The European Industrial Revolution

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The European Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. The Long 19th Century<br />An Age of Industry, “Isms,” and Revolution<br />
  2. 2. Bell Ringer<br /> What happened to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1812?<br />Discuss with partner - 30 seconds <br />
  3. 3. The Congress of Vienna<br />Europe After Napoleon Bonaparte<br />
  4. 4. Congress of Vienna <br />WHAT: The Congress of Vienna<br />WHEN: September 1814 to June 1815<br />WHO: representatives of major European powers <br />WHERE: Vienna, Austria<br />WHY: reorganize Europe post-Napoleon<br />
  5. 5. Congress of Vienna<br />Five Great European Powers:<br /><ul><li>Prussia – Frederick Wilhelm III
  6. 6. Russia – Tsar Alexander
  7. 7. Austria – Klemens von Metternich
  8. 8. Great Britain – Lord Castleraugh
  9. 9. France - Tallyrand</li></li></ul><li>Klemens von Metternich<br />Influential Austrian prince<br />Distrusted democracy<br />Plan to restore Europe<br />
  10. 10. Von Metternich’s Plan<br />3 Main Goals:<br />Legitimacy<br />Napoleon had overthrown all kings & replaced with his family members<br />Original monarchies <br /> restored<br />Louis XVIII of France<br />
  11. 11. Von Metternich’s Plan<br />2. Contain France<br />Napoleon was power hungry & had instilled strong sense of nationalism in France<br />Many surrounding countries felt threatened<br />VM, gave back power to countries surrounding France (containment) <br />
  12. 12. Napoleon’s Europe<br />COV’s Europe<br />
  13. 13. Von Metternich’s Plan<br />3. Balance of Power<br />Weaken France, but not too much<br />No one country too powerful <br />This ensured no one country could easily overpower another (like Napoleon had done)<br />
  14. 14. Alliance System<br />Nations would help each other if revolutions broke out<br />
  15. 15. More Challenges<br />1820s full of rebellions that challenged COV<br />Spain, Portugal & Italy demanded constitutional gov’ts<br />Von Metternich urged conservatives to crush them<br />Slowed things down, but did not stop them<br />By mid 1800s, the socialists of the Industrial Revolution were pushing workers to rebel<br />
  16. 16. The French Revolutions of 1830 & 1848<br />
  17. 17. Restoration of Monarchy<br /><ul><li>Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII (18th)
  18. 18. Émigrés returned (not happy)
  19. 19. Émigré nobles & high clergy wanted Old Regime(ultraroyalists)
  20. 20. Faced opposition</li></li></ul><li>Liberals in France<br />Wanted for middle class:<br />Suffrage<br />Power in gov’t<br />Republic<br />Decent pay for working class<br />Food for all<br />
  21. 21. Charles X<br />Louis XVIII – died in 1824<br />Successor – Charles X (brother)<br />Charles X wanted absolutism<br />Rejected proposed charter (constitution)<br />
  22. 22. The July Revolution - 1830<br />July 1830 – Charles X:<br />Suspended legislature<br />Limited right to vote<br />Restricted press<br />Naturally, what happened?<br />
  23. 23. Response <br /><ul><li>Revolt in Paris
  24. 24. Citizens put up barricades
  25. 25. Attacked king’s soldiers
  26. 26. Within days, rebels controlled Paris
  27. 27. Charles abdicated & fled to England</li></li></ul><li>Republic or Constitutional Monarchy?<br />Radical rebels wanted a republic<br />Moderates wanted a constitutional monarchy<br />Moderates got their way…<br />
  28. 28. Louis Philippe<br />Chosen as king<br />Cousin of Charles X<br />Young, more liberal-minded<br />Supported the 1789 revolution<br />
  29. 29. The Citizen King<br />Nickname for Louis Philippe<br />Owed the throne to the French citizens<br />Was “one of them”<br />Got along well <br />Dressed down (frock coat & top hat)<br />Walked the streets<br />Extended suffrage, but…<br />
  30. 30. Problems<br />Policies favored the wealthier bourgeoisie – often at the expense of the working class<br />Extended suffrage to the wealthiest citizens<br />Most people – no suffrage<br />
  31. 31. Discontent<br />Radicals went underground – worked toward Republic<br />Many began to accuse Louis Philippe of corruption<br />Demand for universal suffrage<br />
  32. 32. Economic Slump<br />By 1848:<br />Many factories shut down<br />Poor harvests<br />Unemployment<br />Bread prices soared<br />Sound familiar??<br />
  33. 33. February Days (1848)<br />Gov’t tried to stop public meetings<br />Angry crowds sang La Marseillaise & built blockades out of:<br />Iron rails<br />Overturned carts<br />Paving stones<br />Toppled trees<br />
  34. 34. February Days (cont.)<br />Clashed with troops<br />52 rebels killed<br />
  35. 35. Results of February Days<br />Louis Philippe abdicated<br />Liberals, radicals, socialists, claimed the Second Republic of France<br />Currently (since 1958) France is on its Fifth…<br />
  36. 36. A Republic Divided<br />Deep differences<br />Bourgeois liberals – constitution/political reform<br />Socialists – social & economic reform<br />Set up national workshops – provided work for unemployed<br />
  37. 37. June Days<br />Bourgeoisie won control of gov’t<br />Got rid of workshops<br />Ticked off the Socialists & workers<br /> Workers – “Bread or Lead!”<br />
  38. 38. More Violence<br />Bourgeoisie – attacked protestors<br />1500 killed before gov’t crushed rebellion<br />Left a deep mistrust between the bourgeoisie and the working class<br />
  39. 39. Constitution<br />By end of 1848, National Assembly had created a constitution<br />Strong president<br />Unicameral legislature<br />Universal manhood suffrage<br />
  40. 40. Election<br />Over 9 million could vote (up from 200,000)<br />Elected Louis Napoleon<br />Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte<br />Appealed to liberals – sympathy for working class<br />Appealed to conservatives – name = restore order<br />
  41. 41. Buh-Bye Republic<br />Louis Napoleon – crowned self emperor (1852)<br />Proclaimed self Napoleon III<br />Ended Second Republic (began Second Empire)<br />
  42. 42.
  43. 43. The Age of Industry and Isms<br />The Industrial Revolution & <br />The Age of Ideology<br />
  44. 44. Bell Ringer<br />What was the Congress of Vienna, and what was its purpose?<br />Discuss with partner<br />1 minute<br />
  45. 45. Introduction<br />The Industrial Revolution impacted:<br />Technology<br />Economics<br />Society<br />Politics<br />
  46. 46. Industrial Revolution<br />Change from using hand methods to machine methods to produce goods<br />Result of the:<br />Agricultural revolution <br />Population explosion<br />Began in Great Britain - Why?<br />Natural resources<br />Human resources<br />Capital & demand<br />Political & social conditions<br />technology<br />
  47. 47. Technology<br />
  48. 48. Laissez-Faire Economics<br />Adam Smith<br />Free market<br />$ more goods at lower price<br />$ no government involved<br />Capitalism = driving force of the industrial age<br />
  49. 49. Thomas Malthus<br />Englishman<br />“Essay on the Principle of Population” (1798)<br />Poverty & misery  population growing faster than food supply<br />Shaped economic thinking<br />
  50. 50. Urbanization<br />
  51. 51. Working Class Life<br />
  52. 52. Industrial Town Life<br />
  53. 53. Authors<br />Amandine Auror Dupon<br />(George Sand)<br />Charles Dickens<br />Émile Zola<br />
  54. 54. Middle Class<br />
  55. 55. Domestic Service<br />
  56. 56. Mining<br />
  57. 57. Factory Conditions<br />
  58. 58. Factory Dangers<br />
  59. 59. Protests & Unions<br />
  60. 60. Child Labor<br />
  61. 61.
  62. 62.
  63. 63.
  64. 64.
  65. 65.
  66. 66.
  67. 67. Workhouses<br />
  68. 68.
  69. 69.
  70. 70.
  71. 71. Mo Money, Mo Problems<br /><ul><li>Larger gap between rich and poor - not only economically, but also politically & socially
  72. 72. 19th Century = new ways of
  73. 73. Thinking
  74. 74. Believing
  75. 75. Looking at the world</li></li></ul><li>19th Century “Isms”<br />“ism” = belief or ideology<br />2 basic ways to define any ideology:<br />What does it oppose?<br />What does it advocate?<br />
  76. 76. Utilitarianism<br />Jeremy Bentham<br />Opposed: Existing legal systems (harmed people they should serve)<br />Advocated: The greatest happiness for the greatest number<br />
  77. 77. Liberalism<br />John Stuart Mill<br />“Individual Liberty and Social Control” (1859)<br />Advocated: a way for people and government to coexist without<br />Harming majority<br />Stifling individuality<br />
  78. 78. Liberalism (cont.)<br />Opposed:<br />Use of force to compel citizens to believe something<br />Inequality<br />People not helping society/others<br />Government & church interference <br />
  79. 79. Emergence of Socialism<br />Opposed laissez-faire (capitalism)<br />Said it created poverty, inequality & injustice<br />Way to combat the evils of capitalism – socialism<br />
  80. 80. Socialism<br />Advocated a society in which the people as a whole, rather than private individuals, owned and operated means of production that produced & distributed goods<br />Farms<br />Factories<br />Railways<br />Big business<br />
  81. 81. Utopians<br /><ul><li>Early socialists
  82. 82. Built self-sufficient communities
  83. 83. All shared workload
  84. 84. Common property
  85. 85. If gap between rich & poor disappeared, fighting would cease
  86. 86. All live as peaceful, happy family – a “Utopia”</li></li></ul><li>Robert Owen<br />Utopian Socialist<br />Successful mill owner<br />Refused child labor<br />Campaigned for child labor laws<br />Encouraged labor unions<br />
  87. 87. Owen’s Utopia<br />Believed that living conditions shaped people’s character<br />New Lanark, Scotland factory – model<br />Built homes<br />Opened a school<br />Treated employees well<br />Point: one could still make money while providing decent conditions for workers<br />
  88. 88. Karl Marx<br />German philosopher<br />Father of Communism<br />Worked for reform with Friedrich Engels<br />1848 – “The Communist Manifesto” <br />
  89. 89. Friedrich Engles<br />Communism is a form of socialism that sees class struggle between the employer & employees as inevitable<br />
  90. 90. How it Works…<br />Economics = driving force behind history<br />History is a series of class struggles:<br />
  91. 91. End of History<br />Marx theorized that history would end with communism<br />Why?<br />
  92. 92. End of History<br />Communism would end the struggles of the past because wealth and power would be equally shared<br />
  93. 93. Weakness & Impact<br />Claimed to be based on “scientific law”<br />Predicted worldwide misery & revolution (was wrong)<br />Not popular in 1848, but would have major impact<br />Influenced many governments & is active today<br />
  94. 94. SPW: Interpreting Marx<br />“ The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite!”<br />Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto <br />
  95. 95. Homework: STUDY!!<br />QUIZ next class period!<br />Industrial Revolution <br />Define/describe<br />Origins<br />Problems (social, <br /> economic & political)<br /> “Isms” – Ideologies & People<br />Utilitarianism<br />Liberalism<br />Socialism<br />Communism (Know how this works!!)<br />

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