AP Scientific Revolution

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AP Scientific Revolution

  1. 1. The Scientific Revolution A New World View
  2. 2. What Was the Scientific Revolution? <ul><li>A revolution in human understanding and knowledge about the physical universe </li></ul><ul><li>17th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Began w/ Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>Ended w/ Newton </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ Science” Before the SR <ul><li>Based on reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental method or observation - not used </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alchemy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astrology </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Creating a New Worldview <ul><li>Hallmarks of SR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning of old knowledge & assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual replacement of religious & superstitious presumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual rise of science & reason </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Factors Leading to SR <ul><li>Rise of universities </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration </li></ul>
  6. 6. Astronomy & Physics <ul><li>Work with the person next to you and diagram the Universe as we know it today </li></ul><ul><li>Be as accurate as possible </li></ul><ul><li>You have 2 minutes… </li></ul>
  7. 7. How does your diagram differ?
  8. 8. Astronomy & Physics <ul><li>Prior to SR - Ptolemaic System prevailed </li></ul><ul><li>Geocentric Universe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth is at center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains fixed while the heavens move around it </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Nicolaus Copernicus <ul><li>1473-1543 </li></ul><ul><li>Polish </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested the universe was heliocentric </li></ul>
  10. 11. Copernicus’ Heliocentric Universe <ul><ul><li>Sun centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planets revolved around sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon, around Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth rotated on an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>axis </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Copernican Universe <ul><li>Afraid of the Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Published theory </li></ul><ul><li>on his deathbed </li></ul>
  12. 13. Tycho Brahe <ul><li>1546-1601 </li></ul><ul><li>Danish mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>More accurate positioning of planets </li></ul>
  13. 14. Johannes Kepler <ul><li>1571-1630 </li></ul><ul><li>German mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>Proved Copernican theory via math </li></ul><ul><li>Kepler’s First Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth orbits in an elliptical (egg-shaped) pattern, not circular like Copernicus suggested </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Galileo Galilei <ul><li>1564-1642 </li></ul><ul><li>Italian mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>Improved telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Went public with heliocentrism </li></ul>
  15. 16. Science on Trial <ul><li>Catholic Church - not happy </li></ul><ul><li>Arrested by Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Tried </li></ul><ul><li>Condemned </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to recant Copernican views </li></ul><ul><li>House arrest </li></ul>
  16. 17. Sir Isaac Newton <ul><li>1642-1727 </li></ul><ul><li>British mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>Laws of motion </li></ul>
  17. 18. Universal Law of Gravity <ul><li>Explains why planets continue an elliptical orbit around sun </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical in nature </li></ul><ul><li>States that every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity </li></ul>
  18. 19. Medicine <ul><li>Better understanding of anatomy & physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Microscope invented </li></ul>
  19. 20. Chemistry <ul><li>Robert Boyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boyle’s Law (properties of gasses) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antoine Lavoisier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Father of modern chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invented system for naming chemical elements still used today (periodic table) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Rationalism <ul><li>Reason, not tradition, is the source of all knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>René Descartes (1596-1650) </li></ul><ul><li>French philosopher & mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>Cogito, ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am”) </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning (general specific) </li></ul>
  21. 22. Empiricism <ul><li>The belief that experience is the only true source of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Huge shift toward empiricism in the SR </li></ul><ul><li>Led to development of the Scientific Method </li></ul>
  22. 23. Scientific Method <ul><li>Francis Bacon (1561-1627) </li></ul><ul><li>English philosopher & empiricist </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic procedure for collecting & analyzing evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning (specific general) </li></ul>

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