Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
The European Industrial Revolution
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The European Industrial Revolution

3,206

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,206
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
120
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The Long 19th Century
    An Age of Industry, “Isms,” and Revolution
  • 2. Bell Ringer
    What happened to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1812?
    Discuss with partner - 30 seconds
  • 3. The Congress of Vienna
    Europe After Napoleon Bonaparte
  • 4. Congress of Vienna
    WHAT: The Congress of Vienna
    WHEN: September 1814 to June 1815
    WHO: representatives of major European powers
    WHERE: Vienna, Austria
    WHY: reorganize Europe post-Napoleon
  • 5. Congress of Vienna
    Five Great European Powers:
    • Prussia – Frederick Wilhelm III
    • 6. Russia – Tsar Alexander
    • 7. Austria – Klemens von Metternich
    • 8. Great Britain – Lord Castleraugh
    • 9. France - Tallyrand
  • Klemens von Metternich
    Influential Austrian prince
    Distrusted democracy
    Plan to restore Europe
  • 10. Von Metternich’s Plan
    3 Main Goals:
    Legitimacy
    Napoleon had overthrown all kings & replaced with his family members
    Original monarchies
    restored
    Louis XVIII of France
  • 11. Von Metternich’s Plan
    2. Contain France
    Napoleon was power hungry & had instilled strong sense of nationalism in France
    Many surrounding countries felt threatened
    VM, gave back power to countries surrounding France (containment)
  • 12. Napoleon’s Europe
    COV’s Europe
  • 13. Von Metternich’s Plan
    3. Balance of Power
    Weaken France, but not too much
    No one country too powerful
    This ensured no one country could easily overpower another (like Napoleon had done)
  • 14. Alliance System
    Nations would help each other if revolutions broke out
  • 15. More Challenges
    1820s full of rebellions that challenged COV
    Spain, Portugal & Italy demanded constitutional gov’ts
    Von Metternich urged conservatives to crush them
    Slowed things down, but did not stop them
    By mid 1800s, the socialists of the Industrial Revolution were pushing workers to rebel
  • 16. The French Revolutions of 1830 & 1848
  • 17. Restoration of Monarchy
    • Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII (18th)
    • 18. Émigrés returned (not happy)
    • 19. Émigré nobles & high clergy wanted Old Regime(ultraroyalists)
    • 20. Faced opposition
  • Liberals in France
    Wanted for middle class:
    Suffrage
    Power in gov’t
    Republic
    Decent pay for working class
    Food for all
  • 21. Charles X
    Louis XVIII – died in 1824
    Successor – Charles X (brother)
    Charles X wanted absolutism
    Rejected proposed charter (constitution)
  • 22. The July Revolution - 1830
    July 1830 – Charles X:
    Suspended legislature
    Limited right to vote
    Restricted press
    Naturally, what happened?
  • 23. Response
    • Revolt in Paris
    • 24. Citizens put up barricades
    • 25. Attacked king’s soldiers
    • 26. Within days, rebels controlled Paris
    • 27. Charles abdicated & fled to England
  • Republic or Constitutional Monarchy?
    Radical rebels wanted a republic
    Moderates wanted a constitutional monarchy
    Moderates got their way…
  • 28. Louis Philippe
    Chosen as king
    Cousin of Charles X
    Young, more liberal-minded
    Supported the 1789 revolution
  • 29. The Citizen King
    Nickname for Louis Philippe
    Owed the throne to the French citizens
    Was “one of them”
    Got along well
    Dressed down (frock coat & top hat)
    Walked the streets
    Extended suffrage, but…
  • 30. Problems
    Policies favored the wealthier bourgeoisie – often at the expense of the working class
    Extended suffrage to the wealthiest citizens
    Most people – no suffrage
  • 31. Discontent
    Radicals went underground – worked toward Republic
    Many began to accuse Louis Philippe of corruption
    Demand for universal suffrage
  • 32. Economic Slump
    By 1848:
    Many factories shut down
    Poor harvests
    Unemployment
    Bread prices soared
    Sound familiar??
  • 33. February Days (1848)
    Gov’t tried to stop public meetings
    Angry crowds sang La Marseillaise & built blockades out of:
    Iron rails
    Overturned carts
    Paving stones
    Toppled trees
  • 34. February Days (cont.)
    Clashed with troops
    52 rebels killed
  • 35. Results of February Days
    Louis Philippe abdicated
    Liberals, radicals, socialists, claimed the Second Republic of France
    Currently (since 1958) France is on its Fifth…
  • 36. A Republic Divided
    Deep differences
    Bourgeois liberals – constitution/political reform
    Socialists – social & economic reform
    Set up national workshops – provided work for unemployed
  • 37. June Days
    Bourgeoisie won control of gov’t
    Got rid of workshops
    Ticked off the Socialists & workers
    Workers – “Bread or Lead!”
  • 38. More Violence
    Bourgeoisie – attacked protestors
    1500 killed before gov’t crushed rebellion
    Left a deep mistrust between the bourgeoisie and the working class
  • 39. Constitution
    By end of 1848, National Assembly had created a constitution
    Strong president
    Unicameral legislature
    Universal manhood suffrage
  • 40. Election
    Over 9 million could vote (up from 200,000)
    Elected Louis Napoleon
    Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte
    Appealed to liberals – sympathy for working class
    Appealed to conservatives – name = restore order
  • 41. Buh-Bye Republic
    Louis Napoleon – crowned self emperor (1852)
    Proclaimed self Napoleon III
    Ended Second Republic (began Second Empire)
  • 42.
  • 43. The Age of Industry and Isms
    The Industrial Revolution &
    The Age of Ideology
  • 44. Bell Ringer
    What was the Congress of Vienna, and what was its purpose?
    Discuss with partner
    1 minute
  • 45. Introduction
    The Industrial Revolution impacted:
    Technology
    Economics
    Society
    Politics
  • 46. Industrial Revolution
    Change from using hand methods to machine methods to produce goods
    Result of the:
    Agricultural revolution
    Population explosion
    Began in Great Britain - Why?
    Natural resources
    Human resources
    Capital & demand
    Political & social conditions
    technology
  • 47. Technology
  • 48. Laissez-Faire Economics
    Adam Smith
    Free market
    $ more goods at lower price
    $ no government involved
    Capitalism = driving force of the industrial age
  • 49. Thomas Malthus
    Englishman
    “Essay on the Principle of Population” (1798)
    Poverty & misery  population growing faster than food supply
    Shaped economic thinking
  • 50. Urbanization
  • 51. Working Class Life
  • 52. Industrial Town Life
  • 53. Authors
    Amandine Auror Dupon
    (George Sand)
    Charles Dickens
    Émile Zola
  • 54. Middle Class
  • 55. Domestic Service
  • 56. Mining
  • 57. Factory Conditions
  • 58. Factory Dangers
  • 59. Protests & Unions
  • 60. Child Labor
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65.
  • 66.
  • 67. Workhouses
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70.
  • 71. Mo Money, Mo Problems
    • Larger gap between rich and poor - not only economically, but also politically & socially
    • 72. 19th Century = new ways of
    • 73. Thinking
    • 74. Believing
    • 75. Looking at the world
  • 19th Century “Isms”
    “ism” = belief or ideology
    2 basic ways to define any ideology:
    What does it oppose?
    What does it advocate?
  • 76. Utilitarianism
    Jeremy Bentham
    Opposed: Existing legal systems (harmed people they should serve)
    Advocated: The greatest happiness for the greatest number
  • 77. Liberalism
    John Stuart Mill
    “Individual Liberty and Social Control” (1859)
    Advocated: a way for people and government to coexist without
    Harming majority
    Stifling individuality
  • 78. Liberalism (cont.)
    Opposed:
    Use of force to compel citizens to believe something
    Inequality
    People not helping society/others
    Government & church interference
  • 79. Emergence of Socialism
    Opposed laissez-faire (capitalism)
    Said it created poverty, inequality & injustice
    Way to combat the evils of capitalism – socialism
  • 80. Socialism
    Advocated a society in which the people as a whole, rather than private individuals, owned and operated means of production that produced & distributed goods
    Farms
    Factories
    Railways
    Big business
  • 81. Utopians
    • Early socialists
    • 82. Built self-sufficient communities
    • 83. All shared workload
    • 84. Common property
    • 85. If gap between rich & poor disappeared, fighting would cease
    • 86. All live as peaceful, happy family – a “Utopia”
  • Robert Owen
    Utopian Socialist
    Successful mill owner
    Refused child labor
    Campaigned for child labor laws
    Encouraged labor unions
  • 87. Owen’s Utopia
    Believed that living conditions shaped people’s character
    New Lanark, Scotland factory – model
    Built homes
    Opened a school
    Treated employees well
    Point: one could still make money while providing decent conditions for workers
  • 88. Karl Marx
    German philosopher
    Father of Communism
    Worked for reform with Friedrich Engels
    1848 – “The Communist Manifesto”
  • 89. Friedrich Engles
    Communism is a form of socialism that sees class struggle between the employer & employees as inevitable
  • 90. How it Works…
    Economics = driving force behind history
    History is a series of class struggles:
  • 91. End of History
    Marx theorized that history would end with communism
    Why?
  • 92. End of History
    Communism would end the struggles of the past because wealth and power would be equally shared
  • 93. Weakness & Impact
    Claimed to be based on “scientific law”
    Predicted worldwide misery & revolution (was wrong)
    Not popular in 1848, but would have major impact
    Influenced many governments & is active today
  • 94. SPW: Interpreting Marx
    “ The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite!”
    Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto
  • 95. Homework: STUDY!!
    QUIZ next class period!
    Industrial Revolution
    Define/describe
    Origins
    Problems (social,
    economic & political)
    “Isms” – Ideologies & People
    Utilitarianism
    Liberalism
    Socialism
    Communism (Know how this works!!)

×