AP Scientific Revolution
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AP Scientific Revolution

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AP Scientific Revolution AP Scientific Revolution Presentation Transcript

  • The Scientific Revolution A New World View
  • What Was the Scientific Revolution?
    • A revolution in human understanding and knowledge about the physical universe
    • 17th Century
    • Began w/ Copernicus
    • Ended w/ Newton
  • “ Science” Before the SR
    • Based on reasoning
    • Experimental method or observation - not used
    • Medieval Science
      • Alchemy
      • Astrology
  • Creating a New Worldview
    • Hallmarks of SR
      • Questioning of old knowledge & assumptions
      • Gradual replacement of religious & superstitious presumptions
      • Gradual rise of science & reason
  • Factors Leading to SR
    • Rise of universities
    • Renaissance
    • Reformation
    • Exploration
  • Astronomy & Physics
    • Work with the person next to you and diagram the Universe as we know it today
    • Be as accurate as possible
    • You have 2 minutes…
  • How does your diagram differ?
  • Astronomy & Physics
    • Prior to SR - Ptolemaic System prevailed
    • Geocentric Universe
      • Earth is at center
      • Remains fixed while the heavens move around it
  •  
  • Nicolaus Copernicus
    • 1473-1543
    • Polish
    • Suggested the universe was heliocentric
  • Copernicus’ Heliocentric Universe
      • Sun centered
      • Planets revolved around sun
      • Moon, around Earth
      • Earth rotated on an
      • axis
  • Copernican Universe
    • Afraid of the Catholic Church
    • Published theory
    • on his deathbed
  • Tycho Brahe
    • 1546-1601
    • Danish mathematician
    • More accurate positioning of planets
  • Johannes Kepler
    • 1571-1630
    • German mathematician
    • Proved Copernican theory via math
    • Kepler’s First Law
      • Earth orbits in an elliptical (egg-shaped) pattern, not circular like Copernicus suggested
  • Galileo Galilei
    • 1564-1642
    • Italian mathematician
    • Improved telescope
    • Went public with heliocentrism
  • Science on Trial
    • Catholic Church - not happy
    • Arrested by Inquisition
    • Tried
    • Condemned
    • Forced to recant Copernican views
    • House arrest
  • Sir Isaac Newton
    • 1642-1727
    • British mathematician
    • Laws of motion
  • Universal Law of Gravity
    • Explains why planets continue an elliptical orbit around sun
    • Mathematical in nature
    • States that every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity
  • Medicine
    • Better understanding of anatomy & physiology
    • Microscope invented
  • Chemistry
    • Robert Boyle
      • Boyle’s Law (properties of gasses)
    • Antoine Lavoisier
      • Father of modern chemistry
      • Invented system for naming chemical elements still used today (periodic table)
  • Rationalism
    • Reason, not tradition, is the source of all knowledge
    • René Descartes (1596-1650)
    • French philosopher & mathematician
    • Cogito, ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am”)
    • Deductive reasoning (general specific)
  • Empiricism
    • The belief that experience is the only true source of knowledge
    • Huge shift toward empiricism in the SR
    • Led to development of the Scientific Method
  • Scientific Method
    • Francis Bacon (1561-1627)
    • English philosopher & empiricist
    • Systematic procedure for collecting & analyzing evidence
    • Inductive reasoning (specific general)