as civilization advances…”
  66. 66. belief gives way to cynicism
  67. 67. belief gives way to cynicism
  68. 68. belief gives way to cynicism
  69. 69. The Thin Red Line God of our fathers, known of old-- Lord of our far-flung battle line-- Beneath whose awful hand we hold Dominion over palm and pine-- Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet, Lest we forget--lest we forget! Kipling, Recessional, 1897
  70. 70. “Suez, the lifeline to India” one colonial possession “requires” another to protect or supply it Britain “has to” gain control of the Suez Canal once it’s opened, 1869 Britain “has to” control Egypt to protect the Suez Canal, 1882 Britain “has to” pacify the Sudan (1884-1898) in order to control the headwaters of the Nile, vital to Egypt, to Suez, to India!
  71. 71. Bases and Coaling Stations here a satellite photo of US territory Wake Island, annexed in 1899
  72. 72. “Painting the Map Red” 1815-1914 10 million more square miles 400 million more people 1914 25% of the world’s people 20% of its land surface
  73. 73. “Painting the Map Red” 1815-1914 10 million more square miles 400 million more people 1914 25% of the world’s people 20% of its land surface
  74. 74. “Painting the Map Red” 1815-1914 10 million more square miles 400 million more people 1914 25% of the world’s people 20% of its land surface
  75. 75. From Colonialism to Imperialism 1815-1870
  76. 76. From Colonialism to Imperialism 1815-1870 Victoria as Empress of India
  77. 77. The Raj “brightest jewel in the imperial crown”
  78. 78. The Raj “brightest jewel in the imperial crown” Governors General flag, 1855-1947
  79. 79. Indirect Rule British India (pink) vs Princely States (yellow)
  80. 80. the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) 1600-1858
  81. 81. the long history of HEIC
  82. 82. the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth
  83. 83. the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years
  84. 84. the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757
  85. 85. the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 the sepoy system
  86. 86. the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 the sepoy system Sir Warren Hastings, Governor General (1773-1785)
  87. 87. the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 the sepoy system Sir Warren Hastings, Governor General (1773-1785) impeachment trial, 1787-1795
  88. 88. the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 the sepoy system Sir Warren Hastings, Governor General (1773-1785) impeachment trial, 1787-1795 dual government, indirect rule, and famines
  89. 89. the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 the sepoy system Sir Warren Hastings, Governor General (1773-1785) impeachment trial, 1787-1795 dual government, indirect rule, and famines respect for Hinduism
  90. 90. the long history of HEIC chartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 the sepoy system Sir Warren Hastings, Governor General (1773-1785) impeachment trial, 1787-1795 dual government, indirect rule, and famines respect for Hinduism Sir William Wilberforce and the CMS
  91. 91. Benevolence...misguided?
  92. 92. Benevolence...misguided?
  93. 93. “Cultural Imperialism” or crime prevention? Sir Wm Henry Sleeman suppresses Thugs and Dacoits, 1835
  94. 94. “Cultural Imperialism” or crime prevention? Sir Wm Henry Sleeman suppresses Thugs and Dacoits, 1835
  95. 95. Growth of the British East India Company (1765-1857)
  96. 96. Growth of the British East India Company (1765-1857)
  97. 97. Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr?
  98. 98. Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon
  99. 99. Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism”
  100. 100. Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism” Hindu vs Muslim
  101. 101. Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism” Hindu vs Muslim beef tallow or hog grease?
  102. 102. Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism” Hindu vs Muslim beef tallow or hog grease? the sepoy system
  103. 103. Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism” Hindu vs Muslim beef tallow or hog grease? the sepoy system Enfield Rifle, Model 1853
  104. 104. Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism” Hindu vs Muslim beef tallow or hog grease? the sepoy system Enfield Rifle, Model 1853 Pandey’s defiance
  105. 105. Indian Nationalist or Accidental Martyr? February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon “the demon of communalism” Hindu vs Muslim beef tallow or hog grease? the sepoy system Enfield Rifle, Model 1853 Pandey’s defiance 8 April, Pandey hanged
  106. 106. Retribution--”The Devil’s Wind”
  107. 107. Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence?
  108. 108. Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere military mutiny’ today historians are divided, public opinion in India is not arguments AGAINST the Independence War thesis:
  109. 109. Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere military mutiny’ today historians are divided, public opinion in India is not arguments AGAINST the Independence War thesis: 80% of the British forces which put down the rebellion were Indian
  110. 110. Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere military mutiny’ today historians are divided, public opinion in India is not arguments AGAINST the Independence War thesis: 80% of the British forces which put down the rebellion were Indian many of the local rulers fought amongst themselves rather than uniting against the British
  111. 111. Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere military mutiny’ today historians are divided, public opinion in India is not arguments AGAINST the Independence War thesis: 80% of the British forces which put down the rebellion were Indian many of the local rulers fought amongst themselves rather than uniting against the British many rebel sepoy regiments disbanded and went home rather than fight against the British
  112. 112. Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere military mutiny’ today historians are divided, public opinion in India is not arguments AGAINST the Independence War thesis: 80% of the British forces which put down the rebellion were Indian many of the local rulers fought amongst themselves rather than uniting against the British many rebel sepoy regiments disbanded and went home rather than fight against the British the revolt was largely limited to north and central India
  113. 113. Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? July, 1857--Disraeli, ‘national revolt’ vs Palmerston, ‘mere military mutiny’ today historians are divided, public opinion in India is not arguments AGAINST the Independence War thesis: 80% of the British forces which put down the rebellion were Indian many of the local rulers fought amongst themselves rather than uniting against the British many rebel sepoy regiments disbanded and went home rather than fight against the British the revolt was largely limited to north and central India the revolt was fractured along religious, ethnic and regional lines
  114. 114. An Act for the Better Government of India (1858) PM Palmerston decided to liquidate the British East India Company “The Company’s territories in India shall vest in Her Majesty….India will be governed in the name of the Queen.” a council of 15 members was created to assist the Secretary of State for India the Crown was empowered to appoint the Governor General for India the act also provided for the creation of the Indian Civil Service all the treaties between the HEIC and the Princely States would be binding upon the Crown
  115. 115. Proclamation to the People of India, 1858 announcing their new status
  116. 116. “...no hatred to a brown skin, none…”
  117. 117. “...no hatred to a brown skin, none…” In a letter to the governor-general, Lord Canning , she urged him to ensure that the Indian peoples know “that there is no hatred to a brown skin, none; but the greatest wish on their queen's part to see them happy, contented, and flourishing.” Later, in November 1858 , she and Prince Albert revised a proclamation that brought India directly under the rule of the queen and her government, ensuring that it stipulated religious tolerance as a crucial part of the resolution of the crisis. For the queen, the consolations of her own religious faith kept her from interfering with “the native religions.”
  118. 118. The Scramble 1870-1914
  119. 119. The Scramble 1870-1914 Rhodes Colossus Punch
  120. 120. error
  121. 121. Zulu!
  122. 122. Zulu!
  123. 123. the best study Donald Morris, c. 1958
  124. 124. Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879)
  125. 125. Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand
  126. 126. Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand Lord Chelmsford unwisely divided his force (5,000 Europeans and 8,200 Africans) and the Zulu chief Cetshwayo (40,000) annihilated his central column at Isandlwana
  127. 127. Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand Lord Chelmsford unwisely divided his force (5,000 Europeans and 8,200 Africans) and the Zulu chief Cetshwayo (40,000) annihilated his central column at Isandlwana 22 January, 1,600 Europeans and 2,500 Africans were overrun and massacred by 20,000 Zulus
  128. 128. Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand Lord Chelmsford unwisely divided his force (5,000 Europeans and 8,200 Africans) and the Zulu chief Cetshwayo (40,000) annihilated his central column at Isandlwana 22 January, 1,600 Europeans and 2,500 Africans were overrun and massacred by 20,000 Zulus Only 50 European enlisted men and five officers escaped, in addition to several hundred Africans who fled the battlefield before the camp was surrounded
  129. 129. Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand Lord Chelmsford unwisely divided his force (5,000 Europeans and 8,200 Africans) and the Zulu chief Cetshwayo (40,000) annihilated his central column at Isandlwana 22 January, 1,600 Europeans and 2,500 Africans were overrun and massacred by 20,000 Zulus Only 50 European enlisted men and five officers escaped, in addition to several hundred Africans who fled the battlefield before the camp was surrounded honor was restored to British arms by the incredible defense of Roarke’s Drift that afternoon, night, and the next day
  130. 130. Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand Lord Chelmsford unwisely divided his force (5,000 Europeans and 8,200 Africans) and the Zulu chief Cetshwayo (40,000) annihilated his central column at Isandlwana 22 January, 1,600 Europeans and 2,500 Africans were overrun and massacred by 20,000 Zulus Only 50 European enlisted men and five officers escaped, in addition to several hundred Africans who fled the battlefield before the camp was surrounded honor was restored to British arms by the incredible defense of Roarke’s Drift that afternoon, night, and the next day shaken, Chelmsford withdrew from Zululand, reinvaded with reinforcements, and conquered Cetshwayo
  131. 131. Zulu Land and Its Neighbors
  132. 132. CHELMSFORD’S PLAN
  133. 133. Boer Homelands CHELMSFORD’S PLAN
  134. 134. Boer Homelands Native Reserves CHELMSFORD’S PLAN
  135. 135. Boer Homelands Native Reserves Cetshwayo’s Kraal CHELMSFORD’S PLAN
  136. 136. Boer Homelands Native Reserves Cetshwayo’s Kraal Chelmsford’s Base CHELMSFORD’S PLAN
  137. 137. Isandlwana
  138. 138. Isandlwana
  139. 139. Isandlwana
  140. 140. Isandlwana
  141. 141. Isandlwana
  142. 142. Isandlwana
  143. 143. Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs
  144. 144. Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs
  145. 145. Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs
  146. 146. Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs
  147. 147. Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs
  148. 148. Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs
  149. 149. Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs
  150. 150. Rorke’s Drift 4,000 to 5,000 Zulus 139 British soldiers 11 VCs
  151. 151. Khartoum War in the Sudan
  152. 152. Khartoum War in the Sudan
  153. 153. Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956)
  154. 154. Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives
  155. 155. Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer:
  156. 156. Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer: contracted with France to build the Suez Canal (1869)
  157. 157. Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer: contracted with France to build the Suez Canal (1869) conquered most of Sudan & fought Ethiopia to get a Red Sea port
  158. 158. Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer: contracted with France to build the Suez Canal (1869) conquered most of Sudan & fought Ethiopia to get a Red Sea port spent extravagantly on “Western” building projects
  159. 159. Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer: contracted with France to build the Suez Canal (1869) conquered most of Sudan & fought Ethiopia to get a Red Sea port spent extravagantly on “Western” building projects 1875--Disraeli & Rothchild’s Bank bought Suez Canal shares because Ismail couldn’t service his debts
  160. 160. Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer: contracted with France to build the Suez Canal (1869) conquered most of Sudan & fought Ethiopia to get a Red Sea port spent extravagantly on “Western” building projects 1875--Disraeli & Rothchild’s Bank bought Suez Canal shares because Ismail couldn’t service his debts a series of British reports led to further supervision and involvement in Egyptian affairs
  161. 161. Towards the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) as early as 1820 Egypt’s Ottoman governors behaved as independent rulers, Kehdives Ismail, Kehdive (1863-1879) was a modernizer: contracted with France to build the Suez Canal (1869) conquered most of Sudan & fought Ethiopia to get a Red Sea port spent extravagantly on “Western” building projects 1875--Disraeli & Rothchild’s Bank bought Suez Canal shares because Ismail couldn’t service his debts a series of British reports led to further supervision and involvement in Egyptian affairs 1879--Ismail becomes a “constitutional monarch” and accepts Lord Cromer as his “prime minister”
  162. 162. Lord Cromer & Egypt Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer, GCB, OM, GCMG, KCSI, CIE, PC, FRS (1841-1917) statesman, diplomat, and colonial administrator 1879, controller-general in Egypt later agent & consul-general, 1883-1907 unpopular with Egyptian nationalists, forced to resign “[the Egyptians] prefer self- government to good government” Lord Cromer, ca 1895
  163. 163. Muhammad Ahmad ibn as Sayyid Abd Allah (otherwise known as The Mahdi or Muhammad Ahmed Al Mahdi) (1844-1885) “Mahdi” is an Arabic term meaning “the guided one” we are currently dealing with one in Iraq 1881, jihad against the “godless modernizers” in Egypt and began to restore the Cailiphate March, 1884 began the siege of Khartoum Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi
  164. 164. Major-General Charles George Gordon, CB (1833-1885) a general’s son, trained at Woolwich as an engineer 1854-56, Crimean War, siege of Sevastopol 1860-62, styled “Chinese Gordon” for his exploits in the Taiping Rebellion 1874-1885 his fate brought him to Egypt and the effort to pacify the Sudan Gordon Pasha as Governor of the Sudan
  165. 165. the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885
  166. 166. the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885
  167. 167. the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885
  168. 168. the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885
  169. 169. the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885
  170. 170. the Death of Gordon, January 26, 1885
  171. 171. The Mahdist State 1881-1898
  172. 172. Omdurman 2 September 1898 WLS Churchill, 1895 4th Hussars delighted to come under fire, age 21
  173. 173. Horatio Lord Kitchener 1st Earl of Khartoum commanded the British force in the River War
  174. 174. Churchill’s account published in 1899
  175. 175. How dreadful are the curses which Mohammedanism lays on its votaries! Besides the fanatical frenzy, which is as dangerous in a man as hydrophobia in a dog, there is this fearful fatalistic apathy. The effects are apparent in many countries. Improvident habits, slovenly systems of agriculture, sluggish methods of commerce, and insecurity of property exist wherever the followers of the Prophet rule or live. A degraded sensualism deprives this life of its grace and refinement; the next of its dignity and sanctity. The fact that in Mohammedan law every woman must belong to some man as his absolute property, either as a child, a wife, or a concubine, must delay the final extinction of slavery until the faith of Islam has ceased to be a great power among men. Thousands become the brave and loyal soldiers of the Queen: all know how to die but the influence of the religion paralyses the social development of those who follow it. No stronger retrograde force exists in the world. Far from being moribund, Mohammedanism is a militant and proselytizing faith. It has already spread throughout Central Africa, raising fearless warriors at every step; and were it not that Christianity is sheltered in the strong arms of science, the science against which it had vainly struggled, the civilisation of modern Europe might fall, as fell the civilisation of ancient Rome.
  176. 176. Maxim guns and Dum-dums
  177. 177. the charge of the 21st Lancers
  178. 178. Fashoda 18 September1898
  179. 179. Fashoda 18 September1898 Britain
  180. 180. Fashoda 18 September1898 vs France
  181. 181. Fashoda 18 September1898
  182. 182. conflicting master plans
  183. 183. conflicting master plans Rhodes’ Cape-to- Cairo railroad
  184. 184. conflicting master plans Rhodes’ Cape-to- Cairo railroad French Niger-to- Nile trade route
  185. 185. in the crosshairs, Fashoda Omdurman Kodok is the post- colonial name for Fashoda
  186. 186. The Laggards
  187. 187. The Laggards Italy Germany Belgium Russia
  188. 188. FIRST ITALO-ETHIOPIAN WAR 1895-1896
  189. 189. FIRST ITALO-ETHIOPIAN WAR 1895-1896
  190. 190. FIRST ITALO-ETHIOPIAN WAR 1895-1896
  191. 191. Black over White Italy began her imperial quest in Ethiopia (Abyssinia) in the 1880s in return for Eritrea on the Red Sea coast, Italy recognized Menelik as emperor over his conquests in the highlands he believed they were encroaching on his lands and repudiated the treaty war ensued and by the battle of Adwa, 1896, Ethiopia had the distinction of being the only African state to resist European conquest by military force Emperor Menelik II
  192. 192. KAISER, KAISER, SHINING BRIGHT!
  193. 193. KAISER, KAISER, SHINING BRIGHT! You have given us a fright! With your belts and straps and sashes, And your skyward-turned mustaches, And that frown so deadly fierce, And those awful eyes that pierce Through the very hearts of those Whom ill fate has made your foes …………. Kaiser, Kaiser, Man of War, What a funny joke you are.
  194. 194. Germany’s “place in the sun”
  195. 195. In spite of the fact that we have no such fleet as we should have, we have conquered for ourselves a place in the sun. It will now be my task to see to it that this place in the sun shall remain our undisputed possession, in order that the sun's rays may fall promptly upon our activity and trade in foreign parts, that our industry and agriculture may develop within the state and our sailing sports upon the water, for our future lies upon the water. -- 18 June 1901 Kaiser Wilhelm II
  196. 196. the support of German financial and commercial interests for overseas ventures is one of the best arguments for Hobson’s thesis
  197. 197. Cameroon (Kamerun)classroom note the kaiser’s picture on the wall
  198. 198. German colonial troops in SW Afrika
  199. 199. Togo native police and their white commander
  200. 200. new trends in art
  201. 201. Belgium Imperialist Horror Story
  202. 202. Belgium Imperialist Horror Story
  203. 203. Leopold II (1835-1865-1909) brother of Empress Carlotta of Mexico, first cousin to Queen Victoria chiefly remembered as the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State, a private project! ran the Congo as his personal fiefdom; for him it was a business venture used his friend Henry Morton Stanley to help him lay claim to the Congo
  204. 204. Among other measures, the Congress of Berlin confirmed Leopold’s possession in 1885
  205. 205. failure to meet quotas by child laborers agents were required to bring back smoked hands to prove their diligence
  206. 206. Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916)
  207. 207. Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) 1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered to investigate
  208. 208. Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) 1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered to investigate 1904, delivered a long, detailed, eyewitness report
  209. 209. Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) 1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered to investigate 1904, delivered a long, detailed, eyewitness report supported creation of the Congo Reform Association
  210. 210. Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) 1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered to investigate 1904, delivered a long, detailed, eyewitness report supported creation of the Congo Reform Association Britain, joined by the U.S., demanded the 14 signatory powers review the Berlin agreement of 1885
  211. 211. Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) 1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered to investigate 1904, delivered a long, detailed, eyewitness report supported creation of the Congo Reform Association Britain, joined by the U.S., demanded the 14 signatory powers review the Berlin agreement of 1885 Belgian Parliament investigated, confirmed, and demanded (1908) Leopold surrender his “property” to the Belgian government
  212. 212. Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916) 1903, British consul in Leopoldville, he was ordered to investigate 1904, delivered a long, detailed, eyewitness report supported creation of the Congo Reform Association Britain, joined by the U.S., demanded the 14 signatory powers review the Berlin agreement of 1885 Belgian Parliament investigated, confirmed, and demanded (1908) Leopold surrender his “property” to the Belgian government Casement, radicalized, became a critic of British Irish policy. He was executed as a traitor in 1916
  213. 213. Royal Monster in addition to tolerating the savage conduct of his overseers, Leopold’s private life was disgraceful he fathered two sons out of wedlock with a Rumanian prostitute whom he then ennobled he was reported to be a client of Marie Jeffries’s “Rose Cottage” flagellation house and brothel in Hampstead, a suburb of London
  214. 214. РОССИЯ
  215. 215. РОССИЯ
  216. 216. Siberia, internal empire Иркутск, переправа 1886
  217. 217. Trans-Siberian Railway Russia’s internal empire turned east with renewed energy after acquiring Vladivostok (1860) a Siberian railroad was “on the table” since 1851 1889-work began in earnest under Count Witte the about-to-be tsar, Nicholas and his bride Alexandra blessed its eastern terminus in 1891 soldiers and convicts labored to complete it Sergei Witte by Ilya Repin
  218. 218. the finished lines Lake Baikal Moscow Vladivostok
  219. 219. the finished lines Lake Baikal Moscow Vladivostok The Bottleneck
  220. 220. Manchuria(red) & Tsarist Far East (pink) Khabarovsk Port Arthur
  221. 221. Racism, Russian style
  222. 222. Racism, Russian style At the [Khabarovsk] railway station, foreign visitors were reminded of British India: Instead, however, of British officers walking up and down with the confident stride of superiority while the Hindus...gave way...there were Russian officers clean and smart promenading the platform while the… cowering Chinese and the cringing…Koreans made room for them...The Russian is the white civilized Westerner, whose stride is that of the conqueror. Niall Ferguson, The War of the World; Twentieth Century Conflict and the Descent of the West. 2006, p. 50
  223. 223. The Newcomers
  224. 224. The Newcomers Japan United States
  225. 225. The New Imperialists
  226. 226. The New Imperialists
  227. 227. The Meiji Reforms (1868-1912)
  228. 228. The Meiji Reforms (1868-1912)
  229. 229. The Meiji Reforms (1868-1912)
  230. 230. First Sino-Japanese War (Aug, 1894-Apr,1895) Punch (29 September 1894)
  231. 231. Japan The Boxer Rebellion, 1899-1900 “the relief of the legations”
  232. 232. “Corée (Korea) the fish they all want to catch” 1887 cartoon RUSSIA JAPAN CHINA Chosen 1910-1945
  233. 233. Port Arthur (8-9 February 1904) Wasn’t it bully, the way the Japs began the war! TR in a letter to a friend
  234. 234. a Russian painting (1908) of the next day’s action
  235. 235. Russo-Japanese War Theater Vladivostok
  236. 236. Russo-Japanese War Theater since Vladivostok was iced over 6 months of the year, Port Vladivostok Arthur had become the Russian “Gibraltar” the new Japanese Navy was determined to remove this threat because shore batteries protected the Russian fleet from naval attacks, the Japanese Army was landed and Port Arthur besieged
  237. 237. 1
  238. 238. 2 1
  239. 239. 2 3 1
  240. 240. 2 3 1 4
  241. 241. battle of Nanshan (25 May 1904) two views
  242. 242. battle of Nanshan (25 May 1904) two views
  243. 243. a grim war
  244. 244. a grim war
  245. 245. a grim war
  246. 246. the war at sea 1905
  247. 247. Zinovi Petrovich Rozhdestvensky Ill fated Russian Admiral
  248. 248. Fleet Admiral Marquis Koshaku Togo Heihachiro (1848-1934) termed by Western journalists the “Nelson of the East” born to a samurai family, he fought in the Satsuma rebellion, age 15 1871-78, studied in London with 11 other youths to become naval officers his English midshipmen peers called him “Johnny Chinaman” distinguished commander in the Sino-Japanese War
  249. 249. Togo crosses the “T” From Max Boot, War Made New
  250. 250. battle and aftermath
  251. 251. battle and aftermath
  252. 252. battle and aftermath
  253. 253. battle and aftermath
  254. 254. battle and aftermath
  255. 255. Losses RUSSIAN JAPANESE
  256. 256. Losses RUSSIAN JAPANESE •4,380 KIA •5,917 POWs (including 2 Admirals) •battleships: sunk or scuttled, 9 taken as prizes of war, 4 •cruisers :sunk, scuttled or run aground, 4 interned at Manila, •destroyers: sunk, scuttled or surrendered, 6 interned at Shanghai, 1 •auxilliaries: sunk or aground, 4 interned at Shanghai, 2 hospital ships captured & released, 2
  257. 257. Losses RUSSIAN JAPANESE •4,380 KIA •117 KIA 500 WIA •5,917 POWs (including 2 Admirals) •torpedo boats sunk, 3 •battleships: sunk or scuttled, 9 taken as prizes of war, 4 •cruisers :sunk, scuttled or run aground, 4 interned at Manila, •destroyers: sunk, scuttled or surrendered, 6 interned at Shanghai, 1 •auxilliaries: sunk or aground, 4 interned at Shanghai, 2 hospital ships captured & released, 2
  258. 258. Uncle Sam
  259. 259. Uncle Sam
  260. 260. U.S.S. Maine
  261. 261. U.S.S. Maine
  262. 262. new far-flung responsibilities
  263. 263. Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1902
  264. 264. Spain Philippines Enough for now?
  265. 265. “Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead!” --TR (1904) But maybe not!
  266. 266. “Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead!” --TR (1904) But maybe not!

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