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2 Bell Ringer What is a “Cold War?” 30 seconds Discuss w/ Partner
3 Cold War a state of political hostility and military tension between two countries or power blocs, involving propaganda, subversion, threats, economic sanctions, and other measures short of open warfare
4 Post WWII US and USSR emerged as rival superpowers Schism between East & West
5 European Recovery Program Marshall Plan 1948 - 1952 Provided $13 billion Rebuild war-torn Europe Prevent spread of communism
6 Potsdam Conference July 1945 Stalin promisedto allowfree elections in Eastern Europe
7 Satellite States Stalin never allowed truly free elections Instead, installed Satellite States; communist governments in Eastern European nations that were politically & economically dependent upon the USSR Why? To protect USSR from Western invasion
8 Containment Policy Policy of “Containment”: US would not get rid of communism, but would not allow it to spread US would “contain” communism where is already existed
9 Division of Germany After World War II, Germany was broken into four “zones of occupation” Each of the major Allies, was given one piece. Berlin, the capital, was also split into four pieces.
19 NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Established in 1949 Created a system of collective defense member states agreed to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party Original members were: United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg. Later…Greece (1952), West Germany (1955)
20 The Warsaw Pact Communist Response to NATO Signed on May 1, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland Military treaty that obligated its members to come to the others’ aid should any one of them be the victim of foreign aggression Original Members: Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Romania, the USSR, and Czechoslovakia
25 Taiwan Chang Kai Shek, retreated from mainland China and moved his government from Nanjing to Taipei, Taiwan Taiwan then proclaimed they were separate from China Still a problem area
26 Change in Leaders US 1952 Dwight Eisenhower USSR 1953 Stalin died Nikita Khrushchev De-Stalinization - the process of eliminating the more ruthless policies of Stalin
27 Uprisings Against Communism Eastern Europeans of the Soviet Bloc resented the poor, harsh conditions under which they lived Uprisings occurred in: Poland Hungary Czechoslovakia
28 Hungarian Uprising 1956 Hungarians revolted and called for a democratic government…and in elections that is what they chose The Soviet response was swift and brutal
29 Hungarian Rebellion Crushed Soviet tanks rolled into Hungary and killed 30,000 Hungarians and executed the resistance leader Imre Nagy US and UN did nothing to help
30 Space Race October 4, 1957 - Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I The world's first artificial satellite = about the size of a beach ball Orbited the earth in 98 minutes This began the space race
31 The Berlin Wall Berlin truly symbolized the Cold War in Europe. This was where it all started with the blockade of 1948, and where 41 years later, it all came to an end. Two dates, one dramatic, the other a joyful, marked the high points… August 13, 1961, when the Wall went up November 9,1989, when it came down
32 East Germans had limited access to West German media and were aware that their standard of living was substantially lower than that of their counterparts in West Germany. Many East Germans left their side, hoping to find better economic opportunities in the West. In 1961, the East German government decided to stop this flight to the West, which was depleting the country's labor force. During the night of August 13, 1961, East German soldiers and members of its militia surrounded West Berlin with temporary fortifications that were rapidly replaced by a concrete wall, 12 ft high and 103 miles long, of which 28 miles lay between two sides of the city. Where a wall was not possible, buildings were bricked-up. The only openings in the wall were two closely guarded crossing points. Although East Germany announced that the wall was needed to prevent military aggression and political interference from West Germany, the East German government built tank traps and ditches along the eastern side of the wall, suggesting that it was constructed to keep East German citizens in.
33 It began with armed guards moving in to seal up the border between East & West Berlin…
40 Many East Berliners wanted to leave and come to the Western side. They were not allowed to leave; however, many tried…
41 In 28 years, the Wall claimed at least 239 victims, shot by guards, drowned in the waters of the Spree or one of the lakes, or killed jumping out of their houses. The border guards, often young brainwashed men doing their military service, felt that shooting down a fugitive was a patriotic action. Shooting fugitives earned them a rich reward in fact – a decoration, personal congratulations from the head of the Stasi, a substantial bonus and extra leave in a holiday village on the Baltic. After the Wall came down, some of these border guards were tried for murder
43 The first victim was Rudolf Urban, who was killed on August 19, 1961 after jumping out of a window in theBernauer Strasse. That same street was the scene of another tragedy on October 4, 1961 when young Bernd Lünser, under fire from the Vopos, leaped from the fourth story of a building but mis-landed and was killed.
44 A year after the Wall went up, on August 17, 1962, the death of young Peter Fechter was met with great agitation. After being badly wounded by border guards, he lay dying for nearly an hour at the foot of the Wall, during which time nobody came to help him.
45 On the first anniversary of the tragic death of Peter Fechter, citizens place wreaths at the foot of the cross erected near the spot where he died.
46 Many showed their disgust with the wall by adding graffiti to it on the Western side.
47 Wall Stats 96 mi 27 mi 69 mi 23 mi 66 mi 41 mi 65 mi 79 mi 77 mi 302 20 ca. 5000 ca. 3200 192 ca. 200 Total border length around West Berlin Border between East and West Berlin Border between West Berlin and East Germany Border through residential areas in Berlin Concrete segment wall3.6m (11.81 ft.) high Wire mesh fencing Anti-vehicle trenches Contact or signal fence Column track6-7 m (7.33 yd) wide Number of watch towers Number of bunkers Persons succeeded in passing the Wall Persons arrested in the border area Persons killed on the Berlin Wall Persons injured by shooting
48 The Wall fell as the combined result of both internal and external pressures. The evolution of the USSR played a crucial role in this process. On his first official visit to West Germany in May 1989, Mikhaïl Gorbachev, whose ambition was to save his country from decline and ruin through an innovative policy based on restructuring (perestroïka) and openness (glasnost), informed Chancellor Kohl that the Brezhnev doctrine had been abandoned ; Moscow was no longer willing to use force to prevent democratic transformation of its satellite states.
Western Europe Post WWII The Formation of the EU
53 Bell Ringer What are “glasnost” and “perestroika?” How did they pertain to the Cold War? Discuss with partner 45 seconds
54 Bell Ringer Glasnost: openness Perestroika: restructuring Contributed to the fall of communism in the Soviet Bloc
55 Just For Fun… Check out this song about the Cold War Era As it plays, jot down as many things as you can that you recognize or can define/ describe now that you know a little about the Cold War Era
56 Jean Monnetis regarded by many as the architect of European Unity. Never elected to public office, Monnet worked behind the scenes as a French administrator to unify the Western European powers.
57 Three “Communities” Developed: European Coal and Steel Community Guaranteed access for all to coal and steel in Ruhr + eliminate import duties and quotas on coal and steel European Atomic Community Coordinated their nonmilitary atomic research and technology 1957 European Economic Community (Common Market) Eliminated trade barriers and create common tariffs + free movement of capital and labor 1957 1952
58 Community Members 1967 - Six Countries United: France Federal Republic of Germany (West Ger.) Italy “Benelux” Union Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg
59 European Union (EU) Created in 1992 with the Maastricht Treaty Currently 29 members Covers a variety of issues: Health, Economic, Foreign Affairs, Defense Created a free-trade union Created single currency (Euro) adopted by 20 of 29
60 European Social Welfare What is a social welfare state? Concept of government in which the state plays a key role in protecting and promoting the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those who lack the minimal provisions for a good life.
61 European Social Welfare Basic Features: “Cradle to Grave” care Paid family leave Universal health care Paid vacation (4-weeks MINIMUM) Unemployment compensation Retirement Education (even university…free or min. cost)
62 What’s the Catch? Europeans pay much higher taxes up to 50% of income Read article “Going Dutch…” Write the following in your notebooks: 3 pros of this system 3 cons of this system Would you like to live in a social welfare state? Why or why not? (use specific examples) Worth 5 points of 10…you will need this for an activity… You may list these in 2 columns labeled “Pros” and “Cons”