AP Between the Wars


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  • Article on Credit-Anstalt: http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/11_18/b4226012481756.htm
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9CFWH4Fhkak
  • AP Between the Wars

    1. 1. In B e t w e e n T h e Wa r s
    2. 2. Bell Ringer• What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? 1 minute Discuss with your partner
    3. 3. Treaty of Versailles• Germany: – Lost territory – Took all blame – Demilitarized – Paid reparations
    4. 4. T h e W e im a r R e p u b lic Germany Post WWI
    5. 5. Germany• Plagued riots, strikes, and rebellions• Many groups vying for power – Communists – Social Democrats – Nazis (Hitler’s political debut)• When Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated, Germany was declared a republic
    6. 6. New German Republic• First order of business: to sign peace treaty• Many Germans (including Hitler) saw this as an act of treason• Still, elections took place and the Reichstag (German parliament) was able to create a new constitution that was very democratic in nature
    7. 7. Weimar Republic• This new, democratic government was called the Weimar Republic• It would stay in power for 14 years
    8. 8. Financial Hardship• G - unable to pay reparations• By 1922 - defaulted on payments• Result = France & Belgium occupied the Ruhr region (industrial heartland) with intent to use the products as reparation
    9. 9. Economic Disaster• Occupation led to economic disaster: – Production decreased – Unemployment increased – Prices rose dramatically --> more money printed --> hyperinflation
    10. 10. Hyperinflation Marks needed to buy one USYear Month dollar1919 April 121921 November 2631922 July 493 December 7,0001923 January 17,000 August 4,621,000 December 4,200,000,000,000 Source: www.historyhome.co.uk
    11. 11. (More) Hard Times for the Germans• Germans lost life savings• Workers paid with worthless money• Literally cost millions for groceries - hunger riots
    12. 12. •It indicates…•It was drawnafter…•It is a commentabout…•The purposeis…•Itsymbolizes…•The POV is…
    13. 13. The Rise of Totalitarianismin Interwar Europe
    14. 14. Totalitarianism• What root word do you notice in totalitarian
    15. 15. Totalitarianism• A gov’t that exerts total control over a nation• It dominates all aspects of life• Uses terror to: – Suppress individual rights – Silence all forms of opposition
    16. 16. Fascism• Emphasizes the importance of the nation or an ethnic group and the supreme authority of the leader
    17. 17. The Insane Let’s Play…in the BrainTotalitarian Game
    18. 18. Germany On the Brink• Economic hardships  political discord• Got worse when the WR resumed reparation payments• Germans furious with gov’t - wanted something done…
    19. 19. IntroducingTotalitarian Fascist #1 The Megalomaniacal Demagogue
    20. 20. Hitler’s PlanHitler & Nazis plotted: – Kidnap Bavarian leaders – force them (at gunpoint) to accept Hitler as their new leader – Win over the Army – Declare national revolt – Overthrow democratic gov’t
    21. 21. From Beer Hall Putsch…• Munich, Germany• November 8-9, 1923 - 8:30 pm• Hitler & posse stormed beer hall = leaders freaked out• “The National revolution has begun!”
    22. 22. To Beer Hall Putz…• Comedy of errors…• Result - Hitler arrested - charged with treason• 5-week trial - guilty verdict• Sent to Landsberg Prison (where he wrote his famous book, Mein Kampf)
    23. 23. Did Hitler Really Lose?• Ultimately, no (it helped him!)• Trial made him a national figure – Platform to make his views known outside Nazi party – His defense gave him the opportunity to attack those he hated (Jews, communists, etc.)
    24. 24. Hitler in a Lederhosen!
    25. 25. Back on Track• New chancellor/foreign minister (Gustav Stresemann - 1923-1929)• Introduced new currency that ended hyperinflation• Negotiated reduction in reparations (Dawes Plan)• This upswing gave way to great cultural advances (Brecht, Weill, Dietrich, Einstein, etc.)
    26. 26. Great Depression• International banking, manufacturing and trade made the world dependent upon the US• US demanded Fr & GB pay wartime debts + kept import taxes high• Result: Allies had to rely on G’s reparations
    27. 27. Global Collapse• 1929: US Stock Market crashed (not much impact on Europe) BUT…• 1931: Collapse of Credit-Anstalt – Austrian bank – considered impregnable – When it fell  domino effect across Europe – This signaled GLOBAL DEPRESSION
    28. 28. Global Depression
    29. 29. Collapse of Weimar Republic• Depression – Financially crippled Germany• Weak Government – President von Hindenburg • Elderly • Too weak to fight Hitler • Tried to outsmart Hitler…backfired
    30. 30. Adolf Hitler• Watch the following video & jot down the sequence that led him from Chancellor to Führer
    31. 31. Timeline: Hitler’s Rise• 1930 – Sept: Germans elected Nazis to Reichstag• 1933 – Jan 30: Hindenburg appointed Hitler Chancellor – Feb 27: Reichstag fire – March 23: Enabling Act – gave Hitler legislative power• 1934 – June 30: Night of Long Knives (liquidated opponents) – Aug 2: Hindenburg died
    32. 32. IntroducingTotalitarian Fascist #2 The Pompous Arrogant Dictator
    33. 33. Sometimes there are no words….
    34. 34. Benito Mussolini• Fascist Doctrine HW
    35. 35. Closure• Compare/Contrast Hitler & Mussolini’s Rise to Power Discuss w/ Partner 1 min