APUSH Chapter 18


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APUSH Chapter 18

  1. 1. Renewing the Sectional Struggle<br />Chapter 18<br />
  2. 2. Zachary Taylor<br />12th President (1849-1850)<br />Party/Age/State: Whig, 64, Louisiana<br /> Wife: Margaret, 4 children<br /> Traits: slovenly appearance, poor speaker, relaxed manager<br /> Nom de guerre: “Old Rough & Ready”<br />
  3. 3. Fun Facts<br />never registered to vote - didn’t even vote in his own election<br />cousin of Robert E. Lee<br />his son-in-law was Jefferson Davis<br />
  4. 4. Background<br />Celebrity - hero of Mexican War - he didn’t seek the presidency; both parties approached him & wanted him as their candidate<br />Appealed to North (war hero) AND appealed to South (southern landowner)<br />Didn’t view presidency as a powerful office - said he’d never use the veto<br />
  5. 5. Slavery<br />felt the issue should be decided by Congress & he’d go along with whatever they proposed<br />
  6. 6. Compromise of 1850<br />By Henry Clay<br />bundle of bills designed to admit CA as a free state with some slavery measures favorable to the South<br />
  7. 7. Fugitive Slave Act (1850)<br />Part of 1850 Compromise<br />Law enforcement officials mandated by law to arrest anyone suspected of being a runaway slave, based solely on a claimant’s sworn testimony of ownership<br />
  8. 8. Fugitive Slave Act, cont.<br />Suspected slave could not testify on his/her behalf, nor could he/she ask for a jury trial<br />Officials who did not comply - $1,000 fine BUT those who did got compensation<br />Person caught aiding a slave - $1,000 fine AND 6 months in prison<br />Most controversial piece of the 1850 Compromise<br />
  9. 9. Taylor & the Compromise of 1850<br />Taylor surprised many and was not pleased - said there was nothing to compromise - CA should be free and that’s it…<br />Threatened to veto<br />South threatened to secede - Taylor’s solution:<br /><ul><li> “I’ll hang them, starting with my son in law Jefferson Davis!”</li></ul>Barely a year into his presidency, Taylor was evolving into an ardent unionist<br />
  10. 10. The End of Taylor<br />July 4, 1850 - Taylor went to a groundbreaking ceremony for the Washington Monument <br /><ul><li>was very hot
  11. 11. Had cherries and a pitcher of milk to cool down
  12. 12. afew hours later, he complained of severe stomach pains
  13. 13. died 5 days later
  14. 14. cause of death: severe gastroenteritis (inflammation of lining of intestines)</li></li></ul><li>
  15. 15. Conspiracy Theories Abound<br />Arsenic Poisoning?<br />Truth revealed in 1991<br /><ul><li>No traces of arsenic
  16. 16. Actual cause: a form of cholera</li></li></ul><li>Millard Fillmore<br />13th President (1850-1853)<br />Party/Age/State: Whig, 50, New York<br />Wife: Abigail, 2 children<br />Traits: amiable, modest, avid reader, delegated authority - aimed to please and appease rather than lead<br /> Fun Fact: never met Taylor until AFTER they were elected<br />
  17. 17. His Way<br />Fired all of Taylor’s cabinet (felt they overlooked him)<br />Signed Compromise of 1850 into law - thought it would permanently put to rest the issue by preserving the status quo<br />
  18. 18. Slavery<br />Fillmore supported slavery<br /><ul><li>Believed its abolition would lead to a collapse of the Southern economy
  19. 19. Blamed abolitionists for making slavery an issue - thought they were trouble makers
  20. 20. Believed the institution of slavery to be protected by the Constitution
  21. 21. Did not grasp the moral consequences</li></li></ul><li>The End of Fillmore<br />Whigs angry – do not nominate him in the Election of 1852<br />Considered one of the most forgettable presidencies in American history<br />
  22. 22. Franklin Pierce<br />14th President (1853-1857)<br />Party/State: Democrat, 48, New Hampshire<br />Wife: Jane, 3 children (all died in youth)<br />Traits: charming, outgoing, charismatic, courteous, heavy drinker (sober during presidency), indecisive manager<br />Nickname: “Handsome Frank”<br />
  23. 23. Background<br />Entered office loved by everyone, left office reviled by all<br />Considered mentally unstable by many due to a personal tragedy mere weeks prior to entering office <br />January 1853 – 11 year old son Benny died<br />
  24. 24. Things Can Only Get Better, Right?<br />No…more tragedy struck<br /><ul><li>VP William Rufus King died a month after taking office (TB) </li></li></ul><li>Now They’ll Get Better?<br />Again, no, thanks to Stephen Douglas…<br />
  25. 25. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)<br />Sponsored by Douglas<br />Meant to repeal the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which banned slavery above the southern border of Missouri<br />Intent - to let new states of KS & NB decide for themselves re: slavery (“popular sovereignty”)<br />
  26. 26. Kansas-Nebraska Act<br />Douglas – swears to make Pierce’s life a living hell (as if it wasn’t already) if he doesn’t back the bill<br />Pierce – caves to bullying<br />Antislavery faction – very angry…esp. Abe Lincoln (who will form the Republican Party in response)<br />
  27. 27. Bleeding Kansas<br />Border Wars (1854-1858)<br />In KS territory, anti & pro slavery groups were literally fighting out the debate<br />Antislavery group led by John Brown<br />May 21, 1856 - pro-slavery forces burned down abolitionist stronghold of Lawrence, KS <br />
  28. 28. Everybody Was Kung-Fu Fighting?<br />May 22nd – Rep. Preston Smith Brooks (SC) attacked Sen. Charles Sumner (MA) with a cane<br />Sumner collapsed<br />Brooks continued to beat the unconscious Sumner until his cane broke!<br />Sumner not able to return to Senate for 3 years as a result of injuries<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Downward Spiral<br />The US was clearly on a downward spiral<br />Pierce could not secure his party’s nomination & left office shamed and loathed<br />Could Buchanan do better? Tune in next time…<br />
  31. 31. Closure<br />The US was clearly spiraling downward – discuss with your partner 2 ways this was evident <br />