AP English Absolutism

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  • Music: Henry Purcell from The Fairy Queen (1692) – Sing While we trip it on the Green
  • AP English Absolutism

    1. 1. English Absolutism
    2. 2. Absolutism <ul><li>a form of monarchical power that is unrestrained by any other institutions, such as churches, legislatures, or social elites </li></ul>
    3. 3. James I <ul><li>Stuart (not a Tudor) </li></ul><ul><li>King of Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Nephew of Elizabeth I </li></ul><ul><li>Son of Mary Stuart </li></ul><ul><li>Initially agreed to rule according to English law and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Kept Parliament involved </li></ul><ul><li>Until… divine right </li></ul>
    4. 4. Tensions with Parliament <ul><li>Disagreements about money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lavish lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disagreements about foreign policy </li></ul><ul><li>James’ solution  dissolve Parliament </li></ul>
    5. 5. Religious Tensions <ul><li>The Puritans wanted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To “purify” the Church of England of Catholic practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simpler services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More democratic church with no powerful bishops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>James I rejected their demands </li></ul><ul><li>Chased them out of England </li></ul>
    6. 6. Charles I <ul><li>r. 1625-1649 </li></ul><ul><li>inherited the throne from his father, James I </li></ul><ul><li>Like his father, he ruled as an absolute monarch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bickered with Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imprisoned enemies without trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ran the nation into further debt </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Charles I vs. Parliament <ul><li>Debt from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Super-luxurious lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War with France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Needed money  called for Parliament to convene </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament refused to fork over any money until Charles I signed the Petition of Right </li></ul>
    8. 8. Petition of Right <ul><li>No funds could be borrowed or raised through taxes & tariffs without the explicit approval of Parliament </li></ul>
    9. 9. Petition of Right <ul><li>2. Habeas Corpus: No free person (Britain had slavery at this time) could be imprisoned without a reason </li></ul>
    10. 10. The Deal <ul><li>Charles I signed the Petition , thereby agreeing to its terms (and getting his $$) </li></ul><ul><li>Did Charles have any intention of keeping his word? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Dissolution of Parliament <ul><li>Charles immediately broke his word </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid a confrontation with Parliament, he dissolved it (would stay dissolved for 12 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Now on his own…with no funds from Parliament </li></ul>
    12. 12. Charles’ Budget Cuts <ul><li>Made peace with enemies (peace is cheaper than war) </li></ul><ul><li>Downsized government administration </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative tax increases </li></ul><ul><li>One goal in mind  rule without Parliament </li></ul>
    13. 13. Charles I and Religion <ul><li>Charles persecuted the Puritans </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed the Archbishop of Canterbury (William Laud) to freely take any measures to stifle the Puritans </li></ul>
    14. 14. Puritans Under Charles I <ul><li>Forbidden to publish or preach </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Puritans were forced to use the Church of England’s prayer books, rituals, hierarchy, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion occurred, thus forcing Charles to reconvene Parliament </li></ul>
    15. 15. Twelve Years to Stew <ul><li>Parliament - ready to show Charles no mercy </li></ul><ul><li>Refused Charles any money until he addressed a very long list of complaints </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think Charles did?? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Buh-Bye Parliament <ul><li>Charles I refused their demands and dismissed them (April–May 1640 - known as “The Short Parliament”) </li></ul><ul><li>Still, he was without money </li></ul><ul><li>Reconvened Parliament again, but this time agreed to their demands (would become the “Long Parliament” as it would remain until 1660) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Parliament’s Demands <ul><li>Illegal to raise taxes without Parliament okay </li></ul><ul><li>William Laud – impeached & executed </li></ul><ul><li>Charles’ centralized bureaucracy – abolished </li></ul><ul><li>Law that only Parliament could dismiss itself </li></ul><ul><li>Law that Parliament had to meet every 3 years </li></ul>
    18. 18. Rebellion in Ireland <ul><li>Religious radicals in Ireland rebelled </li></ul><ul><li>Charles I wanted funds for an army to go in </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament did not trust Charles I with an army </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal from radicals in Parliament – the army should be under Parliament’s control </li></ul>
    19. 19. One Angry King <ul><li>Charles not very happy about this </li></ul><ul><li>Stormed Parliament with his own army </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament issued Militia Ordinance which officially declared the army under Parliament’s control </li></ul><ul><li>The result???? </li></ul>
    20. 20. The English Civil War
    21. 21. Cavaliers & Roundheads <ul><li>Cavaliers = Supporters of King Charles I </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Wore plumed hats </li></ul><ul><li>Fashionably long hair </li></ul><ul><li>Well trained in dueling & warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Expected a quick win </li></ul>
    22. 22. Cavaliers & Roundheads <ul><li>Roundheads = Supporters of Parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide within: Independents vs. Presbyterians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Country gentry, town- dwelling manufacturers, & Puritan clergy </li></ul><ul><li>Called Roundheads b/c of their hair style </li></ul><ul><li>Underdogs </li></ul><ul><li>Leader – Oliver Cromwell </li></ul>
    23. 23. Oliver Cromwell <ul><li>Puritan, gentry, military genius </li></ul><ul><li>Organized “New Model Army” into a skilled force </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated Cavaliers </li></ul>
    24. 24. Cromwell’s Worries <ul><li>New religious sects = trouble (overturn social hierarchy) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quakers, Diggers, Ranters & Seekers – all promoted “inner light” and equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of potential skepticism, anarchy & debauchery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The King </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independents purged Presbyterians in Parliament (“The Rump Parliament”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rump – created high court  put Charles I on trial </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. The Execution of a King <ul><li>Found guilty </li></ul><ul><li>Sentenced to death as a “tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy” </li></ul>
    26. 26. Life Under Puritan Rule <ul><li>After Charles I’s execution, Rump Parliament abolished : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The House of Lords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Church of England </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cromwell established a “Puritan Republic” </li></ul>
    27. 27. Religion Under Cromwell <ul><li>Allowed various Puritan sects to worship </li></ul><ul><li>Permitted Jews with needed skills to return </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics not permitted to worship publicly </li></ul><ul><li>Anglicans not permitted to use the Book of Common Prayer </li></ul>
    28. 28. Cromwell at War <ul><li>Re-conquered Scottish </li></ul><ul><li>Subdued Ireland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crushed Irish rebellions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>massacred whole garrisons & their priests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exiled Catholics to remote parts of Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laid foundation for a “Great Britain” </li></ul><ul><li>Waged naval war against the Dutch (1652-1654) </li></ul><ul><li>Wars = budget 2x that of Charles I </li></ul>
    29. 29. Life Under Cromwell <ul><li>Increased property taxes & customs duties </li></ul><ul><li>1653: abolished Rump Parliament in coup – made himself “Lord Protector” </li></ul><ul><li>Censored the press </li></ul><ul><li>Forbade sports & closed theaters </li></ul><ul><li>Used spies to read mail & watch enemies </li></ul>
    30. 30. Cromwell’s Death <ul><li>Died in 1658 </li></ul><ul><li>“ There were none that cried but dogs.” – John Evelyn, Diarist </li></ul><ul><li>Buried in Westminster Abbey </li></ul><ul><li>1661: body exhumed – cut off head & displayed outside Westminster Hall for nearly 20 years! </li></ul>
    31. 31. End of the Commonwealth <ul><li>Puritans lost control of England </li></ul><ul><li>1660: New Anglican Parliament invited Charles II back as King </li></ul><ul><li>Charles II met with cheering crowds </li></ul>
    32. 32. Charles II <ul><li>Idolized Louis XIV </li></ul><ul><li>Religiously tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted Petition of Right </li></ul><ul><li>Not long until he tried to re-establish royal authority </li></ul>
    33. 33. Catastrophe Strikes <ul><li>May 1665: Plague hits London </li></ul><ul><li>Over 30,000 dead by September </li></ul><ul><li>1666: The Great Fire of London – 3 days </li></ul>
    34. 35. Charles II & Parliament <ul><li>Tensions over religion – P. concerned w/ successor (James II – openly Cath.) </li></ul><ul><li>P. passed the Test Act (1673) – all gov’t officials must take oath to Church of England & disavow Catholic doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>1678: P. explicitly denied throne to a Roman Catholic </li></ul>
    35. 36. Tories vs. Whigs <ul><li>Crisis over succession = 2 factions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tories supported: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong hereditary monarchy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>restored ceremony of the Anglican church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>James II’s succession </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whigs advocated: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parliamentary supremacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toleration of Protestant dissenters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition of Cath. monarch </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 37. James II <ul><li>Inherited the throne </li></ul><ul><li>Brother of Charles II </li></ul><ul><li>Flaunted his Catholic faith </li></ul><ul><li>Many feared he would restore Catholicism </li></ul>
    37. 38. William & Mary <ul><li>Parliament invited James II’s Protestant daughter Mary II & her Dutch Protestant husband William of Orange to the throne </li></ul>
    38. 39. The Glorious Revolution <ul><li>William & Mary arrived with an army </li></ul><ul><li>No need – James II fled to France </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament set up a Limited Monarchy via a Bill of Rights (1689) </li></ul><ul><li>Also affirmed habeas corpus (no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime) </li></ul><ul><li>Radical concept in the Age of Absolutism… </li></ul>
    39. 40. Toleration Act <ul><li>1689 </li></ul><ul><li>All Protestants granted freedom of worship </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Anglicans still excluded from university </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics – no rights, but could worship privately </li></ul>
    40. 41. From Absolutism to Constitutionalism <ul><li>Constitutionalism: a system of government in which rulers share power with parliaments made up of elected officials </li></ul><ul><li>Locke & Hobbes: The Social Contract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political authority derives not from divine right but from an implicit contract between citizens & their rulers </li></ul></ul>
    41. 42. Thomas Hobbes <ul><li>1588-1679 </li></ul><ul><li>Leviathan (1651) </li></ul><ul><li>Human nature = self-centered & driven by need for self-preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-absolute monarchy + social contract (rulers derived their power from a contract in which absolute authority protects people’s rights) </li></ul>
    42. 43. John Locke <ul><li>1632-1704 </li></ul><ul><li>physician, secretary, & intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>Human nature = reasonable </li></ul><ul><li>Tabula Rasa – “Blank Slate” </li></ul><ul><li>All men created equal </li></ul>
    43. 44. Locke’s Social Contract <ul><li>Between ruler & people (power w/ the people) </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t is morally obliged to serve people, namely by protecting life, liberty & property </li></ul><ul><li>Favored Representative Democracy </li></ul>
    44. 45. Dutch Republic <ul><li>Power in the people via elected representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Each province appointed exec. officer ( stadholder – often an Orange prince ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carried out ceremonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>managed military defense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>William III took English throne – DR cont. w/o stadholders for several decades </li></ul>
    45. 46. Dutch Golden Age <ul><li>Europe’s financial capital (Bank of Amsterdam) </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated shipping industry </li></ul><ul><li>Imported from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asia: spices, teas, silk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americas: tobacco & sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England & Spain: wool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best educated, most prosperous of 17 th C. </li></ul>
    46. 47. Decline of Dutch Golden Age <ul><li>Ongoing naval wars w/ Britain & land wars w/ France – drained wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly depended on alliances – esp. w/ England under the rule of Wm. & Mary </li></ul><ul><li>By end of 17 th C. Golden Age = over </li></ul>

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