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RETAKING eUROPE<br />WWII<br />1941-1945<br />
Bell Ringer<br />Who were the Nisei?<br />30 seconds<br />Tell your partner<br />
Mobilization<br />Selective Training & Services Act (draft, 21-36)<br />GI = abbreviation for “Government Issue”<br />FDR ...
Battle for the Atlantic1939-1943<br />Germany used submarine warfare<br />U-Boats<br />Allies used convoy system<br />US, ...
North Africa Campaign<br />1942 – US joins GB in North Africa<br />Under command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower<br />What...
Outcomes of North African Campaign<br />The Germans had wasted valuable resources in an indecisive theater <br />Mussolini...
Italian Campaign<br />North Africa – now controlled by Allies<br />July 1943: Allies move onto Italy<br />Commander: Gener...
Sicily<br />First: Invasion of Sicily, then onto the mainland<br />
Mussolini<br />The presence of the Allies on the mainland caused Italians to lose faith in Mussolini<br />1943: Fascist co...
Germans to the Rescue<br />Fascist Party – disbanded<br />Germany – freed Mussolini<br />Mussolini – taken to Northern Ita...
A Change of Heart<br />Sept. 1943 – Allies threatened to overrun Southern Italy and take Rome<br />Italy’s new government ...
The Battle for Cassino<br />Italian town – key to German defense<br />Only thing between Allies & Rome<br />January 1944 –...
(Final) Fall of Mussolini<br />Allies fought in Italy through April 1945<br />Germany surrendered<br />Mussolini tried to ...
War in the Soviet Union<br />
What Happened?<br />
Elbow Room<br />Hitler broke pact (surprise, surprise)<br />In Mein Kampf Hitler called for conquest of Russia so Germans ...
Red Army Mobilized<br />Soviet Union – no match for Axis Powers<br />Stalin asked Allies for help<br />FDR sent support (L...
The Battle for Stalingrad<br />August 22, 1942 – Siege of Stalingrad (Volgograd) begins<br />Why?<br />Industrial city <br...
The Battle for Stalingrad<br />Battle for Stalingrad Clip<br />
Statistics of Stalingrad<br />Considered the bloodiest battle in history (2 million die)<br />Stalin authorized the shooti...
Outcomes<br />Soviets eventually won the battle after approximately 200 days<br />Major turning point in war b/c Soviets t...
D-DAY<br />
Allied Air War<br />RAF<br />Carpet bombing<br />Heavy damage to German cities<br />American Air Force<br />B-17 “Flying F...
Invasion of Western Europe<br />Stalin & others called for Allied invasion<br />Operation Overlord<br />Launch from GB<br ...
Who Helped?<br />Massive military build up in Southern GB<br />Americans, British, & Canadians aided by Polish, Dutch, Bel...
Calais<br />   “Although the use of fraud in any action is detestable, in the combat of war it is praiseworthy  and glorio...
Bell Ringer<br />	How did the Allies deceive the Germans at Calais?<br />1 minute<br />Discuss with Partner<br />
D-Day: June 6, 1944<br />4,600 invasion craft & warships left for Normandy<br />23,000 airborne British & American paratro...
Saving Private Ryan<br />What was it like on the beaches of Normandy on D-Day?<br />
Success<br />Heavy casualties of Allied troops<br />Within 1 week, a half million troops in France<br />By late July, Alli...
Omaha Beach, Normandy<br />
Omaha Beach, Normandy<br />
Omaha Beach, Normandy<br />
	“Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory”<br />
THIS EMBATTLED SHORE, PORTAL OF FREEDOM,<br />IS FOREVER HALLOWED BY THE IDEALS,<br />THE VALOR AND THE SACRIFICES<br />OF...
Pointe du Hoc, Normandy<br />
German Bunker, Omaha Beach, Normandy<br />
German Artillery - 7 miles from Omaha Beach<br />
American Cemetery, Normandy<br />
The Switalas at the American Cemetery, Normandy<br />
Uncle Edward’s Grave, American Cemetery, Normandy<br />
Closure<br />	What was the purpose of Operation Overlord & how was this accomplished?<br />Discuss with Partner<br />
Bell Ringer<br />	Describe the challenges Allied troops faced during Operation Overlord.<br />Discuss with Partner - each ...
Liberating France<br />After D-Day Allies fought their way across Northern France<br />French Resistance started an uprisi...
Activity<br />Primary Source Document: The Liberation of Paris, 1944<br />
Liberation<br />August 25, 1944<br />French division of US Army liberated Paris from Nazis<br />
New French Government<br />Charles de Gaulle<br />Arrived August 25th and took control<br />
Vichy after Liberation<br />The Vichy government was exiled<br />Collaborators were purged<br />Women - heads shaved (publ...
Initially, many collaborators were executed<br />
Overall…<br />Collaborators were tried in a court of law<br />6,763 sentenced to death (only 791 carried out)<br />49,723 ...
The Battle of the Bulge<br />
Battle of the Bulge<br />December 16, 1944 – January 25, 1945<br />Ardennes Forest, Belgium<br />Heaviest fighting in Bast...
Battle of the Bulge (cont.)<br />Germany attacked America in the Ardennes, pushing them back<br />This caused a “bulge” in...
Fighting the Odds<br />Air drops unsuccessful (heavy fog):<br />Short on food<br />Short on supplies<br />Short on ammo<br...
Band of Brothers<br />Easy Co. moved into Ardennes near Bastogne with no artillery or air support<br />Short on everything...
Outcomes<br />The weather eventually cleared & US troops got much needed supplies<br />Reinforcements came in <br />Americ...
The Battle of Berlin<br />April 20, 1945 - May 2, 1945<br />Final major offensive of WWII<br />Allies surrounded Berlin<br />
The End of Hitler<br />Mid-January 1945 - holed up at the “Fürerbunker”<br />April 29, 1945 - Hitler married long-time gir...
V-E Day<br />May 8, 1945 = V-E Day (Victory in Europe)<br />Allies accepted Germany’s unconditional surrender<br />
Closure<br />How did the Battle of Berlin end?<br />Discuss with your Partner<br />30 seconds<br />
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Retaking Europe

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Transcript of "Retaking Europe"

  1. 1. RETAKING eUROPE<br />WWII<br />1941-1945<br />
  2. 2. Bell Ringer<br />Who were the Nisei?<br />30 seconds<br />Tell your partner<br />
  3. 3. Mobilization<br />Selective Training & Services Act (draft, 21-36)<br />GI = abbreviation for “Government Issue”<br />FDR prepared the country for war<br />War Production Board – rationed gasoline, heating oil, rubber, paper, metals, & plastics<br />
  4. 4. Battle for the Atlantic1939-1943<br />Germany used submarine warfare<br />U-Boats<br />Allies used convoy system<br />US, GB, CAN<br />Secure trade routes & transport troops = priority<br />Both battled to <br /> control the Atlantic<br />
  5. 5. North Africa Campaign<br />1942 – US joins GB in North Africa<br />Under command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower<br />What types of challenges may the soldiers have faced in the desert?<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Outcomes of North African Campaign<br />The Germans had wasted valuable resources in an indecisive theater <br />Mussolini was severely weakened domestically <br />The Americans learned from their poor performance and made the necessary changes <br />The British and American coalition weathered a potentially threatening storm <br />
  8. 8. Italian Campaign<br />North Africa – now controlled by Allies<br />July 1943: Allies move onto Italy<br />Commander: General George S. Patton<br />
  9. 9. Sicily<br />First: Invasion of Sicily, then onto the mainland<br />
  10. 10. Mussolini<br />The presence of the Allies on the mainland caused Italians to lose faith in Mussolini<br />1943: Fascist council voted to remove Mus from office<br />King Victor Emmanuel III had <br /> Mus arrested<br />Was this the end of Mussolini???<br />
  11. 11. Germans to the Rescue<br />Fascist Party – disbanded<br />Germany – freed Mussolini<br />Mussolini – taken to Northern Italy<br />Became puppet ruler<br />
  12. 12. A Change of Heart<br />Sept. 1943 – Allies threatened to overrun Southern Italy and take Rome<br />Italy’s new government surrendered<br />Oct. 13, 1943: Italy declared war on Germany<br />German troops resisted<br />Blocked roads<br />Destroyed bridges<br />
  13. 13. The Battle for Cassino<br />Italian town – key to German defense<br />Only thing between Allies & Rome<br />January 1944 – May 1944<br />Allies sustained heavy losses<br />Ultimately victorious<br />Captured Cassino, then Rome<br />
  14. 14. (Final) Fall of Mussolini<br />Allies fought in Italy through April 1945<br />Germany surrendered<br />Mussolini tried to escape<br />Italians shot and killed him – but that’s not all…<br />
  15. 15. War in the Soviet Union<br />
  16. 16. What Happened?<br />
  17. 17. Elbow Room<br />Hitler broke pact (surprise, surprise)<br />In Mein Kampf Hitler called for conquest of Russia so Germans would have “living space” (Lebensraum)<br />It didn’t hurt that Russia had huge oil fields in the north…<br />June 22, 1941 Germany advanced through Eastern Europe (Finland, Romania, Ukraine)<br />
  18. 18. Red Army Mobilized<br />Soviet Union – no match for Axis Powers<br />Stalin asked Allies for help<br />FDR sent support (Lend-Lease Program)<br />Soviets really needed man power, but that was not to be<br />
  19. 19. The Battle for Stalingrad<br />August 22, 1942 – Siege of Stalingrad (Volgograd) begins<br />Why?<br />Industrial city <br />On the Volga River – major transport route from the Caspian Sea to Northern Russia<br />Namesake of Stalin – psychological effect<br />It is the only (major) city that stands in the way of Hitler reaching the oil fields of Asia !!!!<br />
  20. 20. The Battle for Stalingrad<br />Battle for Stalingrad Clip<br />
  21. 21. Statistics of Stalingrad<br />Considered the bloodiest battle in history (2 million die)<br />Stalin authorized the shootingof any retreating Soviet troops<br />Life expectancy of Soviet soldier entering the city =2.5 hours<br />
  22. 22. Outcomes<br />Soviets eventually won the battle after approximately 200 days<br />Major turning point in war b/c Soviets then go on the offensive and never stop until Berlin is captured and the war is over<br />
  23. 23. D-DAY<br />
  24. 24. Allied Air War<br />RAF<br />Carpet bombing<br />Heavy damage to German cities<br />American Air Force<br />B-17 “Flying Fortress”<br />Targeted German aircraft<br />factories, railways, bridges,<br />and cities<br />1944 – British & Amer.<br /> coordinated attacks in <br /> preparation for…<br />
  25. 25. Invasion of Western Europe<br />Stalin & others called for Allied invasion<br />Operation Overlord<br />Launch from GB<br />Supreme commander – General Eisenhower<br />
  26. 26. Who Helped?<br />Massive military build up in Southern GB<br />Americans, British, & Canadians aided by Polish, Dutch, Belgian, & French<br />
  27. 27. Calais<br /> “Although the use of fraud in any action is detestable, in the combat of war it is praiseworthy and glorious. And a man who uses fraud to overcome his enemy is praised, just as much as he who overcomes his enemy by force.”<br /> Machiavelli, 1531<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Bell Ringer<br /> How did the Allies deceive the Germans at Calais?<br />1 minute<br />Discuss with Partner<br />
  31. 31.
  32. 32. D-Day: June 6, 1944<br />4,600 invasion craft & warships left for Normandy<br />23,000 airborne British & American paratroopers – nighttime invasion<br />Amphibious invasion began along 60 miles of the Normandy coast<br />Largest landing by sea in history<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Saving Private Ryan<br />What was it like on the beaches of Normandy on D-Day?<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Success<br />Heavy casualties of Allied troops<br />Within 1 week, a half million troops in France<br />By late July, Allied forces in France totaled around 2 million troops<br />
  37. 37. Omaha Beach, Normandy<br />
  38. 38. Omaha Beach, Normandy<br />
  39. 39. Omaha Beach, Normandy<br />
  40. 40. “Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory”<br />
  41. 41. THIS EMBATTLED SHORE, PORTAL OF FREEDOM,<br />IS FOREVER HALLOWED BY THE IDEALS,<br />THE VALOR AND THE SACRIFICES<br />OF OUR FELLOW COUNTRYMEN<br />
  42. 42. Pointe du Hoc, Normandy<br />
  43. 43. German Bunker, Omaha Beach, Normandy<br />
  44. 44. German Artillery - 7 miles from Omaha Beach<br />
  45. 45.
  46. 46. American Cemetery, Normandy<br />
  47. 47. The Switalas at the American Cemetery, Normandy<br />
  48. 48. Uncle Edward’s Grave, American Cemetery, Normandy<br />
  49. 49. Closure<br /> What was the purpose of Operation Overlord & how was this accomplished?<br />Discuss with Partner<br />
  50. 50. Bell Ringer<br /> Describe the challenges Allied troops faced during Operation Overlord.<br />Discuss with Partner - each naming a different challenge<br />1 minute<br />
  51. 51. Liberating France<br />After D-Day Allies fought their way across Northern France<br />French Resistance started an uprising in Paris<br />August 22, 1944<br />Tens of thousands of French set up over 600 barricades<br />Intense fighting – hundreds of French died<br />
  52. 52. Activity<br />Primary Source Document: The Liberation of Paris, 1944<br />
  53. 53. Liberation<br />August 25, 1944<br />French division of US Army liberated Paris from Nazis<br />
  54. 54.
  55. 55. New French Government<br />Charles de Gaulle<br />Arrived August 25th and took control<br />
  56. 56. Vichy after Liberation<br />The Vichy government was exiled<br />Collaborators were purged<br />Women - heads shaved (public humiliation) <br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58. Initially, many collaborators were executed<br />
  59. 59. Overall…<br />Collaborators were tried in a court of law<br />6,763 sentenced to death (only 791 carried out)<br />49,723 - “National degradation” (stripped of civil rights)<br />Pétain<br />Initially sentenced to death by firing squad for treason (1945)<br />De Gaulle commuted that sentence to life in prison<br />Died disgraced in prison (natural causes) in 1951<br />
  60. 60. The Battle of the Bulge<br />
  61. 61. Battle of the Bulge<br />December 16, 1944 – January 25, 1945<br />Ardennes Forest, Belgium<br />Heaviest fighting in Bastogne<br />
  62. 62. Battle of the Bulge (cont.)<br />Germany attacked America in the Ardennes, pushing them back<br />This caused a “bulge” in the advancing line of American soldiers<br />Coldest winter in 50 years<br />25 of 41 days = below 0 degrees<br />Bloodiest battle of WWII for Americans<br />Apx. 80,000 of 600,000 GI casualties<br />
  63. 63. Fighting the Odds<br />Air drops unsuccessful (heavy fog):<br />Short on food<br />Short on supplies<br />Short on ammo<br />No proper winter clothes<br />Surrounded by Germans<br />
  64. 64. Band of Brothers<br />Easy Co. moved into Ardennes near Bastogne with no artillery or air support<br />Short on everything, the medic, Cpl. Eugene “Doc” Roe, scrambles to do his job<br />He has been back and forth to Bastogne with injured soldiers and has forged a friendship with a Belgian nurse<br />It is Christmas when the clip opens<br />
  65. 65. Outcomes<br />The weather eventually cleared & US troops got much needed supplies<br />Reinforcements came in <br />Americans were victorious<br />This gave Allied troops the ability to cross the Rhine – why was that a big deal?<br />
  66. 66. The Battle of Berlin<br />April 20, 1945 - May 2, 1945<br />Final major offensive of WWII<br />Allies surrounded Berlin<br />
  67. 67. The End of Hitler<br />Mid-January 1945 - holed up at the “Fürerbunker”<br />April 29, 1945 - Hitler married long-time girlfriend Eva Braun<br />April 30, 1945 - Hitler, Eva, and other followers committed suicide<br />Cyanide & gunshot <br />
  68. 68. V-E Day<br />May 8, 1945 = V-E Day (Victory in Europe)<br />Allies accepted Germany’s unconditional surrender<br />
  69. 69. Closure<br />How did the Battle of Berlin end?<br />Discuss with your Partner<br />30 seconds<br />
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