Enlightenment Society & Politics
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Enlightenment Society & Politics

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Enlightenment Society & Politics Enlightenment Society & Politics Presentation Transcript

  • The Enlightenment
    Politics & Philosophy
  • Bell Ringer
    In your notebooks, answer:
    What was the Enlightenment?
    How did the SR impact the Enlightenment?
  • Political Enlightenment
  • Three Themes in the Political Realm
    Property
    • Central feature
    • Gives an individual a stake in society
    Rights
    • Every individual is entitled to basic rights simply because they exist
    Law
    • That which makes 1 & 2 work
    • Guarantees property & rights
  • Political Philosophes
  • John Locke1632-1704
    Most influential writing was “Two Treatises of Civil Government” written in 1690
  • Locke’s Philosophy
    The individual must become a “rational creature”
    Virtue can be learned & practiced
    Human beings possess free will
    • They should be prepared for freedom
    • Obedience should be out of conviction, not fear
  • Locke’s Philosophy (cont.)
    Legislators owe their power to a contract with the people
    Neither kings nor wealth are divinely ordained
    There are certain natural rights that are endowed by God to all human beings
    • Life, liberty, & property
    Favored a republic
  • Baron de Montesquieu(1689-1755)
    Most influential writing was “Spirit of the Laws” written in 1748
    “Countries are well-cultivated, not as they are fertile, but as they are free.”
  • Montesquieu’s Philosophy
    • Used England’s government as a model for:
    • The separation of powers
    • Executive Power = King
    • Legislative Power = Parliament
    • Judicial Power = Courts
    • Checks & balances
    • Monarchs should be subject to constitutional limits on their power
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau1712-1778
    Most influential writing was “The Social Contract” written in 1762
  • Rousseau’s Philosophy
    • Tabula Rasa (blank slate)
    • Best traits of human character are products of nature
    • Society corrupts people, therefore, we must fix society
  • Rousseau (cont.)
    In The Social Contract:
    • The right kind of political order could make people truly moral & free
    • Individual moral freedom could be achieved only by learning to subject one’s individual interests to the “General Will”
  • Rousseau - Social Contract (cont.)
    • Individuals could do this by entering into a social contract - not with their rulers, but with each other
    • This social contract was derived from human nature -NOT from history, tradition, or the Bible
    • People = most free & moral under a republican form of government with a direct democracy
  • Philosophical Enlightenment
  • Marquis de Condorcet1743-1794
    Most influential writing: Progress of the Human Mind (1794)
  • Condorcet’s Philosophy
    Expectation of universal happiness
    Every individual guided by reason could enjoy true independence
    Advocated:
    • Free & equal education
    • Constitutionalism
    • Equal rights for women
  • Immanuel Kant1724-1804
    Most influential work:
    Critique of Pure Reason (1781)
  • Kant’s Philosophy
    Investigated the structure & limitations of reason
    Believed he created a compromise between the empiricists and the rationalists (reason + experience = Enlightenment)
  • Denis Diderot1713-1784
    Most influential writing:
    The Encyclopedia (1751)
    (coauthor: Jean le Rond d’Alembert)
  • Diderot’s Encyclopédie
    Complete cycle of knowledge that changed the general way of thinking
    28 volumes
    Alphabetical, cross-referenced, illustrated
  • Voltaire1694-1778
    François Marie Arouet
    Most famous book: Candide (1759)
    Known for sharp wit that was often critical of the church and state
  • Voltaire (cont.)
    Wrote plays, novels, poetry, essays, & letters
    Fierce defender of civil liberties, especially:
    • Religious freedom
    • Free trade
    • Freedom of speech
    Spent time imprisoned in the Bastille
  • Voltaire (cont.)
    Life (video)
    Last words
  • Words of Wisdom from Voltaire
    Each group will get a quote from Voltaire
    Your job is to:
    • Discuss the quote & figure out what Voltaire meant
    • Offer to the class your group’s interpretation of Voltaire’s wisdom & how it relates to the Enlightenment
  • Homework
    Worksheet: Rousseau’s The Social Contract
    Due next class period