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English Absolutism
 

English Absolutism

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    English Absolutism English Absolutism Presentation Transcript

    • English Absolutism
    • James I
      Stuart (not a Tudor)
      King of Scotland
      Nephew of Elizabeth I
      Initially agreed to rule according to English law and customs
      Parliament involved
      Until…divine right
    • Tensions with Parliament
      Disagreements about money
      Lavish lifestyle
      Wars
      Taxes
      Disagreements about foreign policy
      James’ solution  dissolve Parliament
    • Religious Tensions
      Puritans wanted:
      “purify” the Church of England of Catholic practices
      Simpler services
      More democratic church with no powerful bishops
      James rejected their demands
      Chased them out of England
    • Charles I
      Inherits the throne from his father, James I (1625)
      Like his father, he ruled as an absolute monarch
      Bickered with Parliament
      Imprisoned enemies without trial
      Ran the nation into further debt
    • Petition of Right
      Debt from:
      Super-luxurious lifestyle
      War with France
      Need of money  called for Parliament to convene
      Parliament refused to fork over any money until Charles I signed Petition of Right
    • Petition of Right
      No funds could be borrowed or raised through taxes & tariffs without the explicit approval of Parliament
    • Petition of Right
      2. No free person (Britain had slavery at this time) could be imprisoned without a reason
    • The Deal
      Charles I signed the Petition, thereby agreeing to its terms (and getting his $$)
      Did Charles have any intention of keeping his word?
    • Dissolution of Parliament
      Charles immediately broke his word
      To avoid a confrontation with Parliament, he dissolved it (would stay dissolved for 12 years)
      Now on his own…with no funds from Parliament
    • Charles’ Budget Cuts
      Made peace with enemies (peace is cheaper than war)
      Downsized government administration
      Innovative tax increases
      One goal in mind  rule without Parliament
    • Charles and Religion
      Much like his father, Charles was against the Puritans
      Allowed the Archbishop of Canterbury (William Laud) to freely take any measures to stifle the Puritans
    • Puritans Under Charles I
      Forbidden to publish or preach
      Scottish Puritans were forced to use the Church of England’s prayer books, rituals, hierarchy, etc
      Rebellion occurred, thus forcing Charles to reconvene Parliament
    • Twelve Years to Stew
      Parliament had 12 years to stew and were ready to show Charles no mercy
      Refused Charles any money until he addressed a very long list of complaints
      What do you think Charles did??
    • Buh-Bye Parliament
      Charles refused their demands and dismissed them (known as “The Short Parliament”)
      Still, he was without money
      Reconvened Parliament again, but this time agreed to their demands
    • Parliament’s Demands
      Illegal to raise taxes without Parliament okay
      William Laud – impeached & executed
      Charles’ centralized bureaucracy – abolished
      Law that only Parliament could dismiss itself
      Law that Parliament had to meet every 3 years
    • Rebellion in Ireland
      Religious radicals in Ireland rebelled
      Charles wanted funds for an army to go in
      Parliament did not trust Charles with an army
      Proposal from radicals in Parliament – the army should be under Parliament’s control
    • One Angry King
      Charles not very happy about this
      Stormed Parliament with his own army
      Bold, yet foolish move
      Parliament issued Militia Ordinance which officially declared the army under Parliament’s control
      The result????
    • The English Civil War
    • Cavaliers & Roundheads
      Cavaliers = Supporters of King Charles I
      Wealthy nobles
      Wore plumed hats
      Fashionably long hair
      Well trained in dueling & warfare
      Expected a quick win
    • Cavaliers & Roundheads
      Roundheads = Supporters of Parliament
      Country gentry, town- dwelling manufacturers, & Puritan clergy
      Called Roundheads b/c of their hair style
      Underdogs
      Leader – Oliver Cromwell
    • Oliver Cromwell
      Puritan, gentry, military genius
      Organized “New Model Army” into a skilled force
      Defeated Cavaliers
      Became “Lord Protectorate” after Civil War
    • The Execution of a King
      Charles I was put on trial
      Found guilty
      Sentenced to death as a “tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy”
    • Life Under Puritan Rule
      After Charles I’s execution, House of Commons abolished :
      The monarchy
      The House of Lords
      The Church of England
    • England a Republic?
      England declared republic
      Not all agree – Charles II is the heir
      Rebellions broke out (Ireland)
      Oliver Cromwell
      crushed them
      persecuted Catholics
      exiled Catholics to remote parts of Ireland
    • End of the Commonwealth
      After Cromwell’s death (1658) Puritans lost control of England
      New Parliament invited Charles II back as King
      Charles II met with cheering crowds
    • Charles II
      Popular ruler
      “Man-crush” on Louis XIV (idolized him)
      Tolerant of various religions
      Accepted Petition of Right (learned from his Daddy’s mistakes!)
    • James II
      Inherits the throne
      Brother of Charles II
      Flaunted his Catholic faith
      Many feared he would restore Catholicism
    • William & Mary
      Parliament invited James’ Protestant daughter Mary II & her Dutch Protestant husband William of Orange to the throne
    • The Glorious Revolution
      William & Mary arrived with an army
      No need – James II fled to France
      Parliament sets up a Limited Monarchy via a Bill of Rights
      Also affirmed habeas corpus (no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime)
      Radical concept in the Age of Absolutism…
    • Homework
      Read Primary Source document, “Charles I on the Scaffold” and answer the questions on the back