AP Victorian England

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  • 1. Politics inVicto"an England
  • 2. B"tain •  Cons%tu%onal  Monarchy  •  House  of  Windsor   –  Queen  Victoria   (1837-­‐1901)  •  Era  of  material  progress,   literary  growth,  and   poli%cal  stability  
  • 3. B"t$h Parliament *  This  era  saw  the  realignment  of  poli%cal   par%es  in  the  House  of  Commons:   –  Tory  Party    Conserva%ve  Party                                                under  Benjamin  Disraeli   –  Whig  Party    Liberal  Party  under                                                William  Gladstone  
  • 4. William Glad&one   Prime  Minister  4  %mes  between  1868-­‐1894  o  Educa5on  Act  of  1870  –  state-­‐ supported  public  educa5on  o  Ballot  Act  of  1872  –  Secret  ballot  o  Legalized  labor  unions  o  Promoted  civil  service  exam  o  Eliminated  sale  of  commissions  in  the   army  o  Worker’s  compensa5on  
  • 5. e I"( Question •  Biggest  problem  =  Ireland  •  Irish  na%onalists  sought   Home  Rule  (not  granted   un%l  1921)  •  Home  Rule  =  control  of   local  gov’t  
  • 6. e Problems •  Bri%sh  –  Irish  =  subhuman  •  Irish  Catholics   –  Tenant  farmers   –  Refused  to  pay  high  rent  to   landlords  •  Irish  Protestants     –  Landlords   –  OWen  lived  in  England   (“absentee”  Landlords)  •  Middleman  System  
  • 7. I"( Potato Famine •  1845-­‐1852  •  Impact:   –  1  million  Irish  dead   –  1  million  Irish  fled  •  Blight  struck  all  of  Europe     –  Why  did  it  impact  Ireland  so?  •  Video  Clip:  Moments  in  Time:  Famine  to   Freedom:  The  Great  Irish  Journey  
  • 8. I"( Potato Famine •  Why  did  it  impact   Ireland  so?   –  Completely   dependent  on  potato   –  Avg.  Irish  person   consumed  14  lbs  of   potatoes/day!  
  • 9. Glad&one & e I"( Question •  Two  major  legisla%ve  pieces:   –  1869  –  Disestablishment  Act:  Irish  Catholics  –  no  more   taxes  to  Anglican  church   –  1870  –  Irish  Land  Act:  absentee  Protestant  landowners   can’t  evict  Irish  Catholic  tenants  w/o  compensa%on  •  Supported  Home  Rule  for  Ireland  
  • 10. Benjamin D$raeli   Prime  Minister  1874-­‐1880  •  Reform  Act  of  1867:  Expanded   electorate  •  Public  Health  Act  of  1875:   Regulated  public  sanita5on  •  Many  laws  to  protect  working  class   &  support  unions   –  1874  Factory  Act  •  Ar5sans  Dwelling  Act  of  1875:   Regulated  housing  condi5ons  for   poor  
  • 11. Lab*r Pa+y •  Est.  1900  •  Worked  closely  w/  Liberals  •  Result:     –  Liberals  in  power  from  1906-­‐1916   –  Set  up  massive  social  welfare  programs   •  Sickness,  accident,  old-­‐age,  and  unemployment  insurances   were  all  adopted   •  Progressive  tax  established  (wealthy  pay  a  higher  %  rate  of  tax   –  Conserva%ves  pushed  for  more  laissez-­‐faire  gov’t  
  • 12. Victo"an Society
  • 13. Role Model •  Queen   Victoria   was   seen   as,   “the   very   model   of   marital   stability   and   domes%c   virtue…”  •  She  represented  “a  kind  of  femininity  which   was   centered   on   the   family,   motherhood,   and  respectability.”  Quotes  from  BBC  Victorian  Britain  
  • 14. Victo"a & Albe+
  • 15. Life in Victo"an England •  Victorian  Buzzwords   o  Family   o  Propriety   o  Modesty   o  Morality   o  Ra%onality   o  E%queke   o  Virtue  
  • 16. Expectations •  True  ladies  &  gents   –  High  moral  standing     –  Spent  %me  in  respectable,  produc%ve  manner   –  Ac%vi%es    good  for  both  the  soul  and  for  the   country  
  • 17. How to Be a Gent for Dummies •  Books   on   how   to   be   a   proper   Bri%sh   ci%zen   abounded   to   assist   the   middle   class   on   the   road   to  morality  •  The   book,   Happy   Homes   and   the   Hearts   that   Make  Them  (1882)  suggests,     “The   true   gentleman   is   one   who   has   been   fashioned   a?er   the   highest   models…his   qualiBes   depend   not   on   fashion   or   manners   but   on   moral   worth   -­‐   not   on   personal   possessions   but   upon   personal  qualiBes.”  
  • 18. Manners •  A  gentleman  should  not  bow  from  a  window  to  a  lady  on  the  street,  though  he  may   bow   slightly   from   the   street   upon   being   recognized   by   a   lady   in   a   window.   Such   recogni%on   should,   however,   generally   be   avoided,   as   gossip   is   likely   to   akach   undue  importance  to  it  when  seen  by  others.    •  A  man  always  escorts  a  woman  everywhere,  to  where  she  needs  to  go.  Unmarried   couples  who  are  not  "publicly  engaged"  together  do  not  wander  off  together.  •  Anyone   with   bright   red   hair   and   a   florid   complexion   should   marry   someone   with   jet-­‐black   hair.   The   very   corpulent   should   marry   the   thin   and   spare,   and   the   body,   wiry,   cold-­‐blooded   should   marry   the   round-­‐featured,   warmhearted,   emo%onal   type.  
  • 19. Manners •  Ladies   first.   A   gentleman   should   perform   chivalrous   acts   such   as   offering   the   lady   a   hand  to  go  up  her  carriage.  Ladies  are  never  seen  opening  their  own  doors  in  the   presence  of  a  man,  or  carrying  anything  heavy.    •  When  crossing  the  pavement,  a  lady  should  raise  her  dress  with  the  right  hand,  a   likle  about  the  ankle.  To  raise  the  dress  with  both  hands  is  vulgar  and  can  only  be   excused  when  mud  is  very  deep.  •  To   greet   someone   by   saying   "Hello,   old   fellow"   indicates   ill-­‐breeding.   If   you   are   approached  in  this  vulgar  manner,  it  is  beker  to  give  a  civil  reply  and  address  the   person   respecqully,   in   which   case   he   is   quite   likely   to   be   ashamed   of   his   own   conduct.  
  • 20. Oscar Wilde •  Irish  Author/Playwright  •  Aesthe%c  movement:     –  “L’art  pour  l’art”     –  art  should  exist  solely  for  its  own   sake,  independent  of  social  and   moral  concerns   –  Only  purpose  =  to  look  preky  •  An%thesis  of  Victorian   Ideals  
  • 21. Aes,etes in a Victo"an World •  Victorian  Buzzwords   •  Aesthe%cism  Buzzwords   o  Family   o  Decadence   o  Virtuous   o  Symbolism   o  Modesty   o  Decora%on   o  Morality   o  Materialism   o  Ra%onality   o  Extravagance   o  E%queke   o  Caprice  
  • 22. Wilde’s Words of W$dom  In  all  unimportant  maFers,  style,  not  sincerity   is   the   essenBal.   In   all   important   maFers,   style,  not  sincerity  is  the  essenBal.  
  • 23. Wilde’s Words of W$dom       We   can   forgive   a   man   for   making   a   useful   thing  as  long  as  he  does  not  admire  it.  The   only   excuse   for   making   a   useless   thing   is   that   one   admires   it   intensely.   All   art   is   quite   useless.  
  • 24. Wilde’s Words of W$dom   I   wonder   who   it   was   that   defined   man   a   raBonal  animal.  It  was  the  most  premature   definiBon   ever   given.   Man   is   many   things,   but  he  is  not  raBonal.  
  • 25. Wilde’s Words of W$dom   The   only   way   to   get   rid   of   a   temptaBon   is   to   yield   to   it.   Resist   it   and   your   soul   grows   sick   with  longing  for  the  things  it  has  forbidden  to   itself…  
  • 26. Y* Li-le Bug.r… •  Wilde’s  Woes   –  Court  -­‐  wri%ngs  used  against  him   –  Guilty:  “Gross  Indecency”     –  Jail  %me…  
  • 27. Goodbye, Oscar •  Died  -­‐  Nov.  30,1900    •  Meningi%s  •  Paris  Hotel  •  Final  Words…