AP Counter Reformation
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AP Counter Reformation






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AP Counter Reformation AP Counter Reformation Presentation Transcript

  • The Counter-reformation The Catholic Response to the Protestant Reformation
  • Reformed Papacy
    • Pope Paul III (1534-1549)
    • Appointed reform-minded cardinals/bishops who:
      • Improved education for the clergy
      • Tried to enforce moral standards
      • Tried to correct most glaring abuses
  • Reformed Papacy
    • Papal Reforms of Paul III
      • Reform Commission (1537) - determined Church’s problems = corrupt popes/policies
      • Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office (1542) – had jurisdiction over the Roman Inquisition
      • Council of Trent
    Pope Paul III
  • Reform Commission
    • Est. new religious orders (preached to commoners)
    • Ended selling of church offices & pluralism
    • Opened seminaries (to train priests)
  • Roman Inquisition
    • Committee of 6 cardinals w/ judicial authority over all Catholics. Power to:
      • Arrest
      • Imprison
      • Execute
    • Sought out heretics
    • Published the Index of
    • Prohibited Books (handout)
    Cardinal Caraffa – Roman Inquisitor
  • Roman Inquisition
    • Accepted hearsay as evidence
    • Not obliged to inform accused of charges against them
    • Known to use torture
  • Council of Trent
    • 1545-1563 (off/on)
    • Group of various levels of clergy met
    • Goals:
      • Reform church
      • Reconcile w/ Protestants
    • Faced many political obstacles
  • Council of Trent
    • Upheld traditional Catholic teachings
        • Faith & good works
        • Seven sacraments
        • Transubstantiation
        • Clerical celibacy
        • Purgatory
  • Council of Trent
    • Reform measures for clergy
      • Bishops required to reside in own dioceses
      • Suppressed pluralism & simony
      • Forbade sale of indulgences
      • Clerics to give up concubines
  • Council of Trent
    • Changes for laypeople
      • Required – witnesses to marriage
    • Did not achieve goal of reconciliation w/ Protestants
  • New Religious Orders
    • The Jesuits (aka Society of Jesus)
      • Ignatius of Loyola = founder
      • Religious order dedicated to the pope
      • Used education to spread their message
      • Restored Catholicism (Europe & World)
  • New Religious Orders
    • The Ursulines
      • Order of nuns
      • Founder = Angela Merici
      • Prestige for education of women –
      • Could re-Christianize society by training future wives/moms
  • Reformation Society & Culture
  • Protestantism & Marriage
    • Clerical celibacy = unnatural & against God’s commandments
    • Contract, not sacrament
    • Proper marriage upholds ideals of
      • Spiritual equality between men & women
      • Hierarchy of husband as authority & wife as submissive
  • Protestantism & Women
    • Opposed medieval misogyny
    • Respected women, esp. as mothers/wives
    • Equal right to divorce
    • Encouraged education for women
    • Read handout: Women of the Reformation
  • Anti-Semitism
    • Jews continued to be persecuted against during the Reformation
    • Luther - expected Jews to convert (called for persecution when they did not)
    • Catholic states - Jews segregated into ghettos
  • The Jews & Their Lies
    • Discuss with your partner the following:
      • Were you surprised by what you read? Why or why not?
      • What were some of the traits Luther states that Jews possess?
      • According to Luther how should Christians handle the Jews?
      • How is Luther’s writing/attitude a reflection of the 16 th C.?
  • Exam
    • Potential essay topics:
      • Compare and contrast the Lutheran and Catholic Reformations in the 16 th C. regarding the reform of both religious doctrine and religious practices.
      • Evaluate the influence of Renaissance humanism on the Protestant Reformation and Catholic reforms.