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World War II - Part I
 

World War II - Part I

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Fascism, Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, Spanish Civil War, appeasement, Dunkirk, Fall of France, London Blitz

Fascism, Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, Spanish Civil War, appeasement, Dunkirk, Fall of France, London Blitz

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    World War II - Part I World War II - Part I Presentation Transcript

    • World War II
      And the Holocaust
      1939-1945
    • Bell Ringer
      Describe the economic situation of Germany in between the wars.
      1 minute
    • The Road To War
    • Totalitarianism
      What root word do you notice in totalitarian?
    • Totalitarianism
      A totalitarian government is one that exerts total control over a nation
      It dominates all aspects of life
      Uses terror to:
      Suppress individual rights
      Silence all forms of opposition
    • Fascism
      Emphasizes the importance of the nation or an ethnic group and the supreme authority of the leader
      Fascist leaders of WWII
      Adolf Hitler (Germany – Axis)
      Benito Mussolini (Italy – Axis)
      Joseph Stalin (USSR – Allied)
    • Adolf Hitler
      video
    • Stalin’s Soviet Union
      Lenin’s death (1924)
      Fight for power – Stalin vs. Trotsky
      Trotsky fled to South America
      Stalin sends thugs over
      Trotsky assassinated
    • Stalin’s Five-Year Plan
      Goal – modernize USSR
      Agriculture
      Industry
      Collective Farms
      Soviet farmers to combine small family farms into big ones
      Owned & operated by the state
      Did this go over well? Why? (30 seconds)
    • Collective Farms
      Stalin met with great resistance
      Forced peasants off of their land
    • Consequences of Protest
      Resistant farmers punished
      Took food - millions died (starvation)
      5 million sent to gulags (forced labor camps) in Siberia
    • Consequences of Collectivization
      Human cost
      Agricultural production fell dramatically
      Food shortages  rationing
      Clearly unsuccessful
    • Soviet Industrialization
      More successful
      Iron, steel, coal, and oil produced
      Money invested here, not in housing, clothing,
      or consumer goods – resulted in more shortages of essential products
      • Standard of living fell sharply
    • The Great Purge (1934)
      To remove enemies & undesirable individuals from power
      “trials” for show – all guilty verdicts
      By 1939 – over 7 million arrested from all levels of society
      Nearly 1 million executed,
      rest sent to gulags
    • Check for Understanding
      What was Stalin’s Five-Year Plan, and what happened to those who disagreed?
      Discuss with partner
      1 minute
    • Germany
      March 1935 – Hitler denounced the Treaty of Versailles & began rearmament
      League of Nations objected, but did nothing
    • Germany (cont.)
      LON’s failure to act convinced Hitler to take bigger risks
      Mussolini (Italy) took notice
    • Benito Mussolini
      video
    • Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia
      Italy was defeated by Ethiopia in the 1890s
      October, 1935 Italy invaded & easily conquered the African nation (aka Abyssinia)
    • League of Nations Reacts
      Condemned but did nothing
      Britain and France hoped to keep the peace in Europe
      “God and history will
      remember your judgment…It is us today. It will be you tomorrow.” - Haile Selassie, Ethiopian Emperor
    • German Expansion
      March 1936 – Germany reoccupies the Rhineland (DMZ)
    • 1936 Rome – Berlin Pact
      Hitler & Mussolini form an alliance
    • Formation of Axis Powers
      November 1936 – Japan allied with Italy & Germany
      Axis Powers
    • German Expansion
      Hitler pushed for “Anschluss” (political union) with Austria
      March 1938 – Austrian Chancellor said no
      Hitler sent in German troops
      Britain & France protested – Hitler said…
    • MYOB!
    • Check for Understanding
      What was “Anschluss?”
      Share with partner - 30 seconds
    • Sudetenland
      1938 Hitler also demanded this industrial region in Western Czechoslovakia
    • Reactions to Expansion
      France – shocked
      Britain – policy of appeasement
      Giving into a competitor’s demands in order to keep peace
      PM Neville Chamberlain met with Hitler twice
    • Appeasement
      Did not work – why??
    • Appeasement
      Did not work – why??
      Because Hitler kept increasing his demands
    • 1938 Munich
      September 1938 – Meeting in Munich
      Hitler (Germany)
      Mussolini (Italy)
      Chamberlain (Britain)
      Daladier (France)
      France & Britain not prepared for conflict
      What do you think they did?
    • L-R: Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini
    • In the End…
      Sudetenland was sacrificed
      No one consulted Czech leaders
      France was bound by treaty to defend Czech
      Hitler allowed to annex Sudetenland
      Chamberlain hailed as peacekeeper
    • Closure
      What is appeasement and how did it play a role in the spread of fascism during the 1930s?
    • The Spanish Civil War1936-1939
      A Dress Rehearsal for World War II
    • Spanish Civil War
      February 1936 – Spain held an election
      Many vied for power
      This tension led to:
      Labor strikes
      Assassinations
      Street battles
    • Outcomes
      National Front elected (liberals/socialists/
      communists)
      Coup d’état by rebels (Army)
      Led by Gen. Francisco Franco (Fascist)
    • Sides
      Republicans
      Socialists
      Communists
      Anarchists
      Liberal democrats
      Nationalists
      Loyalists
      “Francoists”
      Fascists
    • Nationalists vs. Republicans
      Republicans backed by:
      USSR provided arms &
      Mexico supplies
      International Brigades (soldiers)
      Nationalists backed by:
      Germany provided tanks, planes, &
      Italy soldiers
    • America’s Reaction
      Neutrality Act – 1937 (isolationism)
      Attracted the attention of many (Hemingway, Orwell)
      Small brigades from across the country (and the world) volunteered
      Which side do you think they took?
      Spanish Civil War “The Lincoln Brigade”
    • The Bombing of Guernica
      On with the show…
    • Guernica
      April 26, 1937 Hitler’s Condor Legion Forces (Luftwaffe) bombed the Spanish city of Guernica
    • The Story of Guernica
      It was market day in Guernica when the church bells of Santa Maria sounded the alarm that afternoon in 1937. People from the surrounding hillsides crowded the town square. "Every Monday was a fair in Guernica," says José Monasterio, eyewitness
      to the bombing. "They attacked when there were a lot of people there. And they knew when their bombing would kill the most. When there are more people, more people would die."
    • For over three hours, twenty-five or more of Germany's best-equipped bombers, accompanied by at least twenty more Messerschmitt and Fiat Fighters, dumped one hundred thousand pounds of high-explosive and incendiary bombs on the village, slowly and systematically pounding it to rubble.
    • "We were hiding in the shelters and praying. I only thought of running away, I was so scared. I didn't think about my parents, mother, house, nothing. ..
      …just escape. Because during those three and one half hours, I thought I was going to die."
      (eyewitness Luis Aurtenetxea)
    • Those trying to escape were cut down by the strafing machine guns of fighter planes. "They kept just going back and forth, sometimes in a long line, sometimes in close formation. It was as if they were practicing new moves. They must have fired thousands of bullets."
      (eyewitness Juan Guezureya)
    • The fires that engulfed the city burned for three days. Seventy percent of the town was destroyed. Sixteen hundred civilians - one third of the population - were killed or wounded.
    • News of the bombing spread like wildfire. The Nationalists immediately denied any involvement, as did the Germans. But few were fooled by Franco's protestations of innocence. In the face of international outrage at the carnage, Germany claimed publicly that the target was a bridge over the Mundaca River on the edge of town, chosen in order to cut off the fleeing Republican troops.
    • Although the Condor Legion was made up of the best airmen and planes of Hitler's developing war machine, not a single hit was scored on the presumed target, nor on the railway station, nor on the small-arms factory nearby.
    • Guernica is the cultural capital of the Basque people, seat of their centuries-old independence and democratic ideals. It has no strategic value as a military target. Yet some time later, a secret report to Berlin was uncovered stating, "...the concentrated attack on Guernica was the greatest success," making the dubious intent of the
      mission clear…
    • The all-out air attack had been ordered on Franco's behalf to break the spirited Basque resistance to Nationalist forces. Guernica had served as the testing ground for a new Nazi military tactic - blanket-bombing a civilian population to demoralize the enemy.
    • Spanish Civil War - Movies
      Pan’s Labrynth
      Butterfly (La Lengua de las Mariposas)
    • Europe Goes To War
      Blitzkrieg and Beyond…
    • Winston Churchill
      Regarding the Munich Conference in 1938:
      “Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They Chose dishonor. They will have war.”
    • Hitler’s Pact With Stalin
      Enemies – realize more to gain as allies
      August, 1939: Ten year Nonaggression Pact
      Secret clause: G & R to split states of E. Europe
    • Invasion of Poland
      March, 1939 – Britain & France promise aid to Poland (Is Hitler worried? Why?)
      September 1, 1939: Germany invaded Poland
      Blitzkrieg – “Lightening War”
      Fast, concentrated air and land attack
      Takes enemy’s army by surprise
    • Poland (cont.)
      Germany had overrun Poland in less than 1 month
      Where were Britain & France??
    • Helpless Allies
      Due to blitzkrieg, Britain & France could not mobilize quickly enough to come to the aid of Poland
      However, B & F declared war on G on Sept. 3, 1939
    • Soviet Union & Poland
      Sept. 17, 1939 - As per secret pact, Stalin invaded & seized Eastern Poland
      Sept. 19th – Poland surrendered
    • “Phony War” (aka Sitzkrieg)
      Silent period Oct. 1939-April 1940
      Germany & Soviet forces held ground
      Britain & France mobilized troops
    • Maginot Line
      A series of fortifications along the French-German border
      Provided to troops:
      Housing
      Recreational areas
      a/c
      Underground rail
    • General Patton’s Thoughts…
      “Fixed fortifications are a monument to the stupidity of man.”
      Why might he say this?
    • Two Major Problems
      Protected only the part of the French border that faced Germany
      Left France open to an attack through Belgium
      All heavy guns pointed east toward Germany
      If Germany got around the Maginot Line, the guns would be useless
    • Sitzkrieg ist Kaput
      April 9, 1940 – Germany took Denmark in days
      Norway was next
      Then blitzkrieg on:
      Netherlands
      Belgium
      Luxembourg
    • German Invasion of France
      May 1940 – went through Belgium to invade Northern France
      Raced to English Channel…why?
    • Dunkirk
      May 1940 -Britain on edge of military disaster
      German army - advanced across northern France
      British & French forces trapped
      Retreated to French port of Dunkirk
    • Bell Ringer
      When the French & British were trapped between German forces and the English Channel, to where did they retreat?
    • Dunkirk
      Hitler’s tanks were just 10 miles away
      400,000 troops backed to English Channel
      Constant air raids from Luftwaffe
      Death or capture seemed imminent
      Clip from the movie Atonement
    • What Do You Think Happened??
    • Operation Dynamo
      “On 26 May, the British Admiralty responded by launching Operation Dynamo - the evacuation of the BEF by sea. This enormous rescue mission was led by Vice Admiral Ramsay, who rounded-up a huge fleet of vessels - from tiny tugs and barges, to lifeboats and navy destroyers - to send to Dunkirk.”
      Source: BBC News, Dunkirk Remembered
    • Miracle of Dunkirk
      850 vessels – from destroyers to tugboats to fishing boats – sailed the English Channel through mines and air raids
      Smaller boats transported soldiers to ships
      Despite the loss of 235 vessels, it was a miracle
      By June 4th, over 338,000 men had been evacuated to England in one of the greatest rescues of all time
    • Allies Under Siege
      France Falls & Britain Battles
    • France Falls
      After F & B retreated from Dunkirk to B, G headed southward
      June 10, 1940 – French gov’t abandoned Paris
      June 14 – G took Paris
      June 22 – France surrendered
    • Negotiations in Paris
      Surrender terms:
      Germany occupied:
      Northern 3/5ths
      Atlantic Coast
      French gov’t supervised unoccupied zone in south – Vichy
    • Vichy, France
      Unoccupied
      Puppet government
      General Henri-Philippe Pétain
      Many helped Germans - collaboration
    • Why Collaborate??
      Many French thought that they were under German rule forever
      Accepted it as their fate – save self, families, homes
      Did all French people just give in?
    • Free France
      French gov’t exiled
      London
      French-African colonies
      Goal = liberate France
    • Gen. Charles de Gaulle
    • The French Resistance
      Underground movement
      Literally met in the catacombs & tunnels beneath Paris
      Backed by Free France & De Gaulle
      Made up of French citizens
      Propaganda distribution
      Sabotage
      Helping Allies
    • Sabotage
    • Women played an important role in the Resistance movement
    • Resistance (cont.)
      Citizens who joined the Resistance did so at their own risk
      Captured resistance members were often executed or sent to Natzweiler-Struthof Concentration Camp
    •                                                                                           
      Agence France-Presse
      A few years after his death, French leftists marched to honor the legacy of
      Guy Môquet,a 17-year-old Communist and a participant in the French Resistance, who was executed by the Nazis in 1941.
    • The Battle of Britain
      Once France fell, Hitler amassed troops on the French coast
      Britain was clearly his next target
      It was then that Winston Churchill made his famous “We Shall Never Surrender” speech
    • Churchill’s Famous Speech
      “We shall not flag nor fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France and on the seas and oceans; we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air. We shall defend our island whatever the cost may be; we shall fight on beaches, landing grounds, in fields, in streets and on the hills. We shall never surrender and if, which I do not for the moment believe, this island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, will carry on the struggle until in God's good time the New World with all its power and might, sets forth to the rescue and liberation of the Old. . “
    • Battle of Britain
      Only thing in the way of Hitler’s path to England – British Navy
      Because the B Navy was so strong, G had to use Luftwaffe first
      August 1940 – G launched on B greatest air assault world had ever seen
      Continued into September
      1,000+ planes dropped bombs on Britain daily
    • London Blitz
      What began as attacks on military targets soon turned to civilian attacks
      Late August 1940 – G bombed London
      Two nights later – B bombed Berlin
    • London Blitz
      By early Sept., Hitler ordered massive bombing raids on London & other B cities
      Used incendiary bombs
      Goal = break people’s will
      Where have you heard this before??
    • London Blitz
      Each time the Luftwaffe approached, air raid alarms would sound
      Civilians would run to the nearest bomb shelter
      Many went to “The Underground” (subway)
    • Children from London hide in a bomb shelter during the Blitz (1940-41)
    • London Blitz
      The Blitz would go off & on through May 1941
      Read p. 795-6 “The London Blitz”
    • In the End…
      18,000 tons of high explosives dropped on B over 8 months
      375,000 Londoners homeless
      Death Toll:
      18,629 men
      16,201 women
      5,028 children
      695 unidentified charred bodies
      Source: The History Place