Enlightened   Despotism
What is Enlightened Despotism? <ul><li>a form of absolutism (or despotism) in which rulers were influenced by the Enlighte...
Philosophe’s Influence <ul><li>sought to redirect monarch’s power toward: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rationalization of economi...
Physiocrats’ Influence <ul><li>Economists of the Enl. </li></ul><ul><li>In France, urged: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deregulati...
Adam Smith <ul><li>Scottish physiocrat </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged “laissez-faire” (h...
Enlightened Despots <ul><li>Tended to allow:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>religious toleration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freedo...
Not So Enlightened Despot
Louis XV <ul><li>r. 1715-1774 </li></ul><ul><li>Great-grandson of Louis XIV </li></ul><ul><li>Cardinal Fleury (chief minis...
Attempts at Enlightenment <ul><li>Parlements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced w/ courts where judges could not own, sell, or...
Louis XVI <ul><li>r. 1774-1791 </li></ul><ul><li>Restored old parlements </li></ul><ul><li>Jacques Turgot = chief financia...
Turgot’s Reforms <ul><li>Edicts that:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freed grain trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppressed guild...
Turgot’s Reforms (cont.) <ul><li>Tried to introduce elected local assemblies to make gov’t more representative </li></ul><...
Enlightened Despots
Frederick the Great  King of Prussia not the mall…
Frederick II of Prussia <ul><li>r. 1740-1786  </li></ul><ul><li>AKA Frederick the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Self-described “...
Economic Policies <ul><li>Silesia = manufacturing district </li></ul><ul><li>State-initiated agricultural improvements: </...
However… <ul><li>Peasants still burdened by disproportionate taxes </li></ul>
Non-Economic Policies <ul><li>Religious Toleration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics & Jews allowed to settle in predominate...
Non-Econ. Policies (cont.) <ul><li>Rationalization of Legal System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Education Reform <ul><li>School Code of 1763 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All kids 5-13 must go to school </li></ul></ul>
Expansion <ul><li>1 st  Partition of Poland (1772) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Split 1/3 of Poland-Lithuania’s territory  & ½ it...
 
Joseph II King of Austria
Joseph II of Austria <ul><li>r. 1780-1790 </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ruled w/mom, Maria-Theresa from 1765 until her death in 178...
Joseph II <ul><li>impersonal & humorless </li></ul><ul><li>wanted to improve life for his people </li></ul>
Centralization of Authority <ul><li>Austria    very diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Maria-Theresa began some Enl. policies such...
Maria-Theresa (cont.) <ul><li>Expanded primary education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1774 – General School Ordinance = state sub...
Maria-Theresa (cont.) <ul><li>Limited the amount of labor that landowners could demand from peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Goa...
Joseph II’s Reforms <ul><li>Wanted to  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extend his borders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exert his autho...
Joe’s Reforms (cont.) <ul><li>Tried to est. German as sole language of the empire  (irrational not to all speak the same l...
Joseph & the Church <ul><li>Favored toleration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October 1781 - Toleration Decree </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Joseph & Church (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Jews: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relieved of certain taxes & signs of personal deg...
More Joseph & Church <ul><li>Sought to bring institutions of the Roman Catholic Church under his control (“Josephinism”) <...
Even More Joseph & the Church <ul><li>Dissolved est. R-C Seminaries (too much focus on Pope, not enough on parishners) & r...
Joseph’s Economic Reforms <ul><li>Abolished internal tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged building of new roads </li></ul>...
Economic Reforms (cont.) <ul><li>Created laws to limit authority of landowners over peasants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolish...
The BIG Economic Reform… <ul><li>Land Taxation (GASP!!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All landowners    pay taxes </li></ul></ul>...
Catherine the Great Empress of Russia
Catherine The Great <ul><li>r. 1762-1796 </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic Princess & wife/widow of Peter III </li></ul><ul><li>A...
 
Catherine the Great <ul><li>Enl. ideas convinced her that Russia was backward </li></ul><ul><li>Brought West to Russia </l...
1767 Legislative Commission <ul><li>564 Delegates from all walks of life </li></ul><ul><li>Goal = suggest legal reforms (g...
Pugachev Rebellion <ul><li>1771-1775 </li></ul><ul><li>Most violent peasant uprising in Russian history </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
CTG’s Legislative Reforms <ul><li>Power to nobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had power to oust her, so she made friends with ...
CTG’s Economic Reforms <ul><li>Cont. PTG’s mercantile ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of the small Russian urban middle ...
CTG’s Territorial Reforms <ul><li>Cont. drive for warm water ports (fought Ottoman Empire) </li></ul><ul><li>1774 Treaty o...
CTG’s Social Reforms <ul><li>Created hospitals & orphanages </li></ul><ul><li>Limited religious toleration </li></ul><ul><...
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AP Enlightened Despotism

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AP Enlightened Despotism

  1. 1. Enlightened Despotism
  2. 2. What is Enlightened Despotism? <ul><li>a form of absolutism (or despotism) in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment & applied its concepts to their territories </li></ul>
  3. 3. Philosophe’s Influence <ul><li>sought to redirect monarch’s power toward: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rationalization of economic & political structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>liberation of thought </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Physiocrats’ Influence <ul><li>Economists of the Enl. </li></ul><ul><li>In France, urged: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deregulation of grain trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More equitable taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In general: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro free market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti guild </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Adam Smith <ul><li>Scottish physiocrat </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged “laissez-faire” (hands off) </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible hand of the free market (supply & demand) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Enlightened Despots <ul><li>Tended to allow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>religious toleration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freedom of speech and the press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the right to hold private property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education </li></ul><ul><li>Greater attn to merit & hard work in bureaucracy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Not So Enlightened Despot
  8. 8. Louis XV <ul><li>r. 1715-1774 </li></ul><ul><li>Great-grandson of Louis XIV </li></ul><ul><li>Cardinal Fleury (chief minister)  </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively ineffective king </li></ul><ul><li>Drove France into deeper debt </li></ul>
  9. 9. Attempts at Enlightenment <ul><li>Parlements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced w/ courts where judges could not own, sell, or inherit office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portrayed Louis XV as tyrant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave up price controls on grain (1763) to open France to a free market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed in 1770 (grain shortage  famine) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Louis XVI <ul><li>r. 1774-1791 </li></ul><ul><li>Restored old parlements </li></ul><ul><li>Jacques Turgot = chief financial minister, physiocrat </li></ul>
  11. 11. Turgot’s Reforms <ul><li>Edicts that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freed grain trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppressed guilds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converted peasants’ forced labor on roads into a money tax payable by all land owners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced court expenses </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Turgot’s Reforms (cont.) <ul><li>Tried to introduce elected local assemblies to make gov’t more representative </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly resisted by nobles & parlement </li></ul><ul><li>Riots re: rising grain prices </li></ul>
  13. 13. Enlightened Despots
  14. 14. Frederick the Great King of Prussia not the mall…
  15. 15. Frederick II of Prussia <ul><li>r. 1740-1786 </li></ul><ul><li>AKA Frederick the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Self-described “first servant of the people” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Economic Policies <ul><li>Silesia = manufacturing district </li></ul><ul><li>State-initiated agricultural improvements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created more farmland (drained swamps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New crops: potatoes & turnips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established the Land-Mortgage Credit Assoc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>helped landowners raise $$ for ag. improvements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. However… <ul><li>Peasants still burdened by disproportionate taxes </li></ul>
  18. 18. Non-Economic Policies <ul><li>Religious Toleration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics & Jews allowed to settle in predominately Lutheran territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected Catholics in Silesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State benefited from the economic contributions of more workers </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Non-Econ. Policies (cont.) <ul><li>Rationalization of Legal System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unified regional law to match state law (more central authority) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased nobility’s influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abolished torture </li></ul>
  20. 20. Education Reform <ul><li>School Code of 1763 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All kids 5-13 must go to school </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Expansion <ul><li>1 st Partition of Poland (1772) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Split 1/3 of Poland-Lithuania’s territory & ½ its people among Prussia, Russia & Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? “growing religious tensions” in Poland </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Joseph II King of Austria
  23. 24. Joseph II of Austria <ul><li>r. 1780-1790 </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ruled w/mom, Maria-Theresa from 1765 until her death in 1780 </li></ul><ul><li>HRE 1765-1790 </li></ul>
  24. 25. Joseph II <ul><li>impersonal & humorless </li></ul><ul><li>wanted to improve life for his people </li></ul>
  25. 26. Centralization of Authority <ul><li>Austria  very diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Maria-Theresa began some Enl. policies such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient tax system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clergy & nobility taxed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought educational institutions to the service of the crown </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Maria-Theresa (cont.) <ul><li>Expanded primary education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1774 – General School Ordinance = state subsidies for schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1789 – ¼ of kids in school </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Maria-Theresa (cont.) <ul><li>Limited the amount of labor that landowners could demand from peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Goal = to create a pool from which to draw military recruits </li></ul>
  28. 29. Joseph II’s Reforms <ul><li>Wanted to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extend his borders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exert his authority over areas his mother chose to stay out (irrational to have more than 1 leader) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Joe’s Reforms (cont.) <ul><li>Tried to est. German as sole language of the empire (irrational not to all speak the same language) </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t work out, and eventually had to rescind these orders </li></ul>
  30. 31. Joseph & the Church <ul><li>Favored toleration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October 1781 - Toleration Decree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lutherans, Calvinists, & Greek Orthodox permitted to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have own places of worship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsor schools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter skilled trades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold academic appointments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold positions in public service </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Joseph & Church (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Jews: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relieved of certain taxes & signs of personal degradation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Granted the right to private worship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still did not have equality with other subjects </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 33. More Joseph & Church <ul><li>Sought to bring institutions of the Roman Catholic Church under his control (“Josephinism”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbade local bishops to communicate with the Pope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disbanded Jesuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved over 600 monasteries & took their land (exception: schools & hospitals) </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Even More Joseph & the Church <ul><li>Dissolved est. R-C Seminaries (too much focus on Pope, not enough on parishners) & replaced with 8 seminaries focused on parish duties </li></ul><ul><li>Funded w/ $$ from confiscated monasteries </li></ul><ul><li>R-C priests = employees of the state </li></ul>
  34. 35. Joseph’s Economic Reforms <ul><li>Abolished internal tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged building of new roads </li></ul><ul><li>Improved river transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Personally inspected farms & manufacturing districts </li></ul>
  35. 36. Economic Reforms (cont.) <ul><li>Created laws to limit authority of landowners over peasants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished serfdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granted peasants many personal freedoms such as the right to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engage in skilled work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal = reduce burdens on peasants </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. The BIG Economic Reform… <ul><li>Land Taxation (GASP!!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All landowners  pay taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants no longer had to bear burden of taxes alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Died shortly after this decree & it was never implemented (his brother Leopold was forced to repeal it…) </li></ul>
  37. 38. Catherine the Great Empress of Russia
  38. 39. Catherine The Great <ul><li>r. 1762-1796 </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic Princess & wife/widow of Peter III </li></ul><ul><li>Approved (& possibly aided in) the assassination of her husband </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gregory Orlov, her lover, organized the coup that murdered Peter III </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. Catherine the Great <ul><li>Enl. ideas convinced her that Russia was backward </li></ul><ul><li>Brought West to Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: Diderot - paid him & offered to publish his Encyclopédia in Russia when it was banned by French Gov’t </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. 1767 Legislative Commission <ul><li>564 Delegates from all walks of life </li></ul><ul><li>Goal = suggest legal reforms (guided by Enlightenment ideals of Montesquieu & Beccaria) </li></ul><ul><li>Result = nothing, but Catherine got a good feel for her country’s problems </li></ul>
  41. 43. Pugachev Rebellion <ul><li>1771-1775 </li></ul><ul><li>Most violent peasant uprising in Russian history </li></ul><ul><li>1773-1774 - serfs and Cossacks killed 1500 nobles and clergy </li></ul><ul><li>This rebellion limited the amount of reforms geared toward them </li></ul>
  42. 45. CTG’s Legislative Reforms <ul><li>Power to nobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had power to oust her, so she made friends with them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Charter of Nobility” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave nobles complete control over serfs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local offices given to local nobles (not royal offices, though) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. CTG’s Economic Reforms <ul><li>Cont. PTG’s mercantile ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of the small Russian urban middle class (vital for trade) </li></ul><ul><li>Close tie to philosophes </li></ul>
  44. 47. CTG’s Territorial Reforms <ul><li>Cont. drive for warm water ports (fought Ottoman Empire) </li></ul><ul><li>1774 Treaty of Kuchuck-Kainardji - gave Russia a direct outlet on the Black Sea </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Partition of Poland </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Partition of Poland (1793) </li></ul>
  45. 48. CTG’s Social Reforms <ul><li>Created hospitals & orphanages </li></ul><ul><li>Limited religious toleration </li></ul><ul><li>Slight restriction of the use of torture by the government </li></ul>
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