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The Counter-reformation  The Catholic Response to the Protestant Reformation
Reformed Papacy <ul><li>Pope Paul III (1534-1549) </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed reform-minded cardinals/bishops who: </li></...
Reformed Papacy <ul><li>Papal Reforms of Paul III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform Commission (1537) - determined Church’s pro...
Reform Commission <ul><li>Est. new religious orders (preached to commoners) </li></ul><ul><li>Ended selling of church offi...
Roman Inquisition <ul><li>Committee of 6 cardinals w/ judicial authority over all Catholics. Power to: </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Roman Inquisition <ul><li>Accepted hearsay as evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Not obliged to inform accused of charges against ...
Council of Trent <ul><li>1545-1563 (off/on) </li></ul><ul><li>Group of various levels of clergy met  </li></ul><ul><li>Goa...
Council of Trent <ul><li>Upheld traditional Catholic teachings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faith & good works </li></ul></ul...
Council of Trent <ul><li>Reform measures for clergy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bishops required to reside in own dioceses </li>...
Council of Trent <ul><li>Changes for laypeople </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required – witnesses to marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><...
New Religious Orders <ul><li>The Jesuits (aka Society of Jesus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignatius of Loyola = founder </li></...
New Religious Orders <ul><li>The Ursulines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order of nuns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder = Angela...
Reformation  Society & Culture
Protestantism & Marriage <ul><li>Clerical celibacy = unnatural & against God’s commandments </li></ul><ul><li>Contract, no...
Protestantism & Women <ul><li>Opposed medieval  misogyny </li></ul><ul><li>Respected women, esp. as mothers/wives </li></u...
Anti-Semitism <ul><li>Jews continued to be persecuted against during the Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Luther - expected J...
The Jews & Their Lies <ul><li>Discuss with your partner the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Were you surprised by what yo...
Exam <ul><li>Potential essay topics:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the Lutheran and Catholic Reformations in...
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AP Counter Reformation

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Transcript of "AP Counter Reformation"

  1. 1. The Counter-reformation The Catholic Response to the Protestant Reformation
  2. 2. Reformed Papacy <ul><li>Pope Paul III (1534-1549) </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed reform-minded cardinals/bishops who: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved education for the clergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to enforce moral standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to correct most glaring abuses </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Reformed Papacy <ul><li>Papal Reforms of Paul III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform Commission (1537) - determined Church’s problems = corrupt popes/policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office (1542) – had jurisdiction over the Roman Inquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of Trent </li></ul></ul>Pope Paul III
  4. 4. Reform Commission <ul><li>Est. new religious orders (preached to commoners) </li></ul><ul><li>Ended selling of church offices & pluralism </li></ul><ul><li>Opened seminaries (to train priests) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Roman Inquisition <ul><li>Committee of 6 cardinals w/ judicial authority over all Catholics. Power to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imprison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Execute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sought out heretics </li></ul><ul><li>Published the Index of </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibited Books (handout) </li></ul>Cardinal Caraffa – Roman Inquisitor
  6. 6. Roman Inquisition <ul><li>Accepted hearsay as evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Not obliged to inform accused of charges against them </li></ul><ul><li>Known to use torture </li></ul>
  7. 7. Council of Trent <ul><li>1545-1563 (off/on) </li></ul><ul><li>Group of various levels of clergy met </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconcile w/ Protestants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faced many political obstacles </li></ul>
  8. 8. Council of Trent <ul><li>Upheld traditional Catholic teachings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faith & good works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seven sacraments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transubstantiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clerical celibacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purgatory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Council of Trent <ul><li>Reform measures for clergy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bishops required to reside in own dioceses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppressed pluralism & simony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbade sale of indulgences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clerics to give up concubines </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Council of Trent <ul><li>Changes for laypeople </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required – witnesses to marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did not achieve goal of reconciliation w/ Protestants </li></ul>
  11. 11. New Religious Orders <ul><li>The Jesuits (aka Society of Jesus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignatius of Loyola = founder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious order dedicated to the pope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used education to spread their message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restored Catholicism (Europe & World) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. New Religious Orders <ul><li>The Ursulines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order of nuns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder = Angela Merici </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prestige for education of women – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could re-Christianize society by training future wives/moms </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Reformation Society & Culture
  14. 14. Protestantism & Marriage <ul><li>Clerical celibacy = unnatural & against God’s commandments </li></ul><ul><li>Contract, not sacrament </li></ul><ul><li>Proper marriage upholds ideals of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual equality between men & women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of husband as authority & wife as submissive </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Protestantism & Women <ul><li>Opposed medieval misogyny </li></ul><ul><li>Respected women, esp. as mothers/wives </li></ul><ul><li>Equal right to divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged education for women </li></ul><ul><li>Read handout: Women of the Reformation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Anti-Semitism <ul><li>Jews continued to be persecuted against during the Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Luther - expected Jews to convert (called for persecution when they did not) </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic states - Jews segregated into ghettos </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Jews & Their Lies <ul><li>Discuss with your partner the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Were you surprised by what you read? Why or why not? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What were some of the traits Luther states that Jews possess? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to Luther how should Christians handle the Jews? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is Luther’s writing/attitude a reflection of the 16 th C.? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Exam <ul><li>Potential essay topics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the Lutheran and Catholic Reformations in the 16 th C. regarding the reform of both religious doctrine and religious practices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the influence of Renaissance humanism on the Protestant Reformation and Catholic reforms. </li></ul></ul>
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