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AP Long 19th Century
AP Long 19th Century
AP Long 19th Century
AP Long 19th Century
AP Long 19th Century
AP Long 19th Century
AP Long 19th Century
AP Long 19th Century
AP Long 19th Century
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AP Long 19th Century

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  1. The Long 19 th Century An Age of Revolution, Industry, & “Isms”
  2. Bell Ringer <ul><li>What happened to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1812? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss with partner - 30 seconds </li></ul>
  3. The Congress of Vienna Europe After Napoleon Bonaparte
  4. Congress of Vienna <ul><li>WHAT: The Congress of Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN: September 1814 to June 1815 </li></ul><ul><li>WHO: representatives of major European powers </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE: Vienna, Austria </li></ul><ul><li>WHY: reorganize Europe post-Napoleon </li></ul>
  5. Congress of Vienna <ul><li>Five Great European Powers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prussia – Frederick Wilhelm III </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia – Tsar Alexander </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria – Klemens von Metternich </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain – Lord Castleraugh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France - Tallyrand </li></ul></ul>
  6. Klemens von Metternich <ul><li>Influential Austrian prince </li></ul><ul><li>Distrusted democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to restore Europe </li></ul>
  7. Von Metternich’s Plan <ul><li>3 Main Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon had overthrown all kings & replaced with his family members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Original monarchies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>restored </li></ul></ul></ul>Louis XVIII of France
  8. Von Metternich’s Plan <ul><ul><li>2. Contain France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon was power hungry & had instilled strong sense of nationalism in France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many surrounding countries felt threatened </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VM, gave back power to countries surrounding France (containment) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. Napoleon’s Europe COV’s Europe
  10. Von Metternich’s Plan <ul><ul><li>3. Balance of Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weaken France, but not too much </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No one country too powerful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This ensured no one country could easily overpower another (like Napoleon had done) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. Carlsbad Decrees <ul><li>Response to nationalist student society ( Burschenschaften ) </li></ul><ul><li>Society led by Friedrich Jahn: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalist (wanted unified Germany) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racist (wanted racially pure German nation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xenophobic (anti-foreigner) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metternich issued to dissolve such societies & censor press (incorrectly doubted their motives) </li></ul>
  12. More Challenges <ul><li>1820s full of rebellions that challenged COV </li></ul><ul><li>Spain, Portugal & Italy demanded constitutional gov’ts </li></ul><ul><li>Von Metternich urged conservatives to crush them </li></ul><ul><li>Slowed things down, but did not stop them </li></ul><ul><li>By mid 1800s, the socialists of the Industrial Revolution were pushing workers to rebel </li></ul>
  13. Political Revolts in the 1820’s
  14. Political Revolts in the 1820’s <ul><li>Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul>
  15. Spain <ul><li>Ferdinand VII (r. 1814-1833) </li></ul><ul><li>Restored pre-Revolutionary nobility, church & monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Repressive practices </li></ul><ul><li>Response: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of secret societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparked revolts in Italy </li></ul></ul>
  16. Italy <ul><li>Naples, Piedmont-Sardinia </li></ul><ul><li>Demanded constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Too much disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>Result: emergence of nationalism (fight Austrians for independence) </li></ul><ul><li>Laid groundwork for Italian unification </li></ul>
  17. Russia <ul><li>Decembrist Revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander I died suddenly (1825) </li></ul><ul><li>Brother Nicholas I (r. 1825-1855) inherited throne </li></ul>
  18. <ul><li>Few disputed – felt Constantine was rightful heir & would be pro-Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Easily suppressed, tried, imprisoned/hard labor  heroes of legend (“Decembrists”) </li></ul>
  19. Balkans/Greece <ul><li>Wanted independence from Ottoman Turks </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia = successful revolt (independence in 1817) </li></ul><ul><li>Greece = 1820-21 – massacred Turks; Turks retaliated w/ own massacres against Greeks, sold women into slavery </li></ul>
  20. <ul><li>Massacre at Chios </li></ul><ul><li>Eugène Delacroix </li></ul><ul><li>(1824) </li></ul>A military attack on the inhabitants of Chios by Ottoman forces commenced on 11 April, 1822 and was prosecuted for several months into the summer of the same year. The campaign resulted in the deaths of 20,000 citizens, and the forced deportation into slavery of almost all the surviving 70,0000 inhabitants
  21. Greece <ul><li>Austria sided w/ Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>Rest of Europe sided w/ Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Rec’d help from GB, France & Russia </li></ul><ul><li>1830: Greece declared independent </li></ul><ul><li>Significance: nationalism + public opinion = 1 st breach in Metternich’s system </li></ul>
  22. The French Revolutions of 1830 & 1848
  23. Restoration of Monarchy <ul><li>Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII (18 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Émigrés returned (not happy) </li></ul><ul><li>Émigré nobles & high clergy wanted Old Regime (ultra-royalists) </li></ul><ul><li>Faced opposition </li></ul>
  24. Liberals in France <ul><li>Wanted for middle class: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power in gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decent pay for working class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food for all </li></ul></ul>
  25. Charles X <ul><li>Louis XVIII – died in 1824 </li></ul><ul><li>Successor – Charles X (brother) </li></ul><ul><li>Charles X wanted absolutism </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected proposed charter (constitution) </li></ul>
  26. The July Revolution - 1830 <ul><li>July 1830 – Charles X: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspended legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited right to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted press </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Naturally, what happened? </li></ul>
  27. Response <ul><li>Revolt in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens put up barricades </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked king’s soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Within days, rebels controlled Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Charles abdicated & fled to England </li></ul>
  28. Republic or Constitutional Monarchy? <ul><li>Radical rebels wanted a republic </li></ul><ul><li>Moderates wanted a constitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Moderates got their way… </li></ul>
  29. Louis Philippe <ul><li>Chosen as king </li></ul><ul><li>Cousin of Charles X </li></ul><ul><li>Young, more liberal-minded </li></ul><ul><li>Supported the 1789 revolution </li></ul>
  30. The Citizen King <ul><li>Nickname for Louis Philippe </li></ul><ul><li>Owed the throne to the French citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Was “one of them” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Got along well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dressed down (frock coat & top hat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walked the streets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended suffrage, but… </li></ul></ul>
  31. Problems <ul><li>Policies favored the wealthier bourgeoisie – often at the expense of the working class </li></ul><ul><li>Extended suffrage to the wealthiest citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Most people – no suffrage </li></ul>
  32. Discontent <ul><li>Radicals went underground – worked toward Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Many began to accuse Louis Philippe of corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for universal suffrage </li></ul>
  33. Economic Slump <ul><li>By 1848: </li></ul><ul><li>Many factories shut down </li></ul><ul><li>Poor harvests </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Bread prices soared </li></ul><ul><li>Sound familiar?? </li></ul>
  34. February Days (1848) <ul><li>Gov’t tried to stop public meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Angry crowds sang La Marseillaise & built blockades out of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron rails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overturned carts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paving stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toppled trees </li></ul></ul>
  35. February Days (cont.) <ul><li>Clashed with troops </li></ul><ul><li>52 rebels killed </li></ul>
  36. Results of February Days <ul><li>Louis Philippe abdicated </li></ul><ul><li>Liberals, radicals, socialists, claimed the Second Republic of France </li></ul><ul><li>Currently (since 1958) France is on its Fifth… </li></ul>
  37. A Republic Divided <ul><li>Deep differences </li></ul><ul><li>Bourgeois liberals – constitution/political reform </li></ul><ul><li>Socialists – social & economic reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up national workshops – provided work for unemployed </li></ul></ul>
  38. June Days <ul><li>Bourgeoisie won control of gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Got rid of workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Ticked off the Socialists & workers </li></ul><ul><li>Workers – “Bread or Lead!” </li></ul>
  39. More Violence <ul><li>Bourgeoisie – attacked protestors </li></ul><ul><li>1500 killed before gov’t crushed rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Left a deep mistrust between the bourgeoisie and the working class </li></ul>
  40. Constitution <ul><li>By end of 1848, National Assembly had created a constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicameral legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal manhood suffrage </li></ul></ul>
  41. Election <ul><li>Over 9 million could vote (up from 200,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Elected Louis Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte </li></ul><ul><li>Appealed to liberals – sympathy for working class </li></ul><ul><li>Appealed to conservatives – name = restore order </li></ul>
  42. Buh-Bye Republic <ul><li>Louis Napoleon – crowned self emperor (1852) </li></ul><ul><li>Proclaimed self Napoleon III </li></ul><ul><li>Ended Second Republic (began Second Empire) </li></ul>
  43. The Age of Industry and Isms The Industrial Revolution & The Age of Ideology
  44. Introduction <ul><li>The Industrial Revolution impacted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul></ul>
  45. Industrial Revolution <ul><li>Change from using hand methods to machine methods to produce goods </li></ul><ul><li>Result of the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population explosion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Began in Great Britain - Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital & demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political & social conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technology </li></ul></ul>
  46. Technology Year Invention Inventor 1785-1813 Power Loom Edmund Cartwright 1807 Steamboat Robert Fulton 1814 Steam Locomotive George Stephenson 1826 Photograph Joseph Niepce 1837 Telegraph Samuel Morse 1876 Telephone Alexander Graham Bell 1870-80s Phonograph, light bulb, motion pictures Thomas Edison
  47. Laissez-Faire Economics <ul><li>Adam Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Free market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$ more goods at lower price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$ no government involved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capitalism = driving force of the industrial age </li></ul>
  48. Thomas Malthus <ul><li>Englishman </li></ul><ul><li>“ Essay on the Principle of Population” (1798) </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty & misery  population growing faster than food supply </li></ul><ul><li>Shaped economic thinking </li></ul>
  49. Urbanization
  50. Working Class Life
  51. Industrial Town Life
  52. Authors Charles Dickens Amandine Auror Dupon (George Sand) Émile Zola
  53. Middle Class
  54. Domestic Service
  55. Mining
  56. Factory Conditions
  57. Factory Dangers
  58. Protests & Unions
  59. Child Labor
  60.  
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  66. Workhouses
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  70. 19 th Century Isms
  71. Impact of Industrial Revolution <ul><li>Social concerns  social reform </li></ul><ul><li>19 th Century = new ways of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking at the world </li></ul></ul>
  72. 19 th Century “Isms” <ul><li>“ ism” = belief or ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology: a coherent set of beliefs about the way the social and political order should be organized </li></ul><ul><li>2 basic ways to define any ideology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it oppose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it advocate? </li></ul></ul>
  73. Nationalism <ul><li>All people derive their identities from their nations, which are defined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared cultural traditions & history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion (sometimes) </li></ul></ul>
  74. Nationalism: Western Europe <ul><li>Spokespeople: Hegel, Mazzini </li></ul><ul><li>Members: Entire countries of France, England, Spain, Italy, and parts of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t: Used national pride to unify & get citizens to do things (war, colonies, etc) </li></ul>
  75. Nationalism: Western Europe <ul><li>Advocated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural nationalism: had own language, history & culture – wanted to perfect it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political nationalism: preserve national culture, ensure liberty & justice for individual </li></ul></ul>
  76. Nationalism: Eastern Europe <ul><li>Spokesperson: Vuk Karadzic (Serbian Nationalist) & many others </li></ul><ul><li>COV – lumped different cultures together </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>independence from other empires (Austrian, Ottoman, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>preservation of own historic culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>borders based on culture </li></ul></ul>
  77. Nationalism: Eastern Europe <ul><ul><li>Poland: undo partitions of Polish territory & reestablish Polish state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magyars: autonomy of Hungary within Hapsburg Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia: Pan-Slavism – unite all Slavic people under Russia’s leadership (opposed by many Slavic nations) </li></ul></ul>
  78. Utilitarianism <ul><li>Spokesperson: Jeremy Bentham </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated: The greatest happiness for the greatest number </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed: Existing legal systems (harmed people they should serve) </li></ul>
  79. Radicalism <ul><li>Spokesman: Jeremy Bentham </li></ul><ul><li>Members: working class leaders & industrial capitalists </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find a government best for your people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal manhood suffrage </li></ul></ul>
  80. Radicalism <ul><li>Advocated (cont.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform/reconstruct: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal & civil law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prison & poor relief </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal organization & rotten boroughs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Opposed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservatives </li></ul></ul>
  81. Liberalism <ul><li>Spokesperson: John Stuart Mill </li></ul><ul><li>Members: Business, professional, some landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t: Pro representative gov’t </li></ul>
  82. Liberalism <ul><li>Advocated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change through legislation NOT revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A way for people & gov’t to coexist without </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harming majority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stifling individuality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual rights & freedoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal suffrage (late 19 th C onward) </li></ul></ul>
  83. Liberalism (cont.) <ul><li>Opposed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of force to compel citizens to believe something (anti-military) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People not helping society/others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government & church interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal suffrage (feared mob rule) – this changed by late 19 th C </li></ul></ul>
  84. Feminism <ul><li>Spokespeople: George Sand (French), John Stuart Mill, Harriet Taylor (English) </li></ul><ul><li>Members: philosophical radicals, some socialists, women </li></ul>
  85. Feminism: Continental Europe <ul><li>Advocated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social & economic equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reform in women’s property & divorce laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT fighting for political rights at this time </li></ul></ul>
  86. Feminism: England <ul><li>Already had economic & social equality </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal political rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s Suffrage </li></ul></ul>
  87. Republicanism <ul><li>Members: intelligentsia, students, writers, working class, veterans (outgrowth of Jacobins) </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t: Pro Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal male suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform by violence & force (met in secret societies) </li></ul></ul>
  88. Republicanism <ul><li>Opposed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Please note: this is NOT referring to the US political party or their beliefs </li></ul>
  89. Socialism <ul><li>Spokespeople: Robert Owen, Count Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Louis Blanc </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t: Pro-Parliament </li></ul>Saint-Simon
  90. Socialism <ul><li>Advocated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equal distribution of income (useful members) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social equality & harmony through communities based on cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communal ownership of assets </li></ul></ul></ul>
  91. Socialism <ul><li>Opposed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>laissez-faire economics (capitalism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injustice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>competition </li></ul></ul>
  92. Utopian Socialism <ul><li>Built self-sufficient communities </li></ul><ul><li>All shared workload </li></ul><ul><li>Common property </li></ul><ul><li>If gap between rich & poor disappeared, fighting would cease </li></ul><ul><li>All live as peaceful, happy family – a “Utopia” </li></ul>
  93. Robert Owen <ul><li>Utopian Socialist </li></ul><ul><li>Successful mill owner </li></ul><ul><li>Refused child labor </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigned for child labor laws </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged labor unions </li></ul>
  94. Owen’s Utopia <ul><li>Believed that living conditions shaped people’s character </li></ul><ul><li>New Lanark, Scotland factory – model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opened a school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated employees well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Point: one could still make money while providing decent conditions for workers </li></ul>
  95. Conservativism <ul><li>Spokespeople: Edmund Burke, Von Metternich </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t: monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status quo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opposed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid change </li></ul></ul>
  96. Humanitarianism <ul><li>Spokesperson: Césare Beccaria </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kindness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benevolence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Opposed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maltreatment of working class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjugation of women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul></ul>
  97. Communism <ul><li>Spokespeople: Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels </li></ul><ul><li>The Communist Manifesto (1848) </li></ul>
  98. Friedrich Engles <ul><li>Communism is a form of socialism that sees class struggle between the proletariat & bourgeoisie as inevitable </li></ul>
  99. Marxism <ul><li>Heavily influenced by Hegel & his dialectical method </li></ul><ul><li>Work with your partner to diagram the Hegelian Dialectic (1 MINUTE) </li></ul>
  100. How Marxism Works… <ul><li>Economics = driving force behind history </li></ul><ul><li>History is a series of class struggles: </li></ul>HAVE NOTS HAVES plebeians patricians serfs lords Proletariat (working class) Bourgeoisie (middle class)
  101. End of History <ul><li>Marx theorized that history would end with communism </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  102. End of History <ul><li>Communism would end the struggles of the past because wealth and power would be equally shared </li></ul>
  103. Weakness & Impact <ul><li>Claimed to be based on “scientific law” </li></ul><ul><li>Predicted worldwide misery & revolution (was wrong) </li></ul><ul><li>Not popular in 1848, but would have major impact </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced many governments & is active today </li></ul>
  104. Interpreting Marx <ul><li>“ The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite!” </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto </li></ul>

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