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  • 1. The Cold War
    1945 - 1990
  • 2. 2
    Bell Ringer
    What is a “Cold War?”
    30 seconds
    Discuss w/ Partner
  • 3. 3
    Cold War
    a state of political hostility and military tension between two countries or power blocs, involving propaganda, subversion, threats, economic sanctions, and other measures short of open warfare
  • 4. 4
    Post WWII
    US and USSR emerged as rival superpowers
    Schism between East & West
  • 5. 5
    European Recovery Program
    Marshall Plan
    1948 - 1952
    Provided $13 billion
    Rebuild war-torn Europe
    Prevent spread of communism
  • 6. 6
    Potsdam Conference
    July 1945
    Stalin promisedto allowfree elections in Eastern Europe
  • 7. 7
    Satellite States
    Stalin never allowed truly free elections
    Instead, installed Satellite States; communist governments in Eastern European nations that were politically & economically dependent upon the USSR
    To protect USSR from Western invasion
  • 8. 8
    Containment Policy
    Policy of “Containment”:
    US would not get rid of communism, but would not allow it to spread
    US would “contain” communism where is already existed
  • 9. 9
    Division of Germany
    After World War II,
    Germany was broken
    into four “zones of
    Each of the major
    Allies, was given one
    Berlin, the capital,
    was also split into
    four pieces.
  • 10.
  • 11. 11
    The Iron Curtain
    Winston Churchill coined this term in 1946
    Refers to…
    The military, political, and ideological barrier established between the Soviet bloc and western Europe from 1945 to 1990
  • 12.
  • 13. 13
    What is going on in this cartoon?
    What symbolism do you see?
    Discuss w/ partner - 1 min.
  • 14. 14
    Churchill’s Warning
    Churchill felt that behind the Iron Curtain, the USSR was planning to attack and conquer Western Europe
  • 15. 15
    The Problem with Berlin
    Berlin was in the Soviet Zone
    Stalin was not happy with any presence of democracy in Eastern Europe
    What did he do?
  • 16. 16
    Berlin Blockade
    June 1948, Stalin attempted to starve West Berlin into submission by cutting off food/supplies
    All rail and street access was blocked
  • 17. 17
    Berlin Airlift
    American and British planes flew food and supplies into Berlin for 327 days
    May 1949 - Stalin lifted the blockade
  • 18. 18
  • 19. 19
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    Established in 1949
    Created a system of collective defense
    member states agreed to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party
    Original members were:
    United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
    Later…Greece (1952), West Germany (1955)
  • 20. 20
    The Warsaw Pact
    Communist Response to NATO
    Signed on May 1, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland
    Military treaty that obligated its members to come to the others’ aid should any one of them be the victim of foreign aggression
    Original Members:
    Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Romania, the USSR, and Czechoslovakia
  • 21.
  • 22. 22
    Cold War in Asia
  • 23. 23
    Chang Kai Shekfought to stop the communists but was unsuccessful
    Mao Zedong wanted China to become a communist state after WW II
  • 24. 24
    Communist China: 1949
  • 25. 25
    Chang Kai Shek, retreated from mainland China and moved his government from Nanjing to Taipei, Taiwan
    Taiwan then proclaimed they were separate from China
    Still a problem area
  • 26. 26
    Change in Leaders
    Dwight Eisenhower
    Stalin died
    Nikita Khrushchev
    De-Stalinization - the process of eliminating the more ruthless policies of Stalin
  • 27. 27
    Uprisings Against Communism
    Eastern Europeans of the Soviet Bloc resented the poor, harsh conditions under which they lived
    Uprisings occurred in:
  • 28. 28
    Hungarian Uprising 1956
    Hungarians revolted and called for a democratic government…and in elections that is what they chose
    The Soviet response was swift and brutal
  • 29. 29
    Hungarian Rebellion Crushed
    Soviet tanks rolled into Hungary and killed 30,000 Hungarians and executed the resistance leader Imre Nagy
    US and UN did nothing to help
  • 30. 30
    Space Race
    October 4, 1957 - Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I
    The world's first artificial satellite = about the size of a beach ball
    Orbited the earth in 98 minutes
    This began the space race
  • 31. 31
    The Berlin Wall
    Berlin truly symbolized the Cold War in Europe. This was where it all started with the blockade of 1948, and where 41 years later, it all came to an end. Two dates, one dramatic, the other a joyful, marked the high points…
    August 13, 1961, when the Wall went up 
    November 9,1989, when it came down
  • 32. 32
    East Germans had limited access to West German media and were aware that their standard of living was substantially lower than that of their counterparts in West Germany. Many East Germans left their side, hoping to find better economic opportunities in the West.
    In 1961, the East German government decided to stop this flight to the West, which was depleting the country's labor force. During the night of August 13, 1961, East German soldiers and members of its militia surrounded West Berlin with temporary fortifications that were rapidly replaced by a concrete wall, 12 ft high and 103 miles long, of which 28 miles lay between two sides of the city. Where a wall was not possible, buildings were bricked-up. The only openings in the wall were two closely guarded crossing points. Although East Germany announced that the wall was needed to prevent military aggression and political interference from West Germany, the East German government built tank traps and ditches along the eastern side of the wall, suggesting that it was constructed to keep East German citizens in.
  • 33. 33
    It began with armed guards moving in to seal up the border between East & West Berlin…
  • 34. 34
    Next, barbed wire was laid down…
  • 35. 35
  • 36. 36
    Then, concrete walls were put in…
  • 37. 37
    The wall totally trapped the citizens of West Berlin
  • 38. 38
  • 39. 39
  • 40. 40
    Many East Berliners wanted to leave and come to the Western side. They were not allowed to leave; however, many tried…
  • 41. 41
    In 28 years, the Wall claimed at least 239 victims, shot by guards, drowned in the waters of the Spree or one of the lakes, or killed jumping out of their houses. The border guards, often young brainwashed men doing their military service, felt that shooting down a fugitive was a patriotic action. Shooting fugitives earned them a rich reward in fact – a decoration, personal congratulations from the head of the Stasi, a substantial bonus and extra leave in a holiday village on the Baltic. After the Wall came down, some of these border guards were tried for murder
  • 42. 42
  • 43. 43
    The first victim was Rudolf Urban, who was killed on August 19, 1961 after jumping out of a window in theBernauer Strasse. That same street was the scene of another tragedy on October 4, 1961 when young Bernd Lünser, under fire from the Vopos, leaped from the fourth story of a building but mis-landed and was killed.
  • 44. 44
    A year after the Wall went up, on August 17, 1962, the death of young Peter Fechter was met with great agitation. After being badly wounded by border guards, he lay dying for nearly an hour at the foot of the Wall, during which time nobody came to help him.
  • 45. 45
    On the first anniversary of the tragic death of Peter Fechter, citizens place wreaths at the foot of the cross erected near the spot where he died.
  • 46. 46
    Many showed their disgust with the wall by adding graffiti to it on the Western side.
  • 47. 47
    Wall Stats
    96 mi
    27 mi
    69 mi
    23 mi
    66 mi
    41 mi
    65 mi
    79 mi
    77 mi
    ca. 5000
    ca. 3200
    ca. 200
    Total border length around West Berlin
    Border between East and West Berlin
    Border between West Berlin and East Germany
    Border through residential areas in Berlin
    Concrete segment wall3.6m (11.81 ft.) high 
    Wire mesh fencing
    Anti-vehicle trenches
    Contact or signal fence
    Column track6-7 m (7.33 yd) wide
    Number of watch towers
    Number of bunkers
    Persons succeeded in passing the Wall
    Persons arrested in the border area
    Persons killed on the Berlin Wall
    Persons injured by shooting
  • 48. 48
    The Wall fell as the combined result of both internal and external pressures. The evolution of the USSR played a crucial role in this process.
    On his first official visit to West Germany in May 1989, Mikhaïl Gorbachev, whose ambition was to save his country from decline and ruin through an innovative policy based on restructuring (perestroïka) and openness (glasnost), informed Chancellor Kohl that the Brezhnev doctrine had been abandoned ; Moscow was no longer willing to use force to prevent democratic transformation of its satellite states.
  • 49. 49
  • 50. 50
    The Fall of The Berlin Wall….
    Reagan Speech
    The Celebration
    The Hoff’s Claim to Fame(for real)
    This meant that Germany was once again unified as one
  • 51. 51
  • 52. Western Europe Post WWII
    The Formation of the EU
  • 53. 53
    Bell Ringer
    What are “glasnost” and “perestroika?” How did they pertain to the Cold War?
    Discuss with partner
    45 seconds
  • 54. 54
    Bell Ringer
    Glasnost: openness
    Perestroika: restructuring
    Contributed to the fall of communism in the Soviet Bloc
  • 55. 55
    Just For Fun…
    Check out this song about the Cold War Era
    As it plays, jot down as many things as you can that you recognize or can define/ describe now that you know a little about the Cold War Era
  • 56. 56
    Jean Monnetis regarded by many as the architect of European Unity. Never elected to public office, Monnet worked behind the scenes as a French administrator to unify the Western European powers.
  • 57. 57
    Three “Communities” Developed:
    European Coal and Steel Community
    Guaranteed access for all to coal and steel in Ruhr + eliminate import duties and quotas on coal and steel
    European Atomic Community
    Coordinated their nonmilitary atomic research and technology
    European Economic Community (Common Market)
    Eliminated trade barriers and create common tariffs + free movement of capital and labor
  • 58. 58
    Community Members
    1967 - Six Countries United:
    Federal Republic of Germany (West Ger.)
    “Benelux” Union
  • 59. 59
    European Union (EU)
    Created in 1992 with the Maastricht Treaty
    Currently 29 members
    Covers a variety of issues:
    Health, Economic, Foreign Affairs, Defense
    Created a free-trade union
    Created single currency (Euro) adopted by 20 of 29
  • 60. 60
    European Social Welfare
    What is a social welfare state?
    Concept of government in which the state plays a key role in protecting and promoting the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those who lack the minimal provisions for a good life.
  • 61. 61
    European Social Welfare
    Basic Features:
    “Cradle to Grave” care
    Paid family leave
    Universal health care
    Paid vacation (4-weeks MINIMUM)
    Unemployment compensation
    Education (even university…free or min. cost)
  • 62. 62
    What’s the Catch?
    Europeans pay much higher taxes
    up to 50% of income
    Read article “Going Dutch…”
    Write the following in your notebooks:
    3 pros of this system
    3 cons of this system
    Would you like to live in a social welfare state? Why or why not? (use specific examples)
    Worth 5 points of 10…you will need this for an activity…
    You may list these in 2 columns labeled “Pros” and “Cons”