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World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
World War II - Part I
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World War II - Part I

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Fascism, Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, Spanish Civil War, appeasement, Dunkirk, Fall of France, London Blitz

Fascism, Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, Spanish Civil War, appeasement, Dunkirk, Fall of France, London Blitz

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Transcript

  • 1. World War II
    And the Holocaust
    1939-1945
  • 2. Bell Ringer
    Describe the economic situation of Germany in between the wars.
    1 minute
  • 3. The Road To War
  • 4. Totalitarianism
    What root word do you notice in totalitarian?
  • 5. Totalitarianism
    A totalitarian government is one that exerts total control over a nation
    It dominates all aspects of life
    Uses terror to:
    Suppress individual rights
    Silence all forms of opposition
  • 6. Fascism
    Emphasizes the importance of the nation or an ethnic group and the supreme authority of the leader
    Fascist leaders of WWII
    Adolf Hitler (Germany – Axis)
    Benito Mussolini (Italy – Axis)
    Joseph Stalin (USSR – Allied)
  • 7. Adolf Hitler
    video
  • 8. Stalin’s Soviet Union
    Lenin’s death (1924)
    Fight for power – Stalin vs. Trotsky
    Trotsky fled to South America
    Stalin sends thugs over
    Trotsky assassinated
  • 9. Stalin’s Five-Year Plan
    Goal – modernize USSR
    Agriculture
    Industry
    Collective Farms
    Soviet farmers to combine small family farms into big ones
    Owned & operated by the state
    Did this go over well? Why? (30 seconds)
  • 10. Collective Farms
    Stalin met with great resistance
    Forced peasants off of their land
  • 11. Consequences of Protest
    Resistant farmers punished
    Took food - millions died (starvation)
    5 million sent to gulags (forced labor camps) in Siberia
  • 12. Consequences of Collectivization
    Human cost
    Agricultural production fell dramatically
    Food shortages  rationing
    Clearly unsuccessful
  • 13. Soviet Industrialization
    More successful
    Iron, steel, coal, and oil produced
    Money invested here, not in housing, clothing,
    or consumer goods – resulted in more shortages of essential products
    • Standard of living fell sharply
  • The Great Purge (1934)
    To remove enemies & undesirable individuals from power
    “trials” for show – all guilty verdicts
    By 1939 – over 7 million arrested from all levels of society
    Nearly 1 million executed,
    rest sent to gulags
  • 14. Check for Understanding
    What was Stalin’s Five-Year Plan, and what happened to those who disagreed?
    Discuss with partner
    1 minute
  • 15. Germany
    March 1935 – Hitler denounced the Treaty of Versailles & began rearmament
    League of Nations objected, but did nothing
  • 16. Germany (cont.)
    LON’s failure to act convinced Hitler to take bigger risks
    Mussolini (Italy) took notice
  • 17. Benito Mussolini
    video
  • 18. Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia
    Italy was defeated by Ethiopia in the 1890s
    October, 1935 Italy invaded & easily conquered the African nation (aka Abyssinia)
  • 19. League of Nations Reacts
    Condemned but did nothing
    Britain and France hoped to keep the peace in Europe
    “God and history will
    remember your judgment…It is us today. It will be you tomorrow.” - Haile Selassie, Ethiopian Emperor
  • 20. German Expansion
    March 1936 – Germany reoccupies the Rhineland (DMZ)
  • 21. 1936 Rome – Berlin Pact
    Hitler & Mussolini form an alliance
  • 22. Formation of Axis Powers
    November 1936 – Japan allied with Italy & Germany
    Axis Powers
  • 23. German Expansion
    Hitler pushed for “Anschluss” (political union) with Austria
    March 1938 – Austrian Chancellor said no
    Hitler sent in German troops
    Britain & France protested – Hitler said…
  • 24. MYOB!
  • 25. Check for Understanding
    What was “Anschluss?”
    Share with partner - 30 seconds
  • 26. Sudetenland
    1938 Hitler also demanded this industrial region in Western Czechoslovakia
  • 27. Reactions to Expansion
    France – shocked
    Britain – policy of appeasement
    Giving into a competitor’s demands in order to keep peace
    PM Neville Chamberlain met with Hitler twice
  • 28. Appeasement
    Did not work – why??
  • 29. Appeasement
    Did not work – why??
    Because Hitler kept increasing his demands
  • 30. 1938 Munich
    September 1938 – Meeting in Munich
    Hitler (Germany)
    Mussolini (Italy)
    Chamberlain (Britain)
    Daladier (France)
    France & Britain not prepared for conflict
    What do you think they did?
  • 31. L-R: Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini
  • 32. In the End…
    Sudetenland was sacrificed
    No one consulted Czech leaders
    France was bound by treaty to defend Czech
    Hitler allowed to annex Sudetenland
    Chamberlain hailed as peacekeeper
  • 33. Closure
    What is appeasement and how did it play a role in the spread of fascism during the 1930s?
  • 34. The Spanish Civil War1936-1939
    A Dress Rehearsal for World War II
  • 35. Spanish Civil War
    February 1936 – Spain held an election
    Many vied for power
    This tension led to:
    Labor strikes
    Assassinations
    Street battles
  • 36. Outcomes
    National Front elected (liberals/socialists/
    communists)
    Coup d’état by rebels (Army)
    Led by Gen. Francisco Franco (Fascist)
  • 37. Sides
    Republicans
    Socialists
    Communists
    Anarchists
    Liberal democrats
    Nationalists
    Loyalists
    “Francoists”
    Fascists
  • 38. Nationalists vs. Republicans
    Republicans backed by:
    USSR provided arms &
    Mexico supplies
    International Brigades (soldiers)
    Nationalists backed by:
    Germany provided tanks, planes, &
    Italy soldiers
  • 39.
  • 40. America’s Reaction
    Neutrality Act – 1937 (isolationism)
    Attracted the attention of many (Hemingway, Orwell)
    Small brigades from across the country (and the world) volunteered
    Which side do you think they took?
    Spanish Civil War “The Lincoln Brigade”
  • 41. The Bombing of Guernica
    On with the show…
  • 42. Guernica
    April 26, 1937 Hitler’s Condor Legion Forces (Luftwaffe) bombed the Spanish city of Guernica
  • 43. The Story of Guernica
    It was market day in Guernica when the church bells of Santa Maria sounded the alarm that afternoon in 1937. People from the surrounding hillsides crowded the town square. "Every Monday was a fair in Guernica," says José Monasterio, eyewitness
    to the bombing. "They attacked when there were a lot of people there. And they knew when their bombing would kill the most. When there are more people, more people would die."
  • 44. For over three hours, twenty-five or more of Germany's best-equipped bombers, accompanied by at least twenty more Messerschmitt and Fiat Fighters, dumped one hundred thousand pounds of high-explosive and incendiary bombs on the village, slowly and systematically pounding it to rubble.
  • 45. "We were hiding in the shelters and praying. I only thought of running away, I was so scared. I didn't think about my parents, mother, house, nothing. ..
    …just escape. Because during those three and one half hours, I thought I was going to die."
    (eyewitness Luis Aurtenetxea)
  • 46. Those trying to escape were cut down by the strafing machine guns of fighter planes. "They kept just going back and forth, sometimes in a long line, sometimes in close formation. It was as if they were practicing new moves. They must have fired thousands of bullets."
    (eyewitness Juan Guezureya)
  • 47. The fires that engulfed the city burned for three days. Seventy percent of the town was destroyed. Sixteen hundred civilians - one third of the population - were killed or wounded.
  • 48. News of the bombing spread like wildfire. The Nationalists immediately denied any involvement, as did the Germans. But few were fooled by Franco's protestations of innocence. In the face of international outrage at the carnage, Germany claimed publicly that the target was a bridge over the Mundaca River on the edge of town, chosen in order to cut off the fleeing Republican troops.
  • 49. Although the Condor Legion was made up of the best airmen and planes of Hitler's developing war machine, not a single hit was scored on the presumed target, nor on the railway station, nor on the small-arms factory nearby.
  • 50. Guernica is the cultural capital of the Basque people, seat of their centuries-old independence and democratic ideals. It has no strategic value as a military target. Yet some time later, a secret report to Berlin was uncovered stating, "...the concentrated attack on Guernica was the greatest success," making the dubious intent of the
    mission clear…
  • 51. The all-out air attack had been ordered on Franco's behalf to break the spirited Basque resistance to Nationalist forces. Guernica had served as the testing ground for a new Nazi military tactic - blanket-bombing a civilian population to demoralize the enemy.
  • 52.
  • 53. Spanish Civil War - Movies
    Pan’s Labrynth
    Butterfly (La Lengua de las Mariposas)
  • 54. Europe Goes To War
    Blitzkrieg and Beyond…
  • 55. Winston Churchill
    Regarding the Munich Conference in 1938:
    “Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They Chose dishonor. They will have war.”
  • 56. Hitler’s Pact With Stalin
    Enemies – realize more to gain as allies
    August, 1939: Ten year Nonaggression Pact
    Secret clause: G & R to split states of E. Europe
  • 57. Invasion of Poland
    March, 1939 – Britain & France promise aid to Poland (Is Hitler worried? Why?)
    September 1, 1939: Germany invaded Poland
    Blitzkrieg – “Lightening War”
    Fast, concentrated air and land attack
    Takes enemy’s army by surprise
  • 58. Poland (cont.)
    Germany had overrun Poland in less than 1 month
    Where were Britain & France??
  • 59. Helpless Allies
    Due to blitzkrieg, Britain & France could not mobilize quickly enough to come to the aid of Poland
    However, B & F declared war on G on Sept. 3, 1939
  • 60. Soviet Union & Poland
    Sept. 17, 1939 - As per secret pact, Stalin invaded & seized Eastern Poland
    Sept. 19th – Poland surrendered
  • 61. “Phony War” (aka Sitzkrieg)
    Silent period Oct. 1939-April 1940
    Germany & Soviet forces held ground
    Britain & France mobilized troops
  • 62. Maginot Line
    A series of fortifications along the French-German border
    Provided to troops:
    Housing
    Recreational areas
    a/c
    Underground rail
  • 63.
  • 64. General Patton’s Thoughts…
    “Fixed fortifications are a monument to the stupidity of man.”
    Why might he say this?
  • 65. Two Major Problems
    Protected only the part of the French border that faced Germany
    Left France open to an attack through Belgium
    All heavy guns pointed east toward Germany
    If Germany got around the Maginot Line, the guns would be useless
  • 66. Sitzkrieg ist Kaput
    April 9, 1940 – Germany took Denmark in days
    Norway was next
    Then blitzkrieg on:
    Netherlands
    Belgium
    Luxembourg
  • 67.
  • 68. German Invasion of France
    May 1940 – went through Belgium to invade Northern France
    Raced to English Channel…why?
  • 69. Dunkirk
    May 1940 -Britain on edge of military disaster
    German army - advanced across northern France
    British & French forces trapped
    Retreated to French port of Dunkirk
  • 70. Bell Ringer
    When the French & British were trapped between German forces and the English Channel, to where did they retreat?
  • 71. Dunkirk
    Hitler’s tanks were just 10 miles away
    400,000 troops backed to English Channel
    Constant air raids from Luftwaffe
    Death or capture seemed imminent
    Clip from the movie Atonement
  • 72. What Do You Think Happened??
  • 73. Operation Dynamo
    “On 26 May, the British Admiralty responded by launching Operation Dynamo - the evacuation of the BEF by sea. This enormous rescue mission was led by Vice Admiral Ramsay, who rounded-up a huge fleet of vessels - from tiny tugs and barges, to lifeboats and navy destroyers - to send to Dunkirk.”
    Source: BBC News, Dunkirk Remembered
  • 74. Miracle of Dunkirk
    850 vessels – from destroyers to tugboats to fishing boats – sailed the English Channel through mines and air raids
    Smaller boats transported soldiers to ships
    Despite the loss of 235 vessels, it was a miracle
    By June 4th, over 338,000 men had been evacuated to England in one of the greatest rescues of all time
  • 75.
  • 76. Allies Under Siege
    France Falls & Britain Battles
  • 77. France Falls
    After F & B retreated from Dunkirk to B, G headed southward
    June 10, 1940 – French gov’t abandoned Paris
    June 14 – G took Paris
    June 22 – France surrendered
  • 78. Negotiations in Paris
    Surrender terms:
    Germany occupied:
    Northern 3/5ths
    Atlantic Coast
    French gov’t supervised unoccupied zone in south – Vichy
  • 79.
  • 80. Vichy, France
    Unoccupied
    Puppet government
    General Henri-Philippe Pétain
    Many helped Germans - collaboration
  • 81. Why Collaborate??
    Many French thought that they were under German rule forever
    Accepted it as their fate – save self, families, homes
    Did all French people just give in?
  • 82. Free France
    French gov’t exiled
    London
    French-African colonies
    Goal = liberate France
  • 83. Gen. Charles de Gaulle
  • 84. The French Resistance
    Underground movement
    Literally met in the catacombs & tunnels beneath Paris
    Backed by Free France & De Gaulle
    Made up of French citizens
    Propaganda distribution
    Sabotage
    Helping Allies
  • 85. Sabotage
  • 86. Women played an important role in the Resistance movement
  • 87. Resistance (cont.)
    Citizens who joined the Resistance did so at their own risk
    Captured resistance members were often executed or sent to Natzweiler-Struthof Concentration Camp
  • 88.                                                                                           
    Agence France-Presse
    A few years after his death, French leftists marched to honor the legacy of
    Guy Môquet,a 17-year-old Communist and a participant in the French Resistance, who was executed by the Nazis in 1941.
  • 89. The Battle of Britain
    Once France fell, Hitler amassed troops on the French coast
    Britain was clearly his next target
    It was then that Winston Churchill made his famous “We Shall Never Surrender” speech
  • 90. Churchill’s Famous Speech
    “We shall not flag nor fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France and on the seas and oceans; we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air. We shall defend our island whatever the cost may be; we shall fight on beaches, landing grounds, in fields, in streets and on the hills. We shall never surrender and if, which I do not for the moment believe, this island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, will carry on the struggle until in God's good time the New World with all its power and might, sets forth to the rescue and liberation of the Old. . “
  • 91. Battle of Britain
    Only thing in the way of Hitler’s path to England – British Navy
    Because the B Navy was so strong, G had to use Luftwaffe first
    August 1940 – G launched on B greatest air assault world had ever seen
    Continued into September
    1,000+ planes dropped bombs on Britain daily
  • 92. London Blitz
    What began as attacks on military targets soon turned to civilian attacks
    Late August 1940 – G bombed London
    Two nights later – B bombed Berlin
  • 93. London Blitz
    By early Sept., Hitler ordered massive bombing raids on London & other B cities
    Used incendiary bombs
    Goal = break people’s will
    Where have you heard this before??
  • 94.
  • 95.
  • 96. London Blitz
    Each time the Luftwaffe approached, air raid alarms would sound
    Civilians would run to the nearest bomb shelter
    Many went to “The Underground” (subway)
  • 97.
  • 98. Children from London hide in a bomb shelter during the Blitz (1940-41)
  • 99. London Blitz
    The Blitz would go off & on through May 1941
    Read p. 795-6 “The London Blitz”
  • 100. In the End…
    18,000 tons of high explosives dropped on B over 8 months
    375,000 Londoners homeless
    Death Toll:
    18,629 men
    16,201 women
    5,028 children
    695 unidentified charred bodies
    Source: The History Place

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