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AP Society During L'Ancien Régime

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  • 1. L’Ancien Régime 17 th - 18 th C. European Society
  • 2. Agriculture
  • 3. 18 th C. Agriculture
    • Start of 1700’s – bad situation:
      • 80% of W. European’s livelihoods = agriculture
        • Very low production
        • Open-field System
      • Bad weather, poor crops = famine (16-17 th C)
        • Stomach ailments (from diet = bark, grass, etc.)
        • Lower immune systems
        • Smallpox, influenza
      • Paired w/ serfdom in East & heavy taxes all over
  • 4.  
  • 5. The Agricultural Revolution
      • Ca. 1650-1850
      • Characterized by:
        • Progressive elimination of fallow
        • New methods based on science
        • Technological advances
  • 6. Improvements
    • Eliminate fallow  alternate grain w/ nitrogen-storing crops
      • Result = more feed for animals (herds grew)  more meat, more manure
  • 7. Enclosure Movement
    • Fence in fields
      • Result = hurt peasants who relied on common fields (many protests)
  • 8. Leaders
    • Dutch
    • English
      • Jethro Tull (1674-1741)
        • Empirical research
        • Horses instead of oxen
        • Seed drill instead of scattering
  • 9. Industry
  • 10. Industrious Revolution
    • The shift (17 th /18 th C.) as families in NW Europe focused on earning wages instead of producing goods for household consumption
    • Result:
      • Decreased economic self-sufficiency
      • Increased ability to buy consumer goods
  • 11. Population Growth
    • 1720-1789
    • Main cause: Decline in mortality
      • Steady food supply
      • Bubonic Plague disappeared
      • Smallpox vaccine
      • Improvement in water supply & sewage
        • Swamp drainage = fewer mosquitoes/flies
  • 12. Rural Industry
    • Pop growth  more rural workers w/ no land  rural industry dev.
    • Cottage Industry: rural workers + hand tools in their homes = lg. scale manufacture goods to sell
      • Putting-out system = merchants loaned raw materials
  • 13. Life as a Rural Textile Worker
    • Small space – single room = workshop, kitchen & bedroom
    • Family worked @ handloom weaving
      • Women = spinning work (esp. single & widowed - “spinsters”)
  • 14. Spinning Jenny
    • Thomas Hargreaves (English weaver)
    • Single wheel turn
    • operated 8 spindles
  • 15. Women & Industry
    • Women faced:
      • Difficult conditions
      • Lower wages
      • Poverty
  • 16. Marriage & Family
  • 17. Marriage
    • Late marriage (avg. age = 25-27)
    • 10-20% never married
    • Reason:
      • Waited until they could economically support selves & future children
  • 18. Work Away from Home
    • Boys
      • @ apx. 16
      • Apprenticeship in city
      • Poor  hired hands, laborers, servants
  • 19. Girls Away from Home
    • Girls
      • Fewer opportunities (trend changes in 18 th C)
      • Traditional female occupations
      • Seamstress, linen draper or midwife
      • Little independence (wages  parents)
      • Physical abuse from mistresses (boss woman)
  • 20. Children
    • Avg. woman – birthed 6+ children
    • High infant (& mother) mortality
  • 21. Breastfeeding
    • Poor
      • nursed 2+ yrs (limited pregnancy)
      • Saved lives (inc. baby’s immunity)
    • Rich
      • seldom nursed (undignified)
      • Hired wet-nurses – lactating woman paid to live in & nurse baby
  • 22. Wet-Nursing
    • Widespread business of 18 th C.
    • Often cared for child
    • Exp. common in N. France (sent away)
    • Problems:
      • Infant mortality (accidents, shared milk) –apx. 35% died before 1 st b-day
  • 23. Foundlings & Infanticide
    • Limited options for unwanted pregnancies
      • Abortion = illegal & very dangerous
      • Infanticide (illegal, but…)
    • Foundling homes (orphanages)
      • Single women (illegitimacy incr.)
      • Poor families
      • 100,000 abandoned/yr. (all of Europe)
      • most died
  • 24. 18 th C. Wars
  • 25. War of Austrian Succession
    • 1740-1748
    • See Timeline
  • 26. Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
    • Reversal of longstanding diplomatic alliances
    • What was : France & Prussia vs. Britain & Austria became : France, Austria (+ Russia*) vs. Britain, Prussia (+ Hanover)
  • 27.  
  • 28. Seven Years War
    • 1756-1763
    • Began  Prussia invaded/defeated Saxony
    • Global conflict that encompassed:
      • Europe
      • The Americas
      • India
      • Africa
  • 29.  
  • 30. Seven Years War
    • 1757: Austria declared war on Prussia
    • GB and France – most fighting in colonies (French & Indian Wars)
    • Prussia not fairing well until…
  • 31. Seven Years War
    • 1762 – Peter III ascended Russian throne  changed sides
    • Treaty of Paris (1763) – ended SYW
  • 32. Seven Years War - Outcomes
    • GB = greatest colonial power
    • Prussia = greatest continental Euro power
    • Hapsburg Austria = power further diminished
    • France = deeper in debt & bent on revenge against GB…
  • 33. The Enlightenment "Écrasons l'Infâme!” ( Let us crush the vile thing!) ~Voltaire
  • 34. What is The Enlightenment?
    • A philosophical movement of the 18 th C. that:
      • Stressed human reasoning over blind faith or obedience
      • Encouraged “scientific” thinking (rationalism & empiricism)
      • Believed reason could be used to solve all human problems
  • 35. Origins of The Enlightenment
    • Direct product of the Scientific Revolution
    • The SR:
      • Thinkers  power of reason
      • Scientific method & reason  discoveries abt physical world
      • People wondered: Can reason be used to study society & human nature?
  • 36. Who?
    • Predominately
      • bourgeoisie (middle class)
      • aristocracy
    • Enlightenment ideals spread by philosophes
  • 37. What is a Philosophe?
    • “ free thinker” (French)
    • Students of society who analyzed its evils and advanced reforms to correct those evils
    • human nature = good
    • Promoted change & progress
  • 38. Enlightenment & Religion
    • Pre-Enlightenment
      • human nature = sinful
      • Doctrine of Original Sin
  • 39. Deism
    • The belief in the:
      • existence of a God or supreme being
      • nature & reason
    • Anti-organized religion
    • Deists saw God as:
      • Distant
      • Uninvolved
      • A “watchmaker”
  • 40. Characteristics of the Enlightenment
    • Rationalism - reason is the answer to all things
  • 41. Characteristics of the Enlightenment
    • Rationalism - reason is the answer to all things
    • Secularism - application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy
  • 42. Characteristics of the Enlightenment
    • Rationalism - reason is the answer to all things
    • Secularism - application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy
    • Tolerance - of various beliefs
  • 43. Characteristics of the Enlightenment
    • Rationalism - reason is the answer to all things
    • Secularism - application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy
    • Tolerance - of various beliefs
    • Freedom - of thought & expression; bring liberty to all
  • 44. Characteristics of the Enlightenment
    • Rationalism - reason is the answer to all things
    • Secularism - application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy
    • Tolerance - of various beliefs
    • Freedom - of thought & expression; bring liberty to all
  • 45. Characteristics of the Enlightenment
    • 4. Freedom - of thought & expression; liberty to all
    • 5. Education of the masses
  • 46. Characteristics of the Enlightenment
    • 4. Freedom - thought & expression; liberty to all
    • 5. Education of the masses
    • 6. Social & Legal Reforms
      • Justice, kindness, charity for all
      • Habeas corpus
      • No torture
      • Written constitutions to guarantee natural rights
  • 47. Emergence of a Print Culture
    • A critical element of spreading Enlightenment ideas was through print
    • Result: literacy increased
  • 48.  
  • 49. Literacy During the Enlightenment
    • This explosion of a massive print culture was both the cause and the effect of the tremendous increase in literacy that took place in the 18 th C.

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