The
Enlightenment
"Écrasons l'Infâme!”
(Let us crush the vile thing!)
~Voltaire
What is The Enlightenment?
• A philosophical movement of the 18C
that:
o Stressed human reasoning over blind faith or
obed...
Origins of The Enlightenment
• Direct product of the Scientific Revolution
• The SR:
o Convinced many Euro thinkers about ...
Who?
• Predominately involved & affected the
bourgeoisie (middle class) & aristocracy
• Urban poor & peasants were too bus...
What is a Philosophe?
• French for “free thinker”
• Students of society who analyzed its
evils and advanced reforms to cor...
Enlightenment & Religion
• Pre-Enlightenment
o Belief that human
nature is inherently
sinful
o Doctrine of Original
Sin
Deism
• The belief in:
o The existence of a God
or supreme being, but a
denial of organized
religion
o The light of nature...
Characteristics of the
Enlightenment
• Rationalism - reason is the answer to all
things
• Secularism - application of the ...
Characteristics, cont.
• Education of the masses
• Social & Legal Reforms
o Justice, kindness, charity for all
o Habeas co...
Emergence of a Print Culture
• A critical element
of spreading
Enlightenment
ideas was through
print
• Literacy increased
...
Literacy During the
Enlightenment
• This explosion of a massive print culture
was both the cause and the effect of the
tre...
Intro to the Enlightenment
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Intro to the Enlightenment

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Intro to the Enlightenment

  1. 1. The Enlightenment "Écrasons l'Infâme!” (Let us crush the vile thing!) ~Voltaire
  2. 2. What is The Enlightenment? • A philosophical movement of the 18C that: o Stressed human reasoning over blind faith or obedience o Encouraged “scientific” thinking (rationalism & empiricism) o Believed reason could be used to solve all human problems
  3. 3. Origins of The Enlightenment • Direct product of the Scientific Revolution • The SR: o Convinced many Euro thinkers about the power of reason o Scientific method & reason led to discoveries about the physical world o People began to wonder if reason could be used to study society & human nature
  4. 4. Who? • Predominately involved & affected the bourgeoisie (middle class) & aristocracy • Urban poor & peasants were too busy trying to survive to care much • Enlightenment ideals spread by philosophes
  5. 5. What is a Philosophe? • French for “free thinker” • Students of society who analyzed its evils and advanced reforms to correct those evils • Believed human nature was inherently good • Promoted change & progress
  6. 6. Enlightenment & Religion • Pre-Enlightenment o Belief that human nature is inherently sinful o Doctrine of Original Sin
  7. 7. Deism • The belief in: o The existence of a God or supreme being, but a denial of organized religion o The light of nature & reason • Deists saw God as distant & uninvolved in the daily life of humans o God as a “watchmaker”
  8. 8. Characteristics of the Enlightenment • Rationalism - reason is the answer to all things • Secularism - application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy • Tolerance - of various beliefs • Freedom - of thought & expression; bring liberty to all
  9. 9. Characteristics, cont. • Education of the masses • Social & Legal Reforms o Justice, kindness, charity for all o Habeas corpus o No torture o Written constitutions that guaranteed natural rights
  10. 10. Emergence of a Print Culture • A critical element of spreading Enlightenment ideas was through print • Literacy increased as a result
  11. 11. Literacy During the Enlightenment • This explosion of a massive print culture was both the cause and the effect of the tremendous increase in literacy that took place in the 18C

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