19th  Century Europe, Part 2, 1850-1871; German Unification
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19th Century Europe, Part 2, 1850-1871; German Unification

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This lecture addresses the German Question and the reorganization of Europe.

This lecture addresses the German Question and the reorganization of Europe.

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19th  Century Europe, Part 2, 1850-1871; German Unification 19th Century Europe, Part 2, 1850-1871; German Unification Presentation Transcript

  • Nineteenth Century Europe PART 2 German Unification, 1850-1871
  • Major themes of this session: THE GERMAN QUESTION, 1850-1866 THE EVOLUTION OF PRUSSIAN POLICY FROM DÜPPEL TO KÖNIGGRÄTZ THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR THE REORGANIZATION OF EUROPE, 1866-1871 GREAT BRITAIN FROM PALMERSTON TO GLADSTONE RUSSIA UNDER ALEXANDER II THE SHOWDOWN BETWEEN FRANCE AND GERMANY
  • Die deutsche Frage, 1850-1866 Groß oder Klein deutsch? (Greater or Lesser Germany?)
  • some preliminary considerations: German and Italian unification have certain similarities: “...the leadership...was taken by the strongest and economically most progressive of the interested states [Prussia & Sardinia] “...the process was achieved by war and by the subsequent absorption of some of the lesser states by the victor and the imposition of his control over the others. “And there too the victim was Austria….” Craig, p. 204
  • The Evolution of Prussian Policy
  • The Evolution of Prussian Policy
  • In economic matters Prussia led Central Europe
  • In economic matters Prussia led Central Europe she continued adding members to the Zollverein, the tariff union among German states which she had begun in 1821
  • In economic matters Prussia led Central Europe she continued adding members to the Zollverein, the tariff union among German states which she had begun in 1821 Berlin had become a thriving commercial center of 450,000
  • In economic matters Prussia led Central Europe she continued adding members to the Zollverein, the tariff union among German states which she had begun in 1821 Berlin had become a thriving commercial center of 450,000 by 1860 the kingdom would have 3,750 miles of all-season roads, a ninefold increase since 1815 a railway net that was developing as rapidly as any in Europe
  • In economic matters Prussia led Central Europe she continued adding members to the Zollverein, the tariff union among German states which she had begun in 1821 Berlin had become a thriving commercial center of 450,000 by 1860 the kingdom would have 3,750 miles of all-season roads, a ninefold increase since 1815 a railway net that was developing as rapidly as any in Europe industrial production was also expanding although textiles and clothing still led, iron, steel and machine works were coming on smaller industries: brick kilns, breweries, saw mills were moving out into the countryside and changing the predominantly agricultural character of the kingdom
  • Zollverein The Prussian Customs Union
  • Zollverein The Prussian Customs Union 1818-Prussia establishes an internal customs 1835-Baden union throughout their state 1841-Brunswick 1821-Anhalt joins 1842-Luxemburg 1826-Mecklenburg-Schwerin joins 1851-Hanover 1828-Grand Duchy of Hesse & Hesse- Darmstadt 1865-Sweden signs a free trade agreement 1831-Hesse-Kassel & Saxony 1868-Schleswig-Holstein, Lauenburg, Mecklenburg 1833-Thuringian States & Bavarian Palatinate 1871-Alsace-Lorraine 1834-Bavaria & Würtemberg 1888-Hamburg & Bremen
  • economic ties become political ties
  • economic ties become political ties The Zollverein becomes the model for the 20th century EU
  • Roads in and outside the Zollverein NOTE chaussiert = Macadamized, i.e., all-weather
  • Railroad development, 1848-1885 Railroads in the German Customs Union followed by the year
  • Railroad development, 1848-1885 Railroads in the German Customs Union followed by the year
  • Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism.
  • Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy
  • Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy to forestall revolutionary recurrences:
  • Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy to forestall revolutionary recurrences: persons displaying democratic or socialist opinions were persecuted
  • Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy to forestall revolutionary recurrences: persons displaying democratic or socialist opinions were persecuted such newspapers, books and plays were suppressed
  • Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy to forestall revolutionary recurrences: persons displaying democratic or socialist opinions were persecuted such newspapers, books and plays were suppressed in foreign affairs, Prussia showed no interest in challenging Austria for leadership in German affairs
  • Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy to forestall revolutionary recurrences: persons displaying democratic or socialist opinions were persecuted such newspapers, books and plays were suppressed in foreign affairs, Prussia showed no interest in challenging Austria for leadership in German affairs in November, 1850, Prussia had issued the Punctation of Olmütz whereby she (1) renounced leadership of the German States in the Erfurt Union and (2)restoration of the Bund, where Austria traditionally led
  • Economic progress contrasted with political conservatism. despite the constitution and Reichstag which had been reluctantly granted in 1848, power remained with the throne and the rural Junker aristocracy to forestall revolutionary recurrences: persons displaying democratic or socialist opinions were persecuted such newspapers, books and plays were suppressed in foreign affairs, Prussia showed no interest in challenging Austria for leadership in German affairs in November, 1850, Prussia had issued the Punctation of Olmütz whereby she (1) renounced leadership of the German States in the Erfurt Union and (2)restoration of the Bund, where Austria traditionally led if the war of 1859 had lasted a few weeks longer, Prussia probably would have come in on Austria’s side!
  • Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Preußen (1797-1888) born the second son, William received little education and was destined for the army 1815, he fought at Waterloo and later served successfully as a diplomat 1848, he put down a popular revolt, earning the name Kartätschenprinz Prince of Grapeshot 1857, Frederick William suffered a stroke and Wilhelm became regent 1861, at his brother’s death, William became king, age 64 he was believed to be even more conservative than his brother
  • The constitutional conflict would change all that. pictured here: Minister President Bismarck War Minister Roon Chief of the General Staff Moltke
  • The Army Reorganization Struggle, 1860-1863 Wilhelm had a long association with the army, so even as regent, he put a reorganization bill before the Reichstag addressing two concerns raising the term of service from two to three years & doubling the size of the army reducing the role of the Landwehr (reserves) the middle class majority in the lower chamber of the Reichstag blocked the budget which would carry out these reforms a new election increased the size of the opposition Wilhelm considered abdicating, instead calls on Bismarck
  • The Iron Chancellor, (1815-1862-1890-1898) his father, a Junker and army officer, his mother, the educated daughter of a politician Göttingen & Univ of Berlin, law-- then diplomat, served a year as an officer in Landwehr wanted to resist 1848 with armed peasants from his estate 1851, appointed Prussia’s delegate to the Bund Count Thun and cigar politics becomes more pragmatic, more convinced of the need to oppose Austria, align with France and Russia 24 buttered hard boiled eggs
  • The Schleswig-Holstein Question
  • The Schleswig-Holstein Question
  • The Schleswig-Holstein Question quot;Only three people understood the Schleswig-Holstein Question. The first was Albert, the Prince consort and he is dead; the second is a German professor, and he is in an asylum: and the third was myself - and I have forgotten it.quot; - Lord Palmerston.
  • some salient geographic facts
  • some salient geographic facts Schleswig, in 1864 was linguistically 50%-50% German; but becoming more so. Historically, it had been Danish.
  • some salient geographic facts Schleswig, in 1864 was linguistically 50%-50% German; but becoming more so. Historically, it had been Danish. Holstein was overwhelmingly German, both in language and history, thus was part of the Bund; but its duke was the king of Denmark!
  • some salient geographic facts Schleswig, in 1864 was linguistically Kiel, at the base of the Kiel Fjord, 50%-50% German; but becoming was the key naval base for controlling more so. Historically, it had been Danish. the entrance to the Baltic Holstein was overwhelmingly German, both in language and history, thus was part of the Bund; but its duke was the king of Denmark!
  • some salient geographic facts Schleswig, in 1864 was linguistically Kiel, at the base of the Kiel Fjord, 50%-50% German; but becoming was the key naval base for controlling more so. Historically, it had been Danish. the entrance to the Baltic Britain had acquired Helgoland in 1815 and was interested in North Seapower Holstein was overwhelmingly German, both in language and history, thus was part of the Bund; but its duke was the king of Denmark!
  • the crisis, part i (1848-1852) during 1848-50, the first Schleswig-Holstein War had been fought with a victory for Prussian and Austrian forces the London Protocol of May 8, 1852 was an international treaty to settle the S-H Question signatories: the five Great Powers, Austria, Britain, France, Prussia,and Russia--plus the two Baltic Powers, Denmark and Sweden terms:Schleswig(Danish fief) and Holstein(Ger. fief) restored to Dk. by personal union. However, Frederick VII of DK was childless so a change in dynasty was imminent & lines of succession for the dutchies & Dk conflicted. Duchies were to remain independent & Schleswig was to have “no greater constitutional affinity to Dk. than Holstein.” Fred VII confirms Christian(later IX) as his successor, 31 July
  • the crisis, part ii (1852-1863) throughout the 1850s, Danish unionists move constitutional changes which infuriate German nationalists 1858, the diet of the German Bund refused to accept the Danish constitution as it applied to S-H during the early 1860s, the S-H Question became the object of heated international diplomacy (Dostoevsky--”the S-H farce”) the new King Christian IX signed a new constitution in November, 1863 which Prussia and Austria claimed violated the London Protocol 23 December, Bismarck ordered the Prussian Army to occupy Holstein pending resolution of the dispute. Austria supports.
  • the Second Schleswig-Holstein War (February-October, 1864) “Dybbol Skanse” Danish troops in the Battle of Düppel, 7-18 April 1864 by Jorgen Sonne, 1871
  • Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle
  • Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test:
  • Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test: • better weapons-(1)the Dreyse “Needle Gun” rifle and (2)longer range, rifled artillery
  • Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test: • better weapons-(1)the Dreyse “Needle Gun” rifle and (2)longer range, rifled artillery • soldiers are better trained and better led
  • Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test: • better weapons-(1)the Dreyse “Needle Gun” rifle and (2)longer range, rifled artillery • soldiers are better trained and better led • the new Chief of the General Staff, Helmut v Moltke gets his first test
  • Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test: • better weapons-(1)the Dreyse “Needle Gun” rifle and (2)longer range, rifled artillery • soldiers are better trained and better led • the new Chief of the General Staff, Helmut v Moltke gets his first test • casualties (KIA,WIA, or deserted/disappeared) Dk =3,600, Pr =1,200
  • Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test: • better weapons-(1)the Dreyse “Needle Gun” rifle and (2)longer range, rifled artillery • soldiers are better trained and better led • the new Chief of the General Staff, Helmut v Moltke gets his first test • casualties (KIA,WIA, or deserted/disappeared) Dk =3,600, Pr =1,200 • first battle monitored by the new Red Cross
  • Erstürmung der Düppeler Schanzen The Düppel mill, scene of the fiercest fighting, after the battle • the Prussian Army reforms receive their first test: • better weapons-(1)the Dreyse “Needle Gun” rifle and (2)longer range, rifled artillery • soldiers are better trained and better led • the new Chief of the General Staff, Helmut v Moltke gets his first test • casualties (KIA,WIA, or deserted/disappeared) Dk =3,600, Pr =1,200 • first battle monitored by the new Red Cross • after this victory, Prussia continues to push the Danes back
  • the Dreyse needle gun (Zündnadelgewehr) main infantry weapon of the Prussians adopted for service in 1841 named for its needle-like firing pin it passes through a paper cartridge to impact a percussion cap at the bullet base the first breech loading rifle to use the bolt action invention of Johan Nikolaus von Dreyse (1787-1867) Prussian soldiers could fire five shots prone in the time an opponent with a muzzleloader, who had to stand to reload, could fire one
  • outcomes of the Danish War, 1864 Prussia and Austria were given the right to decide the fate of S-H Austria urged a united S-H state Bismarck opposed unless Prussia was given Kiel as a naval base this dispute renewed the tension between the two victors the Prussian patriotism and militarism inspired by success began the pattern followed by the Iron Chancellor all Europe took notice of the emerging military power demonstrated by Prussia Napoleon III took special notice
  • The Seven Weeks War, 1866
  • The Seven Weeks War, 1866 KEY Red & Pink = Austria + allies Dark & Light Blue= Prussia + allies Yellow = disputed Green = neutral
  • From Max Boot, War Made New
  • the road to war
  • the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein:
  • the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein: Prussia should receive Holstein; Austria, Schleswig
  • the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein: Prussia should receive Holstein; Austria, Schleswig October, 1865, Bismarck met with Napoleon III to see what his position would be if war with Austria developed
  • the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein: Prussia should receive Holstein; Austria, Schleswig October, 1865, Bismarck met with Napoleon III to see what his position would be if war with Austria developed 16 March 1866, Austria reneged on the Gastein Convention, later both sides mobilized and Bismarck sent troops to occupy Holstein
  • the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein: Prussia should receive Holstein; Austria, Schleswig October, 1865, Bismarck met with Napoleon III to see what his position would be if war with Austria developed 16 March 1866, Austria reneged on the Gastein Convention, later both sides mobilized and Bismarck sent troops to occupy Holstein 20 June, Italy, according to a secret agreement (8 April), joined with Prussia in attacking Austria to gain Venetia
  • the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein: Prussia should receive Holstein; Austria, Schleswig October, 1865, Bismarck met with Napoleon III to see what his position would be if war with Austria developed 16 March 1866, Austria reneged on the Gastein Convention, later both sides mobilized and Bismarck sent troops to occupy Holstein 20 June, Italy, according to a secret agreement (8 April), joined with Prussia in attacking Austria to gain Venetia 23 June, the Prussian army advanced into Bohemia
  • the road to war 20 August 1865, Prussia and Austria agreed to settle the S-H Question at Bad Gastein: Prussia should receive Holstein; Austria, Schleswig October, 1865, Bismarck met with Napoleon III to see what his position would be if war with Austria developed 16 March 1866, Austria reneged on the Gastein Convention, later both sides mobilized and Bismarck sent troops to occupy Holstein 20 June, Italy, according to a secret agreement (8 April), joined with Prussia in attacking Austria to gain Venetia 23 June, the Prussian army advanced into Bohemia 30 June, the Generalstab, Marshall von Moltke, and King Wilhelm left Berlin for the front
  • Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) Der große Schweiger The Great Mute
  • Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) his childhood was harsh because Napoleon’s invasion destroyed the family home in Lübeck Der große Schweiger The Great Mute
  • Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) his childhood was harsh because Napoleon’s invasion destroyed the family home in Lübeck 1832, joined the Großgeneralstab (Prussian General Staff) Der große Schweiger The Great Mute
  • Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) his childhood was harsh because Napoleon’s invasion destroyed the family home in Lübeck 1832, joined the Großgeneralstab (Prussian General Staff) became chief, 1857-1888 Der große Schweiger The Great Mute
  • Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) his childhood was harsh because Napoleon’s invasion destroyed the family home in Lübeck 1832, joined the Großgeneralstab (Prussian General Staff) became chief, 1857-1888 knew seven languages (German, Danish, English, French, Italian, Spanish, and Turkish) Der große Schweiger The Great Mute
  • Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) his childhood was harsh because Napoleon’s invasion destroyed the family home in Lübeck 1832, joined the Großgeneralstab (Prussian General Staff) became chief, 1857-1888 knew seven languages (German, Danish, English, French, Italian, Spanish, and Turkish) the Großgeneralstab brilliantly incorporated the technological changes of the Industrial Revolution into military science with pre-war planning Der große Schweiger The Great Mute
  • Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) his childhood was harsh because Napoleon’s invasion destroyed the family home in Lübeck 1832, joined the Großgeneralstab (Prussian General Staff) became chief, 1857-1888 knew seven languages (German, Danish, English, French, Italian, Spanish, and Turkish) the Großgeneralstab brilliantly incorporated the technological changes of the Industrial Revolution into military science with pre-war planning Der große Schweiger had the same revolutionary impact that The Great Mute Napoleon had seven decades earlier
  • What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary?
  • What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff
  • What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies
  • What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating
  • What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies
  • What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization
  • What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization recruitment and garrisoning was done on a territorial basis
  • What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization recruitment and garrisoning was done on a territorial basis its third defining characteristic was education, for both officers and men
  • What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization recruitment and garrisoning was done on a territorial basis its third defining characteristic was education, for both officers and men analysis was the fourth face of the Prussian army’s paradigm
  • What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization recruitment and garrisoning was done on a territorial basis its third defining characteristic was education, for both officers and men analysis was the fourth face of the Prussian army’s paradigm staff rides, manoeuvres, and war gaming were the basis for reflection
  • What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization recruitment and garrisoning was done on a territorial basis its third defining characteristic was education, for both officers and men analysis was the fourth face of the Prussian army’s paradigm staff rides, manoeuvres, and war gaming were the basis for reflection review and display were de-emphasised in favor of moving large forces with the newest technology
  • What made the Prussian Army so revolutionary? the planning function, epitomized in the general staff with roots in the 1790s, by the 1820s it had 3 sections: eastern, western & southern Europe--for both historical study and contemporary contingencies military cartography (map making) became a science: creation, distribution, updating railroads were incorporated to an unparalleled degree to move men and supplies related to planning was organization recruitment and garrisoning was done on a territorial basis its third defining characteristic was education, for both officers and men analysis was the fourth face of the Prussian army’s paradigm staff rides, manoeuvres, and war gaming were the basis for reflection review and display were de-emphasised in favor of moving large forces with the newest technology in the kriegspiel of 1844, first place went to IV Corps; its chief of staff, Helmuth von Moltke
  • Moltke’s famous dictum No plan of operations can look with any certainty beyond the first meeting with the major forces of the enemy. All consecutive acts of war are, therefore, not executions of a premeditated plan, but spontaneous actions, directed by military tact. quoted in Max Boot. War Made New. p. 126
  • Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881)
  • Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy
  • Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy commanded a brigade in battle several times in the First Italian War, 1848-49
  • Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy commanded a brigade in battle several times in the First Italian War, 1848-49 fought in Hungary, promoted to Field Marshall, made Radetzky’s chief of staff
  • Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy commanded a brigade in battle several times in the First Italian War, 1848-49 fought in Hungary, promoted to Field Marshall, made Radetzky’s chief of staff 1859, commanded an army corps at Solferino in the Second Italian War
  • Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy commanded a brigade in battle several times in the First Italian War, 1848-49 fought in Hungary, promoted to Field Marshall, made Radetzky’s chief of staff 1859, commanded an army corps at Solferino in the Second Italian War 1860, made governor of Hungary
  • Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy commanded a brigade in battle several times in the First Italian War, 1848-49 fought in Hungary, promoted to Field Marshall, made Radetzky’s chief of staff 1859, commanded an army corps at Solferino in the Second Italian War 1860, made governor of Hungary a “muddy boots,” hard drinking, fraternize with the soldiers, scorn staff work leader--the opposite of Moltke
  • Ludwig (Lajos) August Ritter von Benedek (1804-1881) seventh in his class, Vienna Military Academy commanded a brigade in battle several times in the First Italian War, 1848-49 fought in Hungary, promoted to Field Marshall, made Radetzky’s chief of staff 1859, commanded an army corps at Solferino in the Second Italian War 1860, made governor of Hungary a “muddy boots,” hard drinking, fraternize with the soldiers, scorn staff work leader--the opposite of Moltke age 62 at the outbreak of the war with Prussia
  • Prussian Railroads are crucial Troops leaving Breslau by rail for the front, 1866
  • Three Prussian Armies Converge
  • Three Prussian Armies Converge
  • Jitschin 2. vii.1866 Dear Wife, I have just arrived, the ground is heaped with corpses, horses, and arms. Our victories are much greater than we thought. Send me some French novels to read, but not more than one at a time. May God bless you, Bismarck
  • Austrian initial moves Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border
  • (night of 26 June) Austrian initial moves Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border
  • (night of 26 June) (26 June) Austrian initial moves Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border
  • (night of 26 June) (27 June) (26 June) Austrian initial moves Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border
  • (night of 26 June) (27 June) (26 June) 28 June Austrian initial moves Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border
  • (night of 26 June) (27 June) (26 June) 28 June (29 June) Austrian initial moves Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border
  • (night of 26 June) (27 June) (26 June) 28 June (29 June) Austrian initial moves Prinz Friedrich Karl Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border
  • Kronprinz Friedrich Wilhelm (night of 26 June) (27 June) (26 June) 28 June (29 June) Austrian initial moves Prinz Friedrich Karl Austrian attacks Prussian movements Fortress Battle or Attack International border
  • Königgrätz -- 3.vii.1866
  • Königgrätz -- 3.vii.1866 “The needle gun is king.”
  • From Max Boot, War Made New
  • Crown Prince Frederick William and Marshall v Moltke at the Schwerpunkt (hard- or turning-point) the hill at Chlum
  • the turning point Hungarian rifled artillery on the hilltop at Chlum poured fire into the Prussian 1st Army below, to the west when blue coats were first reported coming from the north, the commander believed them to be Saxon allies about 1430 the Prussians overwhelmed the Austrian batteries. Most fled. this monument commemorates the heroic resistance of one which stood and fell by their guns by 1515 Prussian artillery had replaced them on this commanding position, and the battle turned into an Austrian rout Baterie Myrtvych (Battery of the Dead)
  • Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa
  • Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa the field was littered with Austrian equipment-- 19,800 prisoners & 24,400 dead, wounded or missing (21.5% of their total army)
  • Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa the field was littered with Austrian equipment-- 19,800 prisoners & 24,400 dead, wounded or missing (21.5% of their total army) Prussian losses were much lower (4%)
  • Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa the field was littered with Austrian equipment-- 19,800 prisoners & 24,400 dead, wounded or missing (21.5% of their total army) Prussian losses were much lower (4%) the next day a Habsburg field marshall was sent to seek a truce--”My Emperor no longer has an army.”
  • Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa the field was littered with Austrian equipment-- 19,800 prisoners & 24,400 dead, wounded or missing (21.5% of their total army) Prussian losses were much lower (4%) the next day a Habsburg field marshall was sent to seek a truce--”My Emperor no longer has an army.” Moltke wanted to march on Vienna but was restrained by Bismarck
  • Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa the field was littered with Austrian equipment-- 19,800 prisoners & 24,400 dead, wounded or missing (21.5% of their total army) Prussian losses were much lower (4%) the next day a Habsburg field marshall was sent to seek a truce--”My Emperor no longer has an army.” Moltke wanted to march on Vienna but was restrained by Bismarck a generous peace: only Venetia (for the Italians) was demanded
  • Aftermath of Königgrätz/Sadowa the field was littered with Austrian equipment-- 19,800 prisoners & 24,400 dead, wounded or missing (21.5% of their total army) Prussian losses were much lower (4%) the next day a Habsburg field marshall was sent to seek a truce--”My Emperor no longer has an army.” Moltke wanted to march on Vienna but was restrained by Bismarck a generous peace: only Venetia (for the Italians) was demanded the Bund was dissolved and Austria renounced all hope of German leadership
  • Three Results of the Seven Weeks War
  • Three Results of the Seven Weeks War
  • I. Ausgleich (Compromise) 1867
  • I. Ausgleich (Compromise) 1867 Austria Hungary
  • Prince Felix Schwarzenberg Austrian successor to Metternich, 1848-1852 Reverse the Revolution of ‘48-49
  • Vienna, 1858 Notice the fortifications are still in place and the suburbs lie outside them!
  • Alexander Freiherr von Bach
  • Alexander Freiherr von Bach Minister of Justice, 1848-49 Minister of the Interior, 1849-1859 “Clericalabsolutist” concordat of 1855 gave the RC Church control over education and family life Bachsches System of “four armies:” standing army of soldiers sitting army of office holders kneeling army of priests fawning army of sneaks failure of the war of 1859 caused his fall
  • Ferenz (Francis) Deak (DAY•aak) moderate Magyar nationalist
  • Austria becomes Austria-Hungary
  • Austria becomes Austria-Hungary
  • Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867
  • Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 dual monarchy: Kaiserreich von Österreich und Königreich von Ungarn,the so-called K.u.K.
  • Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 dual monarchy: Kaiserreich von Österreich und Königreich von Ungarn,the so-called K.u.K. two independent and equal states with one monarch-- emperor (kaiser) of Austria & king (könig) of Hungary
  • Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 dual monarchy: Kaiserreich von Österreich und Königreich von Ungarn,the so-called K.u.K. two independent and equal states with one monarch-- emperor (kaiser) of Austria & king (könig) of Hungary common military and foreign policy establishment, but separate parliaments and domestic policy bureaucracies
  • Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 dual monarchy: Kaiserreich von Österreich und Königreich von Ungarn,the so-called K.u.K. two independent and equal states with one monarch-- emperor (kaiser) of Austria & king (könig) of Hungary common military and foreign policy establishment, but separate parliaments and domestic policy bureaucracies “restored reasonable efficiency to the government operations of the empire”
  • Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 dual monarchy: Kaiserreich von Österreich und Königreich von Ungarn,the so-called K.u.K. two independent and equal states with one monarch-- emperor (kaiser) of Austria & king (könig) of Hungary common military and foreign policy establishment, but separate parliaments and domestic policy bureaucracies “restored reasonable efficiency to the government operations of the empire” improved the economy with an Austrian “Zollverein”
  • Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867
  • Ausgleich and the nationalities issue “But it did nothing to solve the nationalities problem, and did not try to do so. It may truly be described as a “deal” between the German minority in the western half of the empire and the Magyar minority in the eastern at the expense of all the other peoples--the Czechs, the Slovaks, the Croats, the Serbs, the Poles, and the Rumanians.” Craig, p. 217
  • Nationalities by language language percent German 24 Magyar 20 Czech 13 Polish 10 Ruthenian 8 Romanian 6 Croat 5 Slovak 4 Serb 4 Slovenian 3 Italian 2
  • religion and ethnicity
  • religion and ethnicity
  • religion and ethnicity
  • Es ist meine Wille… “It is my will…”,1857 Emperor Franz Josef orders destruction of the fortifications, construction of a beltway known as the Ringstraße, and a series of grand buildings to rival those of Napoleon III’s Haussmannisation of Paris. Here, a photo, 1872
  • the buildings of the Ringstraße
  • the buildings of the Ringstraße K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869
  • the buildings of the Ringstraße K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869
  • the buildings of the Ringstraße K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869
  • the buildings of the Ringstraße K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869
  • the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869
  • the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869
  • the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, K.u.K. Hofburgtheater, 1879-1888 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869
  • the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, K.u.K. Hofburgtheater, 1879-1888 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869
  • the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, K.u.K. Hofburgtheater, 1879-1888 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869 Votivkirche, 1856-1879
  • the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, K.u.K. Hofburgtheater, 1879-1888 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869 Votivkirche, 1856-1879
  • the buildings of the Ringstraße Rathaus, K.u.K. Hofburgtheater, 1879-1888 1872-1888 K.u.K. Hofoper, 1864-1869 Votivkirche, 1856-1879
  • II. The Surrender of Prussian Liberalism Berlin Reichstag, 1871
  • Deutsche Fortschrittspartei (German Progressive Rudolf Virchow, MD
  • Deutsche Fortschrittspartei (German Progressive Theodor Mommsen, PhD Rudolf Virchow, MD
  • Deutsche Fortschrittspartei (German Progressive Theodor Mommsen, PhD Rudolf Virchow, MD Paul Singer
  • Deutsche Fortschrittspartei (German Progressive Theodor Mommsen, PhD Rudolf Virchow, MD Paul Singer Werner v Siemens
  • Die Nationalliberale Partei 1867-1918 16. xi.1868
  • III. Norddeutscher Bund, 1866-1871
  • the North German Confederation (August, 1866) began as a military alliance of 22 North German states unlike the Bund, the Norddeutscher Bund, was a true state whose territory was the German lands north of the Main River it cemented Prussian control there and extended that same control southward via (1)the Zollverein and (2)secret military treaties with Bavaria, Würtemberg, Baden & the southern part of the Grand Duchy of Hesse although it ceased to exist after the creation of the German Empire in 1871, the federation was the building block for the new constitution adopted that year
  • Great Britain From Palmerston to Gladstone
  • Great Britain From Palmerston to Gladstone
  • Non-intervention and Colonial Problems
  • Non-intervention and Colonial Problems
  • Non-Interventionism the Crimean War (1854-1856) left a terrible taste in British mouths no government could count thereafter on parliamentary support or a bellicose public outcry for military interventions in Europe in the early stages of the S-H dispute, both Prussia and Austria ignored British warnings. No follow through. when Russia ignored British notes about her treatment of the Poles in 1863, both sides in Commons called for an end to the policy of “meddle and muddle”
  • George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series
  • George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction
  • George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars
  • George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841
  • George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6
  • George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848
  • George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848 Flashman at the Charge--...of the Light Brigade, 1854
  • George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848 Flashman at the Charge--...of the Light Brigade, 1854 Flashman and the Great Game--the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857
  • George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848 Flashman at the Charge--...of the Light Brigade, 1854 Flashman and the Great Game--the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857 Flashman & the Dragon--the Taiping Rebellion, 1859-60
  • George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848 Flashman at the Charge--...of the Light Brigade, 1854 Flashman and the Great Game--the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857 Flashman & the Dragon--the Taiping Rebellion, 1859-60 Flashman on the March--France in Mexico, Britain in Abyssinia
  • George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848 Flashman at the Charge--...of the Light Brigade, 1854 Flashman and the Great Game--the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857 Flashman & the Dragon--the Taiping Rebellion, 1859-60 Flashman on the March--France in Mexico, Britain in Abyssinia Flashman and the Tiger--Zulu War, 1879
  • George Malcolm Fraser’s “Flashman” series Fraser (1925-2008), a retired officer of the Gordon Highlanders with WW II service, is the author of this marvelous humorous historical fiction his fictional character, Harry Flashman, is “present” and “plays a key part” in all of Britain’s imperial wars Flashman--First Afghan War, 1841 Flashman and the Mountain of Light--First Sikh War, 1845-6 Royal Flash--Lola Montez & Bismarck, 1848 Flashman at the Charge--...of the Light Brigade, 1854 Flashman and the Great Game--the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857 Flashman & the Dragon--the Taiping Rebellion, 1859-60 Flashman on the March--France in Mexico, Britain in Abyssinia Flashman and the Tiger--Zulu War, 1879
  • Colonial distractions
  • Colonial distractions 1857-58--the great Sepoy Rebellion in India shook British imperialism and led to reform of the East India Company
  • Colonial distractions 1857-58--the great Sepoy Rebellion in India shook British imperialism and led to reform of the East India Company 1858-60--Chinese Taipings rebelled against the Manchu government and Palmerston and Napoleon III used this as an excuse for military intervention and more rights in China
  • Colonial distractions 1857-58--the great Sepoy Rebellion in India shook British imperialism and led to reform of the East India Company 1858-60--Chinese Taipings rebelled against the Manchu government and Palmerston and Napoleon III used this as an excuse for military intervention and more rights in China both Australia (Gold Rush of the early ‘50s) and New Zealand (Maori Wars) had dramatic population growth and demanded attention
  • Colonial distractions 1857-58--the great Sepoy Rebellion in India shook British imperialism and led to reform of the East India Company 1858-60--Chinese Taipings rebelled against the Manchu government and Palmerston and Napoleon III used this as an excuse for military intervention and more rights in China both Australia (Gold Rush of the early ‘50s) and New Zealand (Maori Wars) had dramatic population growth and demanded attention finally, throughout this period, North America required much attention; especially after 1861
  • “Cotton is King!” or is it? Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain
  • “Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain
  • “Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain
  • “Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain
  • “Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 the Laird Rams, 1862-1863 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain
  • “Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 the Laird Rams, 1862-1863 St Albans raid, 1864 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain
  • “Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 the Laird Rams, 1862-1863 St Albans raid, 1864 the Alabama claims, 1862-1872 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain
  • “Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 the Laird Rams, 1862-1863 St Albans raid, 1864 the Alabama claims, 1862-1872 submitted to arbitration (1865) Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain
  • “Cotton is King!” or is it? the Trent Affair, 1861 Britain disengages from the Maximilian Affair, 1862 the Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 the Laird Rams, 1862-1863 St Albans raid, 1864 the Alabama claims, 1862-1872 submitted to arbitration (1865) the British North American Act, 1867 Charles Francis Adams, U.S. Minister to Britain
  • Party Politics
  • Party Politics Palmerston Disraeli Gladstone
  • Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli
  • Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli Intervention
  • Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli Intervention Don Pacifico affair, 1850
  • Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli Intervention Don Pacifico affair, 1850 CIVIS ROMANVS SVM speech
  • Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli quot;As the Roman, in days of old, held himself free from indignity, when he could say, Civis Romanus sum [I am a Roman citizen], so also a British subject, in whatever land he may be, shall feel confident that the watchful eye and the strong arm of England will protect him from injustice and wrong.quot;---in Commons, 30 June 1850
  • Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli Isolationism
  • Palmerston <----------------------> Disraeli Isolationism “splendid isolation”
  • Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (1804-1881) 1817--his father, Isaac D’Israeli, a distinguished historian, converted the family to C. of E. (Anglicanism) Disraeli didn’t consider it problematic to have Jewish ethnicity and Christian faith 1830s and ‘40s--first famous as a novelist, he squabbled with other writers his political trilogy, chiefly Sibyl, or the Two Nations (1845) marked his shift first ran unsuccessfully as a radical gained a seat as a Tory for Maidstone in 1837
  • From “Young England” to “Tory Democracy” in the 1830s his radicalism and desire to make a mark were in conflict “Toryism is worn out and I cannot condescend to be a Whig.” his solution: to revive the Tory Party the Corn Law debates split the Tories into several factions Disraeli navigated them in the spirit of Realpolitik, his enemies said “opportunism” during the 20 years between 1845 and the Second Reform Bill (1867) he sought a Radical-Tory Alliance
  • John Bright (1811-1889) educated at a Quaker secondary school, he entered his father’s textile mill at 16 ardent Nonconformist, he entered politics to protest church rates (taxes to support the C. of E.) joined with Richard Cobden to found the Anti-Corn Law League, 1839 originally considered a Radical, he joined with Wm Gladstone in the 1860s to create the Liberal Party together they began the campaign for a second reform bill to make Britain a true democracy
  • Goals of the Reformers
  • Goals of the Reformers 1. a broader franchise--more (men) should be allowed to vote the Reform Act of 1832 had added voters to 1 in 6 adult males this included the upper middle classes Radicals called for universal suffrage, but many Liberals wanted to exclude “the Residuum” what they considered “the feckless and criminal poor”
  • Goals of the Reformers 1. a broader franchise--more (men) should be allowed to vote the Reform Act of 1832 had added voters to 1 in 6 adult males this included the upper middle classes Radicals called for universal suffrage, but many Liberals wanted to exclude “the Residuum” what they considered “the feckless and criminal poor” 2. redistricting to reflect population shifts since 1832 the urbanization of the Industrial Revolution meant that urban areas were under represented, while rural areas were over represented this violated the principle of “one man, one vote” and favored conservative policies
  • Reapportionment
  • Disraeli defeats the Liberals’ 1866 Bill he skillfully drew support from the reactionary-conservative wing of the Liberals, led by Robert Lowe when the bill failed, Lord Russell’s ministry was replaced by a Conservative one (June 28); Lord Derby as P.M., Disraeli as Chancellor of the Exchequer they were challenged to revive Conservatism. Lord Palmerston, the great Liberal leader was dead, his party split Disraeli offered his own version of reform under the banner of “Tory Democracy” his bill attempted to include only the “better sort” of artisans and proletarians
  • The Disorders in Hyde Park, London (July, 1867)
  • The Disorders in Hyde Park, London (July, 1867) The interest aroused in Europe by these events is shown by this French drawing from L’Illustration, July, 1866
  • Parliamentary Maneuvering The figures, left to right, “Dizzy”=Disraeli & “Mr Punch” Wm Gladstone & John Bright “Mr Punch” the voice of this famous humor magazine, suggests there may have been improprieties in the Conservative victory with his cynical “DON’T BE TOO SURE, WAIT TILL HE’S WEIGHED
  • The Reform Act of 1867
  • The Reform Act of 1867 gave the vote in the boroughs (urban districts) to all householders, whatever the value of their homes to all lodgers who paid at least £10 per year
  • The Reform Act of 1867 gave the vote in the boroughs (urban districts) to all householders, whatever the value of their homes to all lodgers who paid at least £10 per year in the counties (rural districts) owners of property yielding £5 income a year tenants paying £12 a year
  • The Reform Act of 1867 gave the vote in the boroughs (urban districts) to all householders, whatever the value of their homes to all lodgers who paid at least £10 per year in the counties (rural districts) owners of property yielding £5 income a year tenants paying £12 a year it added 938,000 voters to an existing English and Welsh electorate of 1,056,000
  • The Reform Act of 1867 gave the vote in the boroughs (urban districts) to all householders, whatever the value of their homes to all lodgers who paid at least £10 per year in the counties (rural districts) owners of property yielding £5 income a year tenants paying £12 a year it added 938,000 voters to an existing English and Welsh electorate of 1,056,000 a act followed which redistributed parliamentary representation
  • William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898) four time P.M. 1868-74, 1880-85, 1886, and 1892-94) famous for his intense political and personal rivalry with Disraeli his nickname, GOM (Grand Old Man) “Dizzy” said really stood for God’s Only Mistake Queen Victoria complained, “He always addresses me as if I were a public meeting” he is still regarded as one of the greatest British prime ministers, with Winston Churchill and others citing Gladstone as their inspiration
  • So they told me how Mr. Gladstone read Homer for fun, which I thought served him right… W. L. S. Churchill, My Early Life : A Roving Commission, p. 23
  • Gladstone’s “Great Ministry,”(1868-1874) passed a series of basic reforms, civil administration, education, Irish affairs and the (secret) Ballot Act of 1872 the Cardwell army reforms--cleaned up the mess, 1870 the Martini-Henry breechloader better training and staff work abolished the purchase system of promotion “My mission is to pacify Ireland” Disestablishment Act, 1869 Land Act, 1870 too little, too late--”the Troubles” continue to this day
  • Russia under Alexander II
  • Russia under Alexander II
  • An odd similarity: Britain and Russia At opposite ends of the political liberty spectrum, these two had remarkably similar experiences, 1856-1870 • both were determined to reform after a miserable performance in the Crimean War • both were focused on domestic issues and colonial concerns and, thus, stayed out of the power struggles transforming central Europe • both were concerned with Asian colonial matters: Russia; the “stans” of Central Asia, Vladivostok, 1860 (her first warm water port), Sakhalin Island, 1875 and liquidating “worthless” Alaska, 1867
  • Tsar Alexander II, reluctant soldier
  • Tsar Alexander II, reluctant soldier born the son of Nicholas I, passionate militarist
  • Tsar Alexander II, reluctant soldier born the son of Nicholas I, passionate militarist his mother, Charlotte of Prussia, daughter of Frederick Wm III
  • Tsar Alexander II, reluctant soldier born the son of Nicholas I, passionate militarist his mother, Charlotte of Prussia, daughter of Frederick Wm III educated by the liberal poet Vasily Zhukovsky
  • Tsar Alexander II, reluctant soldier born the son of Nicholas I, passionate militarist his mother, Charlotte of Prussia, daughter of Frederick Wm III educated by the liberal poet Vasily Zhukovsky took little personal interest in military affairs
  • Tsar Alexander II, reluctant soldier born the son of Nicholas I, passionate militarist his mother, Charlotte of Prussia, daughter of Frederick Wm III educated by the liberal poet Vasily Zhukovsky took little personal interest in military affairs “gave evidence of a kind disposition and a warmheartedness which were considered out of place in one destined to become a military autocrat”
  • coronation August, 1856 at the Dormition Cathedral, Moscow Kremlin
  • Александр II Николаевич (1818-1855-1881) his predisposition was that of a reformer his situation was that of autocrat his intelligence saved him from utopian advisers became Tsar in the middle of the Crimean War Russia’s wretched performance, especially their serf conscripts, convinced all of the need for reform known as the Tsar Liberator for freeing the serfs, after five years of planning, in 1861
  • Alexander to an assembly of nobles in Moscow, March, 1856 “[announced that] the existing order of ruling over living souls cannot remain unchanged. It is better to abolish bondage from above than to wait for the time when it will begin to abolish itself from below.” Craig, p. 232
  • The difference between serfdom and slavery
  • The difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom • from late Roman Empire to 1861 (Russia)
  • The difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom • from late Roman Empire to 1861 (Russia) • serfs were attached to the land
  • The difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom • from late Roman Empire to 1861 (Russia) • serfs were attached to the land • under feudalism there were degrees of serfdom
  • The difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom • from late Roman Empire to 1861 (Russia) • serfs were attached to the land • under feudalism there were degrees of serfdom • like so many reforms, the end of serfdom spread eastward beginning in the late Middle Ages
  • The difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom Trans-Atlantic Slavery • from late Roman Empire to 1861 (Russia) • serfs were attached to the land • under feudalism there were degrees of serfdom • like so many reforms, the end of serfdom spread eastward beginning in the late Middle Ages
  • The difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom Trans-Atlantic Slavery • from late Roman Empire to 1861 (Russia) • from 16th century to 1888 (Brazil); America (1619-1865) • serfs were attached to the land • under feudalism there were degrees of serfdom • like so many reforms, the end of serfdom spread eastward beginning in the late Middle Ages
  • The difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom Trans-Atlantic Slavery • from late Roman Empire to 1861 (Russia) • from 16th century to 1888 (Brazil); America (1619-1865) • serfs were attached to the land • slaves were chattels, personal; could be sold “downriver” • under feudalism there were degrees of serfdom • like so many reforms, the end of serfdom spread eastward beginning in the late Middle Ages
  • The difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom Trans-Atlantic Slavery • from late Roman Empire to 1861 (Russia) • from 16th century to 1888 (Brazil); America (1619-1865) • serfs were attached to the land • slaves were chattels, personal; could be sold “downriver” • under feudalism there were degrees of serfdom • slavery varied from country to country, state to state • like so many reforms, the end of serfdom spread eastward beginning in the late Middle Ages
  • The difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom Trans-Atlantic Slavery • from late Roman Empire to 1861 (Russia) • from 16th century to 1888 (Brazil); America (1619-1865) • serfs were attached to the land • slaves were chattels, personal; could be sold “downriver” • under feudalism there were degrees of serfdom • slavery varied from country to country, state to state • like so many reforms, the end of serfdom spread eastward • the French Revolution began the end of New World slavery beginning in the late Middle Ages
  • Shortcomings of the Emancipation Edict
  • Shortcomings of the Emancipation Edict the nobility was generously compensated with rents collected by the peasant village governments (miri, singular, mir)
  • Shortcomings of the Emancipation Edict the nobility was generously compensated with rents collected by the peasant village governments (miri, singular, mir) the plan was to give individual allotments of land once the nobles were compensated
  • Shortcomings of the Emancipation Edict the nobility was generously compensated with rents collected by the peasant village governments (miri, singular, mir) the plan was to give individual allotments of land once the nobles were compensated close to half the allotments were too small to provide subsistence living
  • Shortcomings of the Emancipation Edict the nobility was generously compensated with rents collected by the peasant village governments (miri, singular, mir) the plan was to give individual allotments of land once the nobles were compensated close to half the allotments were too small to provide subsistence living former serfs, no longer bound to their lords, were required to get permission from their mir to leave!
  • Shortcomings of the Emancipation Edict the nobility was generously compensated with rents collected by the peasant village governments (miri, singular, mir) the plan was to give individual allotments of land once the nobles were compensated close to half the allotments were too small to provide subsistence living former serfs, no longer bound to their lords, were required to get permission from their mir to leave! state peasants (former serfs to the tsar) had slightly less burdensome terms for repayment and emigration
  • STILL “...one writer has called [it] the greatest single piece of state-directed social engineering in modern European history before the twentieth century…” Craig, loc. cit.
  • Zemstvo Law, 1864 a step towards representative government created an elective council (zemskoye sobranye) and appointive board (zemskaya uprava) at the lowest level: mir (village) and volost (rural district) the voting, of course, was “stacked to ensure upper class control 74% of the zemstvo members were noblemen, even though nobles were 1.3% of the population naturally, this first step didn’t satisfy
  • many other reforms army and naval reforms (1874) a new judicial administration based on the French model (1864) a new penal code & greatly simplified civil and criminal procedure the second country in the world (after Portugal) to abolish capital punishment local government for large towns modeled on the Zemstvo Law (1870)
  • Russia, “Prison House of Nations”--attr. to V.I.Lenin “No dreams” warning to the non-Russian peoples, 1855 Poland, the January Rising, 1863-1864 thousands executed, tens of thousands sent to Siberia Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Belorussian languages outlawed from printed texts Polish language, oral as well as written, banned from all territories except Congress Poland there it was limited to private conversations Finland, loyal during the uprising, was rewarded by generous treatment
  • Assassination--Attempts until Success Karakozov, before his execution
  • Assassination--Attempts until Success 1866--D. Karakozov, pistol arm jostled Karakozov, before his execution
  • Assassination--Attempts until Success 1866--D. Karakozov, pistol arm jostled 1879--A.Soloviev, missed with 5 shots! Karakozov, before his execution
  • Assassination--Attempts until Success 1866--D. Karakozov, pistol arm jostled 1879--A.Soloviev, missed with 5 shots! 1879--Narodnaya Volya bomb plot, missed the tsar’s train Karakozov, before his execution
  • Assassination--Attempts until Success 1866--D. Karakozov, pistol arm jostled 1879--A.Soloviev, missed with 5 shots! 1879--Narodnaya Volya bomb plot, missed the tsar’s train 1880--same group, bomb in Winter Palace, 67 killed or injured, tsar late for dinner, unscathed Karakozov, before his execution
  • Assassination--Attempts until Success 1866--D. Karakozov, pistol arm jostled 1879--A.Soloviev, missed with 5 shots! 1879--Narodnaya Volya bomb plot, missed the tsar’s train 1880--same group, bomb in Winter Palace, 67 killed or injured, tsar late for dinner, unscathed 13 March 1881 Karakozov, before his execution
  • Assassination--Attempts until Success 1866--D. Karakozov, pistol arm jostled 1879--A.Soloviev, missed with 5 shots! 1879--Narodnaya Volya bomb plot, missed the tsar’s train 1880--same group, bomb in Winter Palace, 67 killed or injured, tsar late for dinner, unscathed 13 March 1881 1st bomb under carriage--only damaged Karakozov, before his execution
  • Assassination--Attempts until Success 1866--D. Karakozov, pistol arm jostled 1879--A.Soloviev, missed with 5 shots! 1879--Narodnaya Volya bomb plot, missed the tsar’s train 1880--same group, bomb in Winter Palace, 67 killed or injured, tsar late for dinner, unscathed 13 March 1881 1st bomb under carriage--only damaged 2nd bomb--20 people injured, including Alexander, lost both legs, bled to death Karakozov, before his execution
  • Assassination--Attempts until Success 1866--D. Karakozov, pistol arm jostled 1879--A.Soloviev, missed with 5 shots! 1879--Narodnaya Volya bomb plot, missed the tsar’s train 1880--same group, bomb in Winter Palace, 67 killed or injured, tsar late for dinner, unscathed 13 March 1881 1st bomb under carriage--only damaged 2nd bomb--20 people injured, including Alexander, lost both legs, bled to death 3rd bomber--present but unnecessary Karakozov, before his execution
  • The death agony of Alexander II
  • The Showdown between France and Germany
  • The Showdown between France and Germany Pierre-Georges Jeanniot's La ligne de feu (1886), depicting the Battle of Mars-La-Tour16 August 1870
  • “Parrot” further depressed
  • “Parrot” further depressed
  • Aftermath of Prussia’s victory in 1866 German nationalists were as elated as Frenchmen were depressed and anxious--total unification seemed inevitable Austria seemed unavailable as a counterbalance to Prussian/German military power Napoleon sought compensation by advancing claims to Luxembourg, the Saar, even Belgium Bismarck negotiated but ultimately turned him down over French plans to purchase Luxembourg from the Netherlands a crisis led to an international conference which guaranteed the Grand Duchy’s neutrality, as the London Treaty of 1831 had Belgium’s
  • French Diplomatic Initiatives, 1867-1870 seek to inflame south German traditional prejudice against Prussia they, especially Bavaria, negotiated but in 1870 German patriotism overrode distrust of Prussia pursue an anti-Prussian Triple Alliance with Italy and Austria Vienna couldn’t convince their new co-equal, Budapest Florence resented French support for Pio IX, Rome remained Napoleon’s client
  • French Domestic Politics compared with Bismarck’s successes, the Maximilian and Luxembourg Affairs reflected badly on Napoleon Republicans gained in the National Assembly they demanded more democratic reforms Napoleon desperately sought foreign policy triumphs to counteract Republicans to his left and Bourbon monarchists to his right he ordered another plebiscite in March, 1870 the voters supported him: oui 7,336,000 to non 1,572,000 Opposition leader Jules Favre, 1865
  • Bismarck’s Countermeasures he watched the French measures, partly through a Berlin brothel where diplomats were “debriefed” by the “honey trap” technique this was financed by his Reptilionfond a secret treaty with Russia neutralized the Austria-Hungary threat. Both promised that they would use troop placements to insure that Vienna couldn’t move against the other Bismarck hoped that the liberal gains in French elections would allow eventual German unification without war the March, 1870 plebiscite made that seem less likely
  • The Hohenzollern Candidature
  • The Hohenzollern Candidature Prince Leopold Stefan Karl Anton Gustav Eduard Tassilo von Hohenzollern
  • the troubled thicket of Spanish politics 1833, Isabella, age 3 proclaimed queen at the death of her father, Ferdinand VII she was the daughter of queen-regent, Maria Cristina, grand-niece of Marie Antoinette, Ferdy’s 4th wife & niece! Carlist Wars, ‘33-38, ‘46-49, ‘72-76 throughout Isabella’s reign and after 1837, Spain becomes a constitutional monarchy-->party politics, palace intrigues, scandals Queen Isabella’s husband was a homosexual, so Carlists claimed the heirs were products of Isabella’s affairs 1868, Cuban revolts, troubles with the U.S.-->revolution-->exile Isabella II (1833-1868)
  • search for a successor a Spanish provisional government approaches Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmarinen Bismarck, hoping to conciliate Napoleon to German unification, discourages this 2 July, after the plebiscite strengthens Napoleon, he gives the go ahead 6 July, in the Chamber, the French Foreign Minister announces “a Hohenzollern on the throne of Charles V [would be] an intolerable derangement of the European balance”
  • The Ems Telegram (Emser Depesche)13 July earlier in July Benedetti convinced Leopold to refuse the offer the French Foreign Minister, not willing to accept victory, wanted to “rub Prussia’s nose in it” he told Benedetti to get a pledge from the kaiser that there would never be an acceptance Benedetti accosted Wilhelm on his walk at the spa at Ems with the demand Wilhelm was insulted but politely declined to give such assurance Bismarck was telegraphed a description of the incident and the suggestion he Count Benedetti, French Ambassador to Berlin share it with the cabinet and the press (1864-1870)
  • “press leak” Bismarck was already a skillful manager of the mass media of his day he took the text of the Ems Telegram and edited it to make the “insult” of the French ambassador worse and Wilhelm’s refusal more provocative the “penny press” (tabloids) in both Germany and France took it from there public pressure in France was magnified by the liberal delegates in the Chamber Napoleon felt compelled “to get ahead of the parade” 19 July, France declared war on Prussia
  • War!
  • War! WHAT A CHANGE THROUGH GOD’S LEADERSHIP
  • Berlin, Kaiser Wilhelm Departs to Lead in Battle
  • initial plans
  • Prussia’s Two-to-One Advantage
  • Prussia’s Two-to-One Advantage 1. due to better diplomacy the South German states were with her
  • Prussia’s Two-to-One Advantage 1. due to better diplomacy the South German states were with her 2. due to superior general staff planning and use of railroads the Prussian-North German Confederation troops “got there ‘fustest with the mostest’’
  • Prussia’s Two-to-One Advantage 1. due to better diplomacy the South German states were with her 2. due to superior general staff planning and use of railroads the Prussian-North German Confederation troops “got there ‘fustest with the mostest’’ 3. the Prussian supply system was superior
  • Prussia’s Two-to-One Advantage 1. due to better diplomacy the South German states were with her 2. due to superior general staff planning and use of railroads the Prussian-North German Confederation troops “got there ‘fustest with the mostest’’ 3. the Prussian supply system was superior 4. the war plans and integration of the separate army commands were also superior
  • Prussia’s Two-to-One Advantage 1. due to better diplomacy the South German states were with her 2. due to superior general staff planning and use of railroads the Prussian-North German Confederation troops “got there ‘fustest with the mostest’’ 3. the Prussian supply system was superior 4. the war plans and integration of the separate army commands were also superior credit 1 to Bismarck, 2-4 to Moltke
  • Weapons Comparison #1 Rifles The Dreyse “Needle Gun” PRUSSIAN MODEL 1840 CAL. 14mm.
  • Weapons Comparison #1 Rifles The Dreyse “Needle Gun” PRUSSIAN MODEL 1840 CAL. 14mm. • Cartridge: .61 acorn-shaped round, paper cartridge w/ black powder and percussion cap • Capacity: 1 round • Muzzle Velocity: 1,000 ft./sec. • Effective Range: 650 yds. • Weight: approx. 10.4 lbs. • Effective Range: 1,300 yds. The French rifle was 26 years newer, almost a pound lighter, had a higher muzzle velocity (more shock/killing power) and twice the effective range
  • Weapons Comparison #2 Le Mitrailleuse
  • Weapons Comparison #2 Le Mitrailleuse
  • Weapons Comparison #3 Krupp Guns At the Great Exhibition of 1851 he exhibited a 6 pounder (2.7  kg) cannon made entirely from cast steel, and a solid flawless ingot of steel weighing 2000 pounds (907 kg), more than twice as much as any previously cast Krupp's exhibit caused a sensation in the engineering world, and the Drei Ringe von Essen works at once became famous. In 1851, another successful Krupp invention, one for the making of railway tyres, made a profit, which Alfred Krupp devoted partly to enlarging and equipping the factory, and partly to his long-cherished scheme - the construction of a Alfred Krupp breech-loading cannon of cast steel. Krupp himself strongly believed (1812-1887) in the superiority of breech-loaders over muzzle-loaders, on account “the Cannon King” of the greater accuracy of firing and the saving of time, but this view “Alfred the Great” did not win general acceptance in Germany till after the Franco- Prussian war. Krupp supplied his perfected field-pieces throughout Europe and wished to fulfill an order of guns to Austria-Hungary on the eve of the Prusso-Austrian war, much to Bismarck's fury. His greatest grievance against the French was that the French high command had refused to purchase his guns despite Napoleon's support. Following the French defeat he did sell them his guns. Once the quality of this product gained recognition, the factory developed very rapidly. At the time of Alfred Krupp's death in 1887 he employed 20,200 men; and including those in works outside Essen, his rule extended over 75,000 people.
  • Costly Prussian Victories
  • Costly Prussian Victories
  • Costly Prussian Victories
  • Costly Prussian Victories
  • Costly Prussian Victories
  • Costly Prussian Victories
  • The “Crowning Mercy” of Sedan, 1-2 September 1870
  • Despairing Napoleon III
  • commemorative “imaginative” surrender 17,000 KIAs & WIAs; 104,000 POWs
  • another such
  • the home front rejoices
  • Sedan finishes the Empire, but France fights on 4 September, a bloodless coup in Paris creates a Government of National Defense the siege of Paris, 19 September-28 January 1871 begins when France rejects Bismarck’s moderate terms for an armistice 23 October, Marshall Bazaine surrenders 100,000 besieged in Metz throughout the fall the Army of the Loire attempts to break the siege when France ordered francs-tireurs (unlawful enemy combatants) to attack German supply lines, Germany retaliated by bombarding Paris
  • Le Siege de Paris-Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier
  • A Gallery from the Siege
  • A Gallery from the Siege
  • A Gallery from the Siege
  • A Gallery from the Siege
  • A Gallery from the Siege
  • Proclamation of the German Empire, 18 January, 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors, Palais de Versailles
  • THE REORGANIZATION OF EUROPE, 1866-1871
  • THE REORGANIZATION OF EUROPE, 1866-1871
  • Armistice, 28 January1871 Foreign Minister Jules Favre travelled under a flag of truce to German headquarters in Versailles the city was starving and it was clear that Gambetta’s armies weren’t going to break through Bismarck demanded the surrender of French forts, promised trains of food to relieve the Parisians when the siege lifted, some 200,000 Parisians, mostly middle class, fled to the countryside. Britain sent free food and fuel. 17 February, a brief victory parade was held down the Champs Elysee
  • Peace Terms Treaty of Frankfurt, 10 May 1871 confirmed the border between the Third French Republic and the German Empire ceding most of Alsace and the Department of Moselle (northern Lorraine) gave the residents until 1872 to decide whether to become Germans or emigrate to France set terms for the French war indemnity of 5,000,000,000 francs in gold, payable within three years German occupation to end upon payment in full repatriation of POWs
  • Peace Terms Treaty of Frankfurt, 10 May 1871
  • Revanche!
  • the black stain
  • Bismarck’s apotheosis
  • Results of the War
  • Results of the War the conservative French government created as a condition of peacemaking, faced a revolt by the Paris Commune
  • Results of the War the conservative French government created as a condition of peacemaking, faced a revolt by the Paris Commune 20,000 deaths produced a legacy of class hatred
  • Results of the War the conservative French government created as a condition of peacemaking, faced a revolt by the Paris Commune 20,000 deaths produced a legacy of class hatred the loss of Alsace-Lorraine produced revanchisme
  • Results of the War the conservative French government created as a condition of peacemaking, faced a revolt by the Paris Commune 20,000 deaths produced a legacy of class hatred the loss of Alsace-Lorraine produced revanchisme Napoleon had recalled Pio Nono’s protectors in 1870, so Rome became the capital of Italy and the pope became the “prisoner of the Vatican”
  • Results of the War the conservative French government created as a condition of peacemaking, faced a revolt by the Paris Commune 20,000 deaths produced a legacy of class hatred the loss of Alsace-Lorraine produced revanchisme Napoleon had recalled Pio Nono’s protectors in 1870, so Rome became the capital of Italy and the pope became the “prisoner of the Vatican” Wilhelm of Prussia reluctantly became Kaiser of the Second Reich
  • Results of the War the conservative French government created as a condition of peacemaking, faced a revolt by the Paris Commune 20,000 deaths produced a legacy of class hatred the loss of Alsace-Lorraine produced revanchisme Napoleon had recalled Pio Nono’s protectors in 1870, so Rome became the capital of Italy and the pope became the “prisoner of the Vatican” Wilhelm of Prussia reluctantly became Kaiser of the Second Reich the balance which the Congress of Vienna constructed in 1815 was permanently undone
  • Gordon Craig’s Concluding Thought The methods used to effect the changes in the map had left a heritage of bitterness between the continental states, while simultaneously showing the inadequacy of the European Concert and throwing doubt on the validity of international treaties and public law.
  • Gordon Craig’s Concluding Thought Nothing better demonstrated the disrespect with which international obligations were now held than the unilateral abrogation of the Black Sea clauses of the Treaty of 1856 by the Russian government, an action taken in the middle of the Franco-Prussian war and accepted by the other powers because they were powerless, or disinclined, to forbid it.