French Revolution - Part 2
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French Revolution - Part 2

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French Revolution - Part 2 French Revolution - Part 2 Presentation Transcript

  • The French Revolution
    liberté égalitéfraternité
  • Madame Guillotine
    Nicknamed “The National Razor”
    Primary method of execution during the Terror because it was thought to be “more humane”
  • Maximilien Robespierre
    Born in Arras, France
    Lawyer
    Founder of French Democracy
    “The Incorruptible”
  • Staunch disciple of Rousseau (The Social Contract)
    Wanted the monarchy abolished in favor of a Democracy
    Wanted to de-Christianize France in favor of Reason
  • The End of the Monarchy
    September 22, 1792, the monarchy in France was officially abolished
    The First Republic of France was born!
  • The End of Louis XVI
    December 11, 1792 Louis XVI was put on trial for violating the rights of his subjects
    He was found guilty & sentenced to death
    The order for Louis XVI to appear before the National Convention on December 11, 1792
  • Louis XVI’s ExecutionJanuary 21, 1793
  • Discontent of the Sans-Culottes
    The execution of Louis did not solve France’s problems
    The National Assembly, now known as the National Convention, faced enormous problems
  • Problems…
    The value of assignats (French paper currency) used to finance the revolution had fallen by 50%
    There was still price inflation and continued food shortages
  • Problems (cont.)…
    France was on the brink of civil war, not to mention they were at war with Austria, Prussia, Holland, Spain, and Great Britain
    Finally, in June 1793, the Jacobins took over power in the National Convention, as well as the nation
  • Problems (cont.)…
    While this helped out with the crisis France was in, this is also when things took a radical turn
    Although the Jacobins were a group of many, one man stepped forth as their leader; Maximilien Robespierre
  • The Republic of Virtue
    1793-1794
    Under leadership of Robespierre
    Goal - de-Christianize France:
    Close or sell churches
    Created a new calendar with the first day beginning on Sept. 22, 1792
  • Revolutionary
    Clock
  • Republic of Virtue (cont.)
    The ROV also strove to:
    detest bad faith and despotism
    punish tyrants and traitors
    assist the unfortunate and respect the weak
    defend the oppressed
    do all the good one can to one's neighbor
    behave with justice towards all men
  • Reign of Terror
    Extremes measures were taken in order to reach their goal
    This time period (1793-1794) is known as the “Reign of Terror”
    Anyone considered an enemy of the state was arrested, tried, and usually executed
  • Committee of Public Safety
    Created by the NC in April of 1793, it had 9 members (later it would have 12)
    It was formed as an administrative body to supervise and expedite the work of the NC but became the central power in the FR
    Responsible for the executions of approximately 40,000 French citizens
  • Trial of Marie Antoinette
    Accused of immorality & treason
    Tried October 14-15, 1793
  • Marie Antoinette’s ExecutionOctober 16, 1793
  • Homework
    Marie Antoinette Bio Worksheet
    Due next class
  • Bell Ringer
    Describe life during the Reign of Terror
    Discuss with your partner
    1 minute
  • The End of the Terror(and subsequently Robespierre)
  • It’s All Going Terribly Wrong…
    “Part of the problem for the leaders of the revolution was that they represented a bourgeoisie who were a minority of the population. The Montagnards were a minority within that minority. Now even that minority was fragmenting, so each faction became gradually aware that, for an even smaller minority to impose its will, it would need to eliminate the other factions decisively.”
    Mark Steel in Vive La Revolution
  • Enough is Enough
    Not long until
    the revolutionaries turned on each other
    the masses became fed up
    Robespierre made one too many enemies
  • The Downward Spiral Begins
    April 1794: The Jacobins wiped out the better part of the Girondins
    In his attempt to de-Christianize France, Robespierre became involved in creating a new state religion “The Cult of the Supreme Being”
  • Cult of the Supreme Being
    Although Robespierre wished to de-Christianize France, he mostly wanted to get rid of the Catholic Church
    He despised atheism, and so created a religion based on reason, social awareness, and democratic ideals
    To kick off his new religion, he held a Festival of the Supreme Being in June 1794
  • Really? He Did What?
    Festival included:
    Choir of 2,400 children
    Choir of blind children
    Monumental effigy of Atheism was set on fire revealing a monument to Wisdom inside
    Procession of apx. 300,000 people to the Champs des Mars -
    50 foot tall paper mâché statue of Hercules
  • The Story of the Carmelite Nuns
  • Robespierre’s Demise
    Festival perceived as a departure from reality by many
    He appeared before the NC saying, “People! You should be informed that there exists within your bosom a league of scoundrels who are at war with public virtue!”
    Refused to say who. Why is this a problem?
  • Arrested
    NC voted to arrest Robespierre and several other Jacobins
    In a skirmish/suicide attempt (?) Robespierre ended up with a bullet in the jaw
    Several other Jacobins (including Robespierre’s brother) successfully committed suicide
    Those who remained alive, didn’t do so for long…
  • 9th - 10th of Thermidor, Year II (July 27, 1794)
  • Lasting Impact
    The Rights of Man
    Democracy
    The new Republic
    The Modern State
  • The Directory
    With the Terror at an end, the NC moved in a more conservative direction
    Limited power of Committee of Public Safety
    Re-opened churches
    New constitution
    2 legislative houses
    New executive office - the Directory
  • The Directory (1795-1799)
    Committee of 5
    Chosen by Council of Elders
    Became very corrupt thereby gaining many enemies
    1799 - coup d’état (sudden overthrow of government by military force)
    Enter Napoleon Bonaparte…