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Religious Crises in Europe

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  • 1. Religious Crises in Europe
    “Ding dong the witch is dead…”
  • 2. Spanish Inquisition
    1478-1834
    Targeted Jews, Moors (Spanish Muslims) & to some extent Protestants
    Religious & Political Purposes:
    Religious: to rid Spain of non-Catholics (heretics)
    Political: to gain land (increase state revenue without raising taxes)
  • 3. Spanish Inquisition
    Synonymous with bloody, torturous reign of terror
    Responsible for countless executions
    Video: Spanish Inquisition
  • 4. Militant Catholicism in Spain
    Phillip II (r. 1556-1598)
    Son of HRE Charles V
    Championed Catholic causes throughout Europe
    Waged Holy Wars
    The “Most Catholic King”
  • 5. Spain & the Netherlands
    Spanish Netherlands (today’s Netherlands & Belgium)
    Phillip tried to:
    Tighten his control
    Crush Calvinism
    Dutch rebelled violently (1566-1609)
    Led by William the Silent (prince of Orange)
    Ended with truce that created the modern Dutch state
  • 6. Spain vs. England
    England Under Elizabeth I
    Golden Age
    Moderate Protestant (some degree of tolerance for Catholics)
    Goal (foreign policy) - to maintain a balance of power
    Spain & France = biggest threats
    Would support whichever was weaker
  • 7. Holy War
    Phillip II declared Holy War on Elizabeth I (1588)
    Why?
    Spain vs. England (political)
    Phillip II vs. Elizabeth I (personal)
    Catholicism vs. Protestantism (religious)
  • 8. The Spanish Armada
    Spanish Armada set sail to invade England
    Most powerful Navy in the world
    English met them in the English Channel (their only hope to impede a land invasion)
    England & Elizabeth face likely disaster…
    Movie Clip from “Elizabeth: The Golden Age”
  • 9. Defeat of the Spanish Armada
    Why did Spain lose?
    Superstitious answer: God liked Protestants more
    Realistic answers:
    Spanish not used to rough waters of the Channel
    England used fire ships to divide the Armada & burn many of its ships
    Weather favored English cause – storms ravaged the surviving Spanish ships near Scotland & Ireland
  • 10. Witchcraft Trials
    Spanish Inquisition & hunt for heretics led to witch hunts
    16th-17th C. - witch hysteria
    100,000+ charged, tortured & killed
  • 11. Witches
    Who was accused?
    Commoners (poor)
    Apx. 75% women
    Single or widowed
    Over 50
  • 12. Witch Trials In Europe
    Handout
  • 13. Thirty Years War
    • 1618-1648
    • 14. Series of declared & undeclared wars
    • 15. Austrian & Spanish Hapsburgs vs.
    • 16. Danish
    • 17. Dutch
    • 18. France
    • 19. Sweden
    • 20. Some German principalities (civil war - others fought with Hapsburgs)
  • Religion in the TYW
    Also religious war - Catholics vs. Protestants
    Peace of Augsburg
    Did not recognize Calvinism
  • 21. Treaty of Westphalia
    Ended the Thirty Years War
    Significant because…
    IT ALSO ENDED THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE!

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