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19th Cent. Europe; France and Germany, 1871-1914 C 2.5

19th Cent. Europe; France and Germany, 1871-1914 C 2.5



Two bitter rivals; France, the divided republic and Germany, pseudo-constitutional absolutism.

Two bitter rivals; France, the divided republic and Germany, pseudo-constitutional absolutism.



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    19th Cent. Europe; France and Germany, 1871-1914 C 2.5 19th Cent. Europe; France and Germany, 1871-1914 C 2.5 Presentation Transcript

    • Nineteenth Century Europe part 2 1871-1914 session 5 FRANCE THE DIVIDED REPUBLIC & THE GERMAN EMPIRE Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • FRANCE Aftermath of Defeat, 1870-1878 The Republic: Basic Problems Three Crises The Prewar Years GERMANY Bismarckian Germany, 1871-1890 Wilhelmine Germany, 1890-1914 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Aftermath of Defeat, 1871-1878 Communards in their coffins Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Origins of the Commune Paris had proclaimed a republic after Sedan, September, 1870 France elected a National Assembly to conduct the war its chief executive, Adolphe Thiers, was suspected of monarchist tendencies, he: negotiated a humiliating peace ended the moratorium on debts and rents that had been in effect during the siege and chose Versailles as the seat suspended payment to the National Guard finally, troops were sent to collect cannons from Montmartre and fighting began 18 March 1871 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • THE LAST STAGE? The Commune _ May I come in? France _ Just a minute, I’ve not finished with this gentleman Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le commune du Paris Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le commune du Paris Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le commune du Paris Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le commune du Paris Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le commune du Paris Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le commune du Paris Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le commune du Paris Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le commune du Paris Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le commune du Paris Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le commune du Paris Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The restored column in the Place Vendome Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Outcomes from the Commune while the Commune indulged in ceremonial gestures, Thiers assembled troops April, 1871--the Commune was crushed in urban fighting that cost thousands of lives 20,000 more were executed in the following weeks 10,000 were transported, imprisoned or fined class bitterness persisted for decades the socialist movement was stigmatized, both Marx and Thiers gave the Internationale credit for the Commune Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Continuing Inspiration I envisage the sublimity to come which will unfold for our children Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Continuing Inspiration A website I found researching this class Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Louis Charles Delescluze (1809-1871) 1830, took part in the July Revolution, joined republican societies 1836, took refuge in Belgium, republican journalist 1848, Paris, started La Revolution democratique et sociale twice imprisoned and fined, fled to England 1853, arrested in Paris, deported to French Guiana 1859, amnestied, health shattered, energies unimpaired 1864, Réveil, radical organ promoting the Internationale 1870, fought courageously during the siege of Paris 1871, elected to the National Assembly, left it for the Commune 25 May 1871, died on the last of the barricades Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Adolphe Thiers; President, 1871-1873 the end of a long career, since before the Revolution of 1830! these two years-- his greatest challenge, greatest accomplishment he avoided the divisive issue of the new constitution he rid the country of German occupation troops by paying off the 5 billion franc indemnity he reorganized the army along Prussian lines! his republicanism cost him his job 1797-1877 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Indemnity Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Three Royalist Pretenders Henri d’Orleans duc d’Aumale (1822-1897) Henry V ORLEANIST Napoleon IV Henri, comte de Chambord the “Prince Imperial” (1820-1883) (1856-1879) LEGITIMIST BONAPARTIST Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Revue of the Pretenders IV Napoleon III Thiers Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • General Patrice de MacMahon; 1873-1879 the monarchist majority in the National Assembly chose him the three royalist contenders lost out to rising republican sentiment in 1875 a republican constitution was finally adopted President MacMahon fought the republican tide by dismissing his cabinet and calling for new elections in 1877 1808-1893 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Leon Gambetta; Republican popular throughout France for his war service Gambetta campaigned fiercely for republican deputies and senators his republican bloc included followers of Thiers, Hugo, and Blanc MacMahon saw his election ploy backfire and resigned in January, 1879 long a deputy, briefly PM 1838-1882 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Republic: Basic Problems Revanche! Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Years of Accomplishment; 1879-1885 republicanism ascendant: the capital returned to Paris, 14 July became the national holiday, La Marseillaise the national anthem civil liberties were protected, trade unions allowed, press restrictions lifted anticlericalism was promoted. The French bishops had backed MacMahon. Now in 1885, divorce was added to the civil code and education was removed from the church control which Napoleon III had restored government schools were laisized Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Jules Ferry; politician and imperialist 1880-demanded and got the expulsion of the Jesuits the Ferry Laws of 1881-2 made elementary education free, non- clerical and compulsory (either state or religious) 1885-his imperialism--”the superior races have a right because they have a duty; it is their duty to civilize the inferior races” 1832-1893 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Another View ever since Daumier, the great caricaturist of the bourgeois monarchy, France has cultivated political caricature here a stern Ferry sweeps out the Jesuits Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Anticlericalism Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Anticlericalism Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Anticlericalism Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Anticlericalism Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Anticlericalism Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Church Responds the basilica of the Sacred Heart was begun while the memory of the Commune was still fresh 1873-the bishop of Poitiers called for: “a project of religious and national renewal, the main features of which were the restoration of monarchy and the defense of Rome within a cultural framework of official piety" this was an era of renewed popular pieties in response to the political anticlericalism and “the war between science and religion” constructed 1873-1914 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le Tour Eiffel Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le Tour Eiffel Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le Tour Eiffel Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le Tour Eiffel Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le Tour Eiffel Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Le Tour Eiffel Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • “...in the mid-1880s ...in the eyes of many, the intellectual and artistic capital and the greatest playground of the world” Craig, p. 326 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Some basic problems industrial development lagged that of its rivals investment capital went abroad agriculture suffered one of the reasons for the tariff war with Italy, 1889-1900 politics was fragmented there was an unreasonable fear of strong leadership,e.g., Ferry and Gambetta the republican center faced enemies, right and left a lower fertility rate had Darwinist implications! Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The inveterate anti-republicans aristocrats, clergy, upper civil service, army there were still monarchists and Bonapartists Veuillot led the ultramontanists who deplored the republic as both un-Christian and un-French the social center of the extreme right was in certain salons in the Faubourg St. Germaine Proust’s Remembrance of Things Louis Veuillot (picture 1875) Past deplores “aristocratic prestige 1813-1883 and middle class cowardice” editor of the Catholic organ L’Univers Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • To Jules Ferry-- I have lost two children (Alsace and Lorraine) and you offer me twenty servants (imperial colonies) ! Paul Dèrouléde (1846-1914) Right wing Nationalist Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Right Wing Opposition began as a journalist 1886--writes study, La France Juive 1889--founds Anti-Semitic League 1892--founds newspaper, La Libre Parole the Dreyfus Affair, 1894-1906, greatly expanded his popularity Deputy for Algiers, 1898-1902 Edouard Drumont (1844-1917) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • And what of the working class? the wounds of the Commune were not healed, even after the deportees were returned in 1880 as elsewhere, labor unrest rose during the Long Depression an 1884 strike in the coal fields inspired Zola’s best novel, Germinal Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • And what of the working class? Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Naturalism--widely attacked as filth Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Naturalism--widely attacked as filth Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Naturalism--widely attacked as filth Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Naturalism--widely attacked as filth Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Naturalism--widely attacked as filth Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • And what of the working class? after 1890 the number of work stopages rose sharply finally, Marxism began to spread among the more educated workers Jules Guesde formed a “Workers party” Marxist, revolutionary, and dedicated to overthrowing the republic Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Three Crises Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Three Crises Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Three Crises Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Boulanger Case Boulanger commits suicide at the grave of his mistress, 1891 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • “...some man on horseback”--Burke decorated hero of many wars 1886, popular war minister adopted the Lebel rifle with smokeless powder 1888, political scandal led many to encourage his ambition and to make a coup when he hesitated his enemies drove him into exile in Belgium Georges Erneste Boulanger Général Revanche Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Panama Scandal Ferdinand de Lessups hero of the Suez Canal Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • France attempts a Panama Canal; 1880-1889 encouraged by the success at Suez, the government supports a sea-level canal in Panama technical problems but especially malaria dog the project from its inception scandal develops with bribes for a government cover-up to persist in spite of the 22,000 workers who died in 1889 the Panama Canal Company was taken to court and liquidated some 800,000 French citizens had invested 1.8 billion gold francs in this failed enterprise leading financial promoters were Jews--Drumont rejoices Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Paris court which forced the liquidation of the Panama Canal Company--from the ILN Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Contemporary caricature of the scandal. It reads: Few new toys this year; we’re liquidating the stock of puppets that say: Papa,-- Nana,-- Mama,-- Panama Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The bankruptcy of the Panama Canal company in 1889 caused more than the ruin of thousands of investors. Over the next few years the scandal surrounding it touched an ever-widening number of individuals and institutions. The professional anti — Semite Edouard Drumont, in his newspaper La Libre Parole, used the scandal as a battering ram against the Jews, since the leading promoters of the Panama Canal loan were two Jewish financiers. The political class was deeply implicated: when the chain of bribes, slush funds and influence peddling was traced to its end, 104 legislators were found to have been involved. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Dreyfus Affair Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Dreyfus Affair 1894 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Dreyfus Affair Emile Zola J’accuse 13 January 1898 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Scandal Begins French counterintelligence routinely searched the German embassy’s trash summer 1894, evidence appeared that someone with an artillery background on the French General Staff was selling secrets to the Germans one document seemed to indicate the culprit was a certain “D.” secret high priority investigations began, using what later seemed flawed methods October 1894, the Deuxiéme Bureau was ready to spring the trap Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Major Alfred Dreyfus brilliant, excellent record, Alsatian, French patriot, family man, wealthy but with modest tastes, Jew 1859-1935 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Conviction, Degradation, and Deportation the Army and the civilian establishment were under public pressure to find the “leak” despite doubts Dreyfus “fit the bill” in a flawed trial he was condemned a public humiliation stripped him of his rank he was sent to Devil’s Island “You are degrading an innocent man. Vive la France! for life Vive l’Armee! Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • 1896--Doubts Arise July, 1895--a new head of the Deuxiéme Bureau recieves a disturbing new document the selling of secrets continues and this time a Major Esterhazy is implicated Army brass and the War Minister who had rushed to convict Dreyfus don’t want the case reopened Picquart, honest man, persists to his own detriment Georges Picquart (1854-1914) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Real Traitor a mediocre officer at best, he began spying in 1888 even when Picquart discovered his role the general staff protected him January, 1898, a bogus trial found him innocent September, 1898, fled to England after Henry’s suicide there he lived by his wits, and like OJ, even wrote bragging of his act Ferdinand Walsin-Esterhazy (1847-1923) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Case Explodes! 1862, son of an Italian engineer, adopted French citizenship initiated the naturalist genre with his 20 volume Rougon- Macquart, 1870-1893 13 January 1898, two days after Esterhazy’s acquittal, he published J’accuse! the furor began, he was tried and convicted twice of treason, left France worldwide, intellectuals and leftists became Dreyfusards Emile Zola (1840-1902) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Interest is Worldwide! Here a Polish paper, published in Krakow & Lwow reprints Zola’s challenge Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Interest is Worldwide! Note the artist’s mark resembles the logo for anarchy Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Anti-Dreyfusards dismiss Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Creator of the Famous Forgeries good service in 1870-71 and in colonial wars in the 1880s 1894, ambitious for promotion, he worked hard to convict Drefus 1896, forged false telegrams to compromise Picquart 30 August 1898, when this was discovered, he was imprisoned found the next day with his throat cut--”The Jews did it!” Joseph Henry (1846-1898) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Public Outrage Builds the only Drefusard in the Académie Français this officer of the legion of Honor returned his cross after Zola’s conviction 1902, he spoke at Zola’s funeral 1908, his Penguin Island described the miscarriage of justice this premier pacifist was the most Anatole France (1844-1924) honored writer of the Left François Anatole Thibault Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Anti-Dreyfusard Minister of War son of the general who crushed the June, 1848 rebels fought as a civilian in 1870-71 7 July 1898, as Minister of War, he told the Chamber of Deputies that the case against Dreyfus was “air-tight’ then Picquard denounced the forgeries and Henry denounced Picquard Henry’s suicide (?) led to Cavaignac’s resignation Godefroy Cavaignac (1853-1905) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Impossible to Remain Neutral--Case Closed Parisian by birth, he was a leather merchant in Le Harve before entering politics 1895, elected President, he tried to keep neutral in the early days of the affair 1898, after Esterhazy’s acquital and before Zola’s conviction, his journal reflects his anguish 1899, he opposed re-opening the case “for the good of the army Felix Faure (1841-1899) and of France”--res judicata Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • “… not with a bang but a whimper” Faure’s death (2/99) threw the impassioned situation into further chaos Dérouléde called for an open Army revolt against the Republic the Socialists joined with the Radical Republicans the original court martial was annulled and another ordered another absurd guilty verdict & more uproar a pardon was spurned but full exoneration was delayed until 1906 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Prewar Years Charles Maurras Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Army Reforms; 1905 and 1913 1902-the Radical Republican- Socialist coalition purged the army of its most egregious anti- Dreyfusard “top brass” 1905-as the Prussian liberals had earlier, the government tried to “civilianize” the army by reducing the length of service to two years 1913-as tensions rose, this was increased to three, but with strong opposition Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Church State Relations 1890-Leo XIII used Cardinal Lavigerie to weaken the Church ties to French monarchists this so called Ralliement was wrecked by the Dreyfus furor the Dreyfusard Waldeck-Rousseau was as anti-clerical as Gambetta, as was his 1902 successor Combes a new spate of legislation attacked church schools 1905, Napoleon’s Concordat of Cardinal Charles Lavigerie 1802 was abrogated (1825-1892) founder of the White Fathers Pius X refused to accept this so the missionary order to Africa, 1874 state position hardened even further Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • St. Pius X (1835-1903-1914) NEWS OF THE ATTACK ON THE VATICAN Pius X reversed the accommodating approach of Leo XIII towards secular governments like Pius IX, he condemned modernism and indifferentism a diplomatic break with France led to the Law of Separation, 1905 this broke Napoleon’s Concordat of 1802 the outbreak of WW I contributed to I see this law as a bomb menacing my sacred derriére his death, “reportedly... in a state of horror and melancholy” (Wiki) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Terms of the Concordat of 1802 1802-Napoleon restored relations with Rome which the revolution had broken church and state were intimately associated the state appointed bishops and archbishops with the pope’s consent bishops appointed priests with the state’s consent the state paid the salaries of the clergy and permitted the church the use of extensive properties which had been confiscated in 1791 all that ended in 1905 1907-relations were strained even further by a new French law Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • French Socialists politically the Republic was more stable in the last pre- war decade than in any time since 1871 1905-the Radical Republican-Socialist coalition ended the Second International congress of 1904 had pressured the French socialists to join in SIFO (the French Section of the Workers International) they were to become a revolutionary party and not join bourgeois governments but the leadership still remained revisionist and unofficially cooperated with the political center Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Other Emerging Leaders of the Center Dreyfusard Georges Clemenceau Joseph Caillaux Raymond Poincaré 1841-1929 1863-1944 1860-1934 President 1906-1909 President 1911-1912 President, 1912-1913 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Action Française author, poet, critic, agnostic, intellectual, monarchist, anti- Drefusard 1899-takes over Action Française, a movement to restore a nationalist monarchy, “Dictateur et Roi” 1905-Camelots du roy organised, prototypes of the SA elected to the Academie Française in 1938 (picture) as with Syndicalism, violence was exciting to the political extremes Charles Maurras 1868-1952 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • THE GERMAN EMPIRE: Pseudo-Constitutional Absolutism, 1871-1914 Reichskriegsflagge, 1871-1918 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • “...the great historian of Rome, Theodore Mommsen, spoke bitterly of the “pseudo- constitutional absolutism under which we live and which our spineless people has inwardly accepted.” As a capsule description of the German empire this could hardly be improved upon. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Reich...possessed all the trappings of constitutional government and yearly went through the motions of meaningful parliamentary activity. But in a Europe that was moving toward democracy, Germany remained a state in which decisions affecting the lives and liberties of its citizens remained in the hands of persons and agencies not subject to parliamentary or popular control.” Craig, p. 339 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
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    • constructed from 1884-1894, this building housed the bicameral Imperial legislature the upper chamber, Bundesrat, most clearly demonstrated Prussia’s superiority in the federal system, 17 of 58 votes (the kingdoms of Bavaria-6, Saxony & Württemberg-4@; the 18 lesser states, 3 free cities & Reichsland Alsace Lorraine even fewer) the Bundesrat could veto any bill and Prussia alone controlled military policy and any constitutional amendment the lower house, Reichstag, was elected by universal male (age 25) suffrage, but had much less power. No ministerial responsibility, i.e.,the kaiser, not the house, could call and dismiss governments “The people call the Reichstag a talk-shop (Schwatzbude) because they know that German policy is not made there but in a quite different place”--Helmut von Gerlach Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • This should not lead us to conclude, however, that it was either an innocuous or an unimportant body. It was a national political body, composed of popularly elected representatives, and, therefore, was watched with critical interest by the German people. It was an excellent sounding board for ideas and propaganda… Craig, p. 341 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Major Parties Conservatives (Deutsch- konservativen)--landowners Reichspartei, formerly Freikonservativen, combining landlords and industrialists--Bismarck’s strongest allies Catholic Center (Zentrum)--agrarian, regional, & Catholic urban proletarian (non-Marxist) National Liberals--industrialists, conservative nationalists Left Liberals or Progressive Party (Deutschen Fortschrittspartei)--laissez-faire, opposed socialism; but pro- democracy, anti-militarism, anti-colonialism, anti-Bismarck Social Democratic (SPD)--Marxist, Protestant, proletarian Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Bismarckian Germany Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • In his first nine years as Minister President Bismarck fought three wars which created the conditions for German unification. During his remaining two decades in power, even his critics admitted his diplomacy was central to the maintenance of peace in Europe. As Chancellor of the German Reich Bismarck would divide the newly unified state by waging three wars against his own citizens. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Reichsfeinde (Enemies of the State) German Catholics--Kulturkampf (Culture Struggle) German Socialists--Anti-socialist Legislation German Jews--the measures against the Liberal Party Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kulturkampf Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Marian Apparition--3 July 1876 3 eight year old girls & their two five year old sisters in the woods outside this remote village in the Saarland, near the French border villagers flocked to the spot, kept watch & two days later, the first “miraculous cure” no railroad, but within a week 20,000 pilgrims from western Germany descend on the village 13 July-8th Co, 4th Rhenish Inf Regt arrived with orders to disperse, remove non-residents & impose curfew resistance --> 60 casualties 2 weeks billeting was charged to the village Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Continued Government Repression house searches, arrests & trials for fraud October, 1876-the three older girls were removed from their homes parents were told: three days they were held incommunicado for five weeks in a Protestant orphanage until they recanted Catholic Center Party (Zentrumspartei) outraged Liberals countered with charges of superstition, fraud and greed Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • What Did Marpingen Mean? the power of religion in nineteenth-century Europe the Catholic revival--Marian piety elements of popular religion orthodox faith & “animistic and quasi-magical folk beliefs” the complexity of Prussian “authoritarianism” “the unlovely Prussia” “brusque officials, high-handed soldiers & disreputable secret policemen still, press, public opinion, parliament, and, above all--the law -->justice the revolt against “modernity” against modern economic life, against the modern state by communities whose church had recently anathematized “modernity” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Catholics on the fringes Marpingen Present day map reflects Catholic gains, especially in Poland Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Roots of the Kulturkampf Pio Nono’s Syllabus of Errors (1864) and doctrine of papal infallibility (1870) created a liberal and anti-clerical backlash Bismarck worried that the Catholics “on the fringes” were being incited against German national unity he also feared the growing power of the Center party German Catholics were becoming more pious and traditionalist at the same time as Protestants and Jews were becoming “modernist” and secular the National Liberals and Left Liberals began with the demand for expulsion of the Jesuits Pius IX and the Catholic Encyclopedia blamed the Freemasons Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Anti-Catholic Measures 1871-clergy who discussed politics from the pulpit faced two years in prison 1872: religious schools subject to government inspection religious teachers banned from state schools Jesuits (“the spear point of the Black Internationale”--Bismarck) banned from Germany (remained so until 1917) 1873: state began to monitor the education of clergy closely by 1878, half the seminaries in Prussia were closed 1875-Congregations law: civil marriage mandatory abolished religious orders, stopped state subsidies to the Catholic Church Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Outcomes of the Kulturkampf Leo XIII (1810-1878-1903) was a much more accommodationist pope who sought better relations the Zentrum was growing stronger rather than weaker Bismarck had fallen out with the Liberals and was looking for a good reason to call it quits German Catholics were resentful of this attack on their culture 1879-negotiations were begun to restore the status quo ante, and by 1881 most of the legislation was repealed or suspended. Only the Jesuits remained expelled Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Campaign against the Socialists “The Social Democrat” by Ludwig Knaus 1877 DHM Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Rise of German Socialism 1864-Ferdinand Lasalle inspires and briefly leads the workers movement 1875-the Gotha Congress merges Lasalleans (mass political movement for moderate gains) with the Marxists under August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht growth of the socialist vote: 1871-124,000 1874-352,000 1877-452,000=12 deputies to the Reichstag Bismarck felt he had to act Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Das Sozialistengesetz (Anti-socialist Law) 1878 May, 1878-a demented tinker attempted to assassinate the kaiser Bismarck unsuccessfully seeks a law to suppress the socialists the next month, a second unsuccessful attempt. Bismarck is jubilant. Resistance caves associations and publications advocating socialism are banned police gained broad powers to prosecute “socialist tendencies”--arrests, socialists flee to Switzerland, “go underground” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • A Socialist Poster How by their Enemies How a “Sozi” appears! the “Sozi” is described Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • We whistle (jeer) at the law! The newspaper, The Brunswick Peoples’ Friend, produced this protest-sculpture against the Socialist Law. It was shut down by the law. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Revenge for our Mass persecution & Oppression 1878-88. Long live the Social= Democracy. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Zuckerbrot und Peitsche (carrot & stick) 1881-social-insurance legislation begun: 1883-Sickness Insurance Law (employer-employee funded) 1884-Accident 1889-Old age and disability (employer-employee-government) these revolutionary measures, called “state socialism” aroused interest throughout the western world Lloyd George’s 1911 National Insurance Law and many subsequent laws were modeled on Bismarck’s Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Outcome of the Anti-socialist Law (1878-1890) ironically, the socialist delegates in the Reichstag enjoyed immunity they were forbidden to campaign publically the socialist press moved abroad and publications were smuggled into Germany and clandestinely distributed the socialist vote grew from 437,158 to 1,427,298 and their seats increased from 9 to 35 1891-the Erfurt Congress adopted an unrelievedly Marxist platform but, as we have seen, Bernstein’s revisionism would weaken the revolutionary spirit and the SPD would become wedded to democratic methods Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Campaign against the Liberal Parties anti-Semitic postcard Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Bismarck and anti-Semitism he felt little personal animosity towards Jews however, his most hostile opponents in the Reichstag were the Left Liberals here, Jewish leaders predominated so Bismarck and other opponents from the Right were not at all adverse to let anti-Semitism color their political attacks unlike the first two wars, against Catholics and Socialists, the Jews were “collateral damage” in Bismarck’s war against the Liberals Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • German anti-Semitism before the War Adolf Stoecker (1835-1909) Richard Wagner (1813-1883) Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Adolf Stoecker Lutheran pastor, associated Jews with the evils of capitalism, founded several ineffective political parties, e.g., the Christian Social Party Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Richard Wagner charismatic Gesamtkunstler, preached cultural regeneration through recovering a mythic Nordic past Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Houston Stewart Chamberlain Wagner’s son-in-law, much more rabid anti-Semite Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Houston Stewart Chamberlain Aryan World Outlook Wagner’s son-in-law, much more rabid anti-Semite published in 1916 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The End of an Era 1888-the DreiKaiser Jahr, Bismarck faces a new master, an inexperienced and impetuous 29 year old already he had become ready to consider extreme measures to deal with his opponents in the Reichstag “I shall let the old man snuffle on for six months, and then I shall rule for myself”--Wilhelm II Bismarck’s “hard line” at home and his foreign policy both seemed wrong to the new kaiser the result--an abrupt dismissal, 15 March 1890 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Sorrow of Retaliation French caricature of Bismarck’s ship of state sunk by the octopus of the “Social Question” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Towering Figure Bismarck Denkmal, Hamburg, 1906 3350 tons of granite Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Final thoughts Bismarck had presided over Germany’s rise to become the greatest power in Europe his diplomacy was the major contributor to twenty years of peace between the Great Powers but his policies had left domestic scars which would blemish his record his practice of Realpolitik and occasional disregard for legal niceties would incline lesser imitators to mistake brutality and bad manners as the way to duplicate his successes Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wilhelmine Germany Sir John Tenniel Punch March, 1890 “Dropping the Pilot” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Rostow’s 4th Stage--Drive to Maturity population: 1815-73% rural; 1870-71.5% rural; 1914-60% urban both galvanized and disrupted by the victory of 1871: gaining Alsace & Lorraine: doubled the number of mechanical textile looms Lorraine = iron deposits Alsace = virtual monopoly of European potash deposits the speed of the French indemnity payoff-->inflationary spiral & speculative “bubble” -->bourse “crash” of ’73 (Gründerkrise- foundation crisis) & depression 1873-1877 recovery thereafter steady and, except for slight setbacks in 1900- 1901 and 1907, uninterrupted Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Rostow’s 4th Stage--Drive to Maturity a very few examples: possession of the most powerful iron and steel industry in Europe pig iron production: 1871-1,500,000 tons; 1910-15,000,000 tons 10 x increase steel: 1900-7,000,000 tons (> that of Great Britain by 1,500,000 tons) Germany’s domestic rail net increased 3 ! times 1870-1914 her merchant marine gross tonnage, 82,000 to 4,500,000 electrical and chemical industries were world leaders Emil Rathenau secured rights to Edison’s electric lamps, 1881; founded AEG German electrical industry employed; 1895 = 26,000 1906 = 107,000 value of German exports: 1871 = 2.5 billion RM 1914 = 10 billion RM although agriculture was less important, the Junker class remained predominant in Prussia, hence in the Reich Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • German Kultur economic vigor is matched by intellectual and artistic vitality no country equals her in the natural sciences: discovery of X-rays--Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen quantum theory--Max Planck studies on relativity--Albert Einstein medical research: Robert Koch (tuberculosis, cholera, sleeping sickness) Paul Ehrlich (syphillis) Rudolf Virchow (pathology) German universities are the model to the world (as had been their elementary school system earlier)--seminars originated there Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • German Kultur the rapid urban growth spawns rich artistic life: Berlin’s Philharmonic is often conducted by Richard Strauss Johannes Brahms is soloist under the great Hans von Bülow 1889-Die Freie Bühne (the Free Theater) performs the works of Ibsen, Strindberg, and the Germans, Gerhart Hauptmann and Frank Wedekind, forerunner of expressionism 1876-Bayreuth houses the purpose-built Festspielhaus of Wagner’s Gesamtkunstwerke Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Festspielhaus-1882 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • German Kultur the rapid urban growth spawns rich artistic life: Munich, third city of the Reich, with her rich museums, attracted artists from all over Europe: 1909-1914-Russia’s Wassily Kandinsky of the Blue Rider School 1912-Austria’s failed artist, Adolf Hitler nevertheless, harsh critics like Nietzsche and the poet Stefan George condemned Wilhelmian culture as--mediocrity, vulgarity, materialism, love of power Conrad Alberti, The Old and the Young (1889) wrote: “What we need is a new Sedan in which we are the defeated ones, in order to be torn out of this stinking bed on which the stockbrokers and drill sergeants have thrown us.” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • You be the judge! 1. Leipzig: Battle of the Nations Monument, 1913 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • You be the judge! 1. Leipzig: Battle of the Nations Monument, 1913 2. Kyffhäuser Monument, 1896 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • You be the judge! 1. Leipzig: Battle of the Nations Monument, 1913 2. Kyffhäuser Monument, 1896 3. Berlin: Siegessaule, 1873 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Preußen (1859-1941) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • His Parents Prince Frederick William (1831-1888), son of Kaiser Wilhelm I, general at Königgrätz, 1866, political liberal Princess Victoria of Prussia (1840-1901), daughter of Queen Victoria both admired Victoria and Albert, intended to model their reign on them both supported the Progressive Party, opposed Bismarck Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Young Wilhelm and his father visit Queen Victoria at Balmoral, 1862 from his earliest memories he would both admire and envy the British Empire His grandfather the Kaiser and Bismarck both tried to keep him out of the “English camp” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • His family in addition to a younger brother, Henry, he had four sisters Victoria’s grandsons ruled Germany, Britain and Russia in 1914 Wilhelm had mixed feelings toward his mother, his “Uncle Bertie” (Edward VII), the Royal Navy and the British Empire Here with his first cousin, George V of Great Britain, 1913 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • "The Crown Prince and Princess shared the outlook of the Progressive Party, and Bismarck was haunted by the fear that should the old Emperor die--and he was now in his seventies--they would call on one of the Progressive leaders to become Chancellor. He sought to guard against such a turn by keeping the Crown Prince from a position of any influence and by using foul means as well as fair to make him unpopular." When Wilhelm was a teenager, Bismarck separated him from his parents and placed him under his tutelage. Bismarck planned to use Wilhelm as a weapon against his parents in order to retain his own power. Bismarck drilled Wilhelm on his prerogatives and taught him to be insubordinate to his parents. Consequently, Wilhelm developed a dysfunctional relationship with his father and especially with his English mother. As it turned out, Bismarck would become the first victim of his own creation. Wikipedia, “Wilhelm II, German Emperor” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wilhelm’s Left Arm a difficult breech delivery led to Eps’ palsey and a withered arm even with daily application of a painful device called “the machine,” little improvement he compensated by: carrying two white gloves in his left hand to “add length” resting his hand on his sword Despite careful posing and hilt perspective you can see that it is less developed Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • As first born, he was destined to reign and rule in spite of his handicap he learned horsemanship to be able to lead troops in battle he overcame his fear and became an accomplished rider his tutor, Dr. Georg Hinzpeter, inculcated Spartan values Captain von Schrotter of the Guards Artillery became his governor at age 7 1874-77-he attended the Kassel gymnasium with commoners, the first crown prince to do so Dr Hinzpeter continued to tutor him and arranged tours of Germany’s new industrial might Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wilhelm’s “Socialist” Period (1890-1894) terminated Bismarck’s “[anti-] Socialist Laws” one of the issues that led to his dismissal initiated new laws: arbitration boards for labor disputes health and safety regulations for factories restriction of child labor, and other labor-friendly measures when this didn’t check the rise of the SPD, he called them: a“treasonable horde” “a pack of men unworthy to bear the name of Germans” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Social Democratic “Reichstagsfraktion” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The New Direction (after1895) the search for more power an enhanced armaments program creation of the “High Seas Fleet” (Hochseeflotte) acquisition of a colonial empire a vigorous foreign policy in every quarter of the globe this was embarked upon when Germany’s position was strong and her relations with other powers were good by 1907 all this had changed for the worse Germany’s new course had aroused the gravest suspicions Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Failed Constitution Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • All this was much worse than it might have been had there been any effective restraint upon the imperial will. Bismarck had had his difficulties with Wilhelm I, but he had always...kept control of policy in his own hands, thus assuring its consistency…. None of Wilhelm II’s pre-war chancellors was capable of this kind of firmness. Craig, p. 357 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wilhelm’s Chancellors Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wilhelm’s Chancellors Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wilhelm’s Chancellors Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wilhelm’s Chancellors Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Graf Leopold von Caprivi (1890-1894) tried and failed to keep control of his progressive policy 1831-1899 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Bavarian Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe- Schillingsfürst (1894-1900) had been in politics since the 1860s and no longer had the energy to control the ebullience of the emperor 1819-1901 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Bernhard von Bülow (1900-1909) the ablest of these ministers, was as Wilhelmine in style as the emperor himself… bombast, fustian, and artful posturings that navalism and imperialism made possible 1849-1929 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (1909-1917) a conscientious man with great administrative ability, had too little experience in the field of foreign affairs to feel confident about taking a firm line with the emperor 1856-1921 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Bureaucracy Out of Control the military services, in particular, were making decisions and commitments which undermined the policy of the Chancellor or Foreign Office the kaiser also placed unwise trust on the advice of personal adjutants and traveling companions who undercut policy cabals among such individuals brought down both Caprivi in 1904 and Bethmann in 1917 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • And the Reichstag? both Prussian Landtag & Imperial Reichstag had grown accustomed to leaving foreign policy in Bismarck’s capable hands it was hard to resist the kaiser’s blustering nationalist, militarist, imperialist behavior because of its widespread popularity this was due to a large degree to the public relations efforts of the arms and shipbuilding industries and organized interest groups Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wilhelmian interest/pressure groups Navy League Friends of Colonial Acquisition Pan-German League Agrarian League Eastern Marches League Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • German Navy League (1898-present ) Deutscher Flottenverein created like its counterparts in Britain & the US to organize citizen pressure in support of navalism widespread popularity indicated by pictures of children in sailor suits popularized slide shows mildly anti-democratic Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz 1849-1930 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kolonialfreunde (Friends of Colonial Acquisition) consisted of “a myriad of geographical associations and colonial societies” 1885-Peters, who had worked in London, founded the German East Africa Company like other elitist interest groups, the “Friends” could become stridently anti-democratic when the Reichstag opposed them Karl Peters 1856-1918 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Pan-German League (1891-1939) Alldeutscher Verband goals: to include all Germans in the Reich to obtain Lebensraum in the east, and in Africa! Class was president, 1908-1917 he moved the League to more radical anti-democratic positions during the war he urged annexation of Belgium 1917-he, along with Tirpitz and Wolfgang Kapp founded the German Fatherland Party 1920-champions of Hans Grimm’s Volk ohne Raum (People without Heinrich Claß Space) 1868-1953 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Agrarian League (1893- ) Bund der Landwirte formed to combat Chancellor Caprivi’s free trade policies East Elbian Junkers partnered with German Conservative leaders like von Westarp 1912-tariff their greatest success, highest in Europe Graf Cuno von Westarp 1864-1945 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • German Eastern Marches Society (1896-1934) Deutscher Ostmarkenverein also Hakata or H-K-T, or Hakatisten, after its founders’ initials anti-democratic, anti-Polish interest group advocated funding German homesteaders and buying up estates owned by Poles Bismarck a charter member, as was Max Weber and other German nationalist intellectuals Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Posnania--The Most Heavily Polish Province KEY yellow = areas with a Polish majority white = areas with a German majority DATE--1905 H-K-T slogan Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Ostfluct (flight from the east) Königlich Preußische Ansiedlungskommission in den Provinzen Westpreußen und Posen Royal Prussian Settlement Commission in the Provinces of West Prussia and Posen Established by Bismarck in 1884. Active until 1918. Purchased land from 214 Polish estates to encourage German settlement. In total, 21,866 families out of a total planned 40,000 were resettled on formerly Polish lands. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Maximilian Carl Emil (Max) Weber influential article on the Ostfluct (1890), most famous work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904) 1864-1920 picture, 1894 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • We shall return to this theme, the failed German constitution, in our final session. Wednesday, November 11, 2009