AP Society During L'Ancien Régime

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AP Society During L'Ancien Régime

  1. 1. L’Ancien Régime 17 th - 18 th C. European Society
  2. 2. Agriculture
  3. 3. 18 th C. Agriculture <ul><li>Start of 1700’s – bad situation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of W. European’s livelihoods = agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very low production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open-field System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad weather, poor crops = famine (16-17 th C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach ailments (from diet = bark, grass, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower immune systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smallpox, influenza </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paired w/ serfdom in East & heavy taxes all over </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. The Agricultural Revolution <ul><ul><li>Ca. 1650-1850 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive elimination of fallow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New methods based on science </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technological advances </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Improvements <ul><li>Eliminate fallow  alternate grain w/ nitrogen-storing crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result = more feed for animals (herds grew)  more meat, more manure </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Enclosure Movement <ul><li>Fence in fields </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result = hurt peasants who relied on common fields (many protests) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Leaders <ul><li>Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jethro Tull (1674-1741) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horses instead of oxen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seed drill instead of scattering </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Industry
  9. 10. Industrious Revolution <ul><li>The shift (17 th /18 th C.) as families in NW Europe focused on earning wages instead of producing goods for household consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased economic self-sufficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased ability to buy consumer goods </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Population Growth <ul><li>1720-1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Main cause: Decline in mortality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steady food supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bubonic Plague disappeared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallpox vaccine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in water supply & sewage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swamp drainage = fewer mosquitoes/flies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Rural Industry <ul><li>Pop growth  more rural workers w/ no land  rural industry dev. </li></ul><ul><li>Cottage Industry: rural workers + hand tools in their homes = lg. scale manufacture goods to sell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting-out system = merchants loaned raw materials </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Life as a Rural Textile Worker <ul><li>Small space – single room = workshop, kitchen & bedroom </li></ul><ul><li>Family worked @ handloom weaving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women = spinning work (esp. single & widowed - “spinsters”) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Spinning Jenny <ul><li>Thomas Hargreaves (English weaver) </li></ul><ul><li>Single wheel turn </li></ul><ul><li>operated 8 spindles </li></ul>
  14. 15. Women & Industry <ul><li>Women faced: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower wages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Marriage & Family
  16. 17. Marriage <ul><li>Late marriage (avg. age = 25-27) </li></ul><ul><li>10-20% never married </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waited until they could economically support selves & future children </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Work Away from Home <ul><li>Boys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>@ apx. 16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apprenticeship in city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor  hired hands, laborers, servants </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Girls Away from Home <ul><li>Girls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer opportunities (trend changes in 18 th C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional female occupations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seamstress, linen draper or midwife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little independence (wages  parents) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical abuse from mistresses (boss woman) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Children <ul><li>Avg. woman – birthed 6+ children </li></ul><ul><li>High infant (& mother) mortality </li></ul>
  20. 21. Breastfeeding <ul><li>Poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nursed 2+ yrs (limited pregnancy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saved lives (inc. baby’s immunity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rich </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seldom nursed (undignified) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hired wet-nurses – lactating woman paid to live in & nurse baby </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Wet-Nursing <ul><li>Widespread business of 18 th C. </li></ul><ul><li>Often cared for child </li></ul><ul><li>Exp. common in N. France (sent away) </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infant mortality (accidents, shared milk) –apx. 35% died before 1 st b-day </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Foundlings & Infanticide <ul><li>Limited options for unwanted pregnancies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion = illegal & very dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infanticide (illegal, but…) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foundling homes (orphanages) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single women (illegitimacy incr.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100,000 abandoned/yr. (all of Europe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most died </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. 18 th C. Wars
  24. 25. War of Austrian Succession <ul><li>1740-1748 </li></ul><ul><li>See Timeline </li></ul>
  25. 26. Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 <ul><li>Reversal of longstanding diplomatic alliances </li></ul><ul><li>What was : France & Prussia vs. Britain & Austria became : France, Austria (+ Russia*) vs. Britain, Prussia (+ Hanover) </li></ul>
  26. 28. Seven Years War <ul><li>1756-1763 </li></ul><ul><li>Began  Prussia invaded/defeated Saxony </li></ul><ul><li>Global conflict that encompassed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. Seven Years War <ul><li>1757: Austria declared war on Prussia </li></ul><ul><li>GB and France – most fighting in colonies (French & Indian Wars) </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia not fairing well until… </li></ul>
  28. 31. Seven Years War <ul><li>1762 – Peter III ascended Russian throne  changed sides </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Paris (1763) – ended SYW </li></ul>
  29. 32. Seven Years War - Outcomes <ul><li>GB = greatest colonial power </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia = greatest continental Euro power </li></ul><ul><li>Hapsburg Austria = power further diminished </li></ul><ul><li>France = deeper in debt & bent on revenge against GB… </li></ul>
  30. 33. The Enlightenment &quot;Écrasons l'Infâme!” ( Let us crush the vile thing!) ~Voltaire
  31. 34. What is The Enlightenment? <ul><li>A philosophical movement of the 18 th C. that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressed human reasoning over blind faith or obedience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged “scientific” thinking (rationalism & empiricism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed reason could be used to solve all human problems </li></ul></ul>
  32. 35. Origins of The Enlightenment <ul><li>Direct product of the Scientific Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>The SR: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinkers  power of reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific method & reason  discoveries abt physical world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People wondered: Can reason be used to study society & human nature? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. Who? <ul><li>Predominately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bourgeoisie (middle class) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aristocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment ideals spread by philosophes </li></ul>
  34. 37. What is a Philosophe? <ul><li>“ free thinker” (French) </li></ul><ul><li>Students of society who analyzed its evils and advanced reforms to correct those evils </li></ul><ul><li>human nature = good </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted change & progress </li></ul>
  35. 38. Enlightenment & Religion <ul><li>Pre-Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>human nature = sinful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctrine of Original Sin </li></ul></ul>
  36. 39. Deism <ul><li>The belief in the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>existence of a God or supreme being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nature & reason </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anti-organized religion </li></ul><ul><li>Deists saw God as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninvolved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A “watchmaker” </li></ul></ul>
  37. 40. Characteristics of the Enlightenment <ul><li>Rationalism - reason is the answer to all things </li></ul>
  38. 41. Characteristics of the Enlightenment <ul><li>Rationalism - reason is the answer to all things </li></ul><ul><li>Secularism - application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy </li></ul>
  39. 42. Characteristics of the Enlightenment <ul><li>Rationalism - reason is the answer to all things </li></ul><ul><li>Secularism - application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance - of various beliefs </li></ul>
  40. 43. Characteristics of the Enlightenment <ul><li>Rationalism - reason is the answer to all things </li></ul><ul><li>Secularism - application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance - of various beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom - of thought & expression; bring liberty to all </li></ul>
  41. 44. Characteristics of the Enlightenment <ul><li>Rationalism - reason is the answer to all things </li></ul><ul><li>Secularism - application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance - of various beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom - of thought & expression; bring liberty to all </li></ul>
  42. 45. Characteristics of the Enlightenment <ul><li>4. Freedom - of thought & expression; liberty to all </li></ul><ul><li>5. Education of the masses </li></ul>
  43. 46. Characteristics of the Enlightenment <ul><li>4. Freedom - thought & expression; liberty to all </li></ul><ul><li>5. Education of the masses </li></ul><ul><li>6. Social & Legal Reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice, kindness, charity for all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habeas corpus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No torture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written constitutions to guarantee natural rights </li></ul></ul>
  44. 47. Emergence of a Print Culture <ul><li>A critical element of spreading Enlightenment ideas was through print </li></ul><ul><li>Result: literacy increased </li></ul>
  45. 49. Literacy During the Enlightenment <ul><li>This explosion of a massive print culture was both the cause and the effect of the tremendous increase in literacy that took place in the 18 th C. </li></ul>

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