19th Century Britain & FrancePresentation Transcript
Politics inVictorian England
Britain Constitutional Monarchy House of Windsor Queen Victoria (1837-1901) Era of material progress, literary growth, and political stability
Tories and Whigs - worked together
1832 Reform Bill - two political parties seemed indistinguishable
But, by the 1860s, the middle class and working class had grown they wanted the franchise expanded!
This era saw the realignment of political parties in the House of Commons:
Tory Party Conservative Party under Benjamin Disraeli Whig Party Liberal Party under William Gladstone
William GladstonePrime Minister 4 times between 1868-1894 -Education Act of 1870 – state-supported public education -Introduced secret ballot (Ballot Act of 1872) -Legalized labor unions -Promoted civil service exam -Eliminated sale of commissions in the army -Worker’s compensation
The Irish Question Biggest problem = Ireland Irish nationalists sought Home Rule (not granted until 1912) Home Rule = control of local gov’t
Irish Potato Famine British & Irish tensions Video Clip: Moments in Time: Famine to Freedom: The Great Irish Journey
Gladstone & The Irish Question Two major legislative pieces: 1869 – Disestablishment Act: Irish Catholics did not have to pay taxes to support the Anglican church in Ireland 1870 – Irish Land Act: curtailed absentee Protestant landowners from evicting their Irish Catholic tenants without compensation Supported Home Rule for Ireland
Benjamin DisraeliPrime Minister 1874-1880 -Expanded electorate big step toward democracy -Extended laws regulating public sanitation (Public Health Act of 1875) -Safety laws for mines and factories -Regulated housing conditions for poor (Artisans Dwelling Act of 1875)
Labour Party At turn of century, 3rd party established: Labour Party Caused Liberals to worry (losing their base to Labour Party) Result: Liberals in power from 1906-1916 Set up massive social welfare programs Sickness, accident, old-age, and unemployment insurances were all adopted Progressive tax established (wealthy pay a higher % rate of tax Conservatives pushed for more laissez-faire gov’t
Life in Victorian England Victorian Buzzwords
Expectations Citizens expected to spend time in a respectable, productive, rational manner All activities had to be good for both the soul and for the country High moral standing and respectability were the qualities of true ladies & gentlemen
Role Model Queen Victoria was seen as, “the very model of marital stability and domestic virtue…” She represented “a kind of femininity which was centered on the family, motherhood, and respectability.” Quotes from BBC Victorian Britain
How to Be a Gent for Dummies Books on how to be a proper British citizen abounded to assist the middle class on the road to morality The book, Happy Homes and the Hearts that Make Them (1882) suggests, “The true gentleman is one who has been fashioned after the highest models…his qualities depend not on fashion or manners but on moral worth - not on personal possessions but upon personal qualities.”
Oscar Wilde Antithesis of Victorian Ideals Irish Author/Playwright Aesthetic movement: “L’art pour l’art” art should exist solely for its own sake, independent of social and moral concerns Only purpose = to look pretty
Aesthetes in a Victorian World Victorian Buzzwords
Wilde’s Words of Wisdom In all unimportant matters, style, not sincerity is the essential. In all important matters, style, not sincerity is the essential. We can forgive a man for making a useful thing as long as he does not admire it. The only excuse for making a useless thing is that one admires it intensely. All art is quite useless. The only way to get rid of a temptation is to yield to it. Resist it and your soul grows sick with longing for the things it has forbidden to itself… I wonder who it was that defined man a rational animal. It was the most premature definition ever given. Man is many things, but he is not rational.
You Little Bugger… Epistemology Wilde’s Woes Court - writings used against him Guilty: “Gross Indecency” Jail time…
Goodbye, Oscar Died - Nov. 30,1900 Meningitis Paris Hotel Final Words…
Women in Victorian England Focus = family Ideal woman = Queen Victoria Read Handout “Women in Victorian England” & “Victorian Women”
Women’s Suffrage Many women became more vocal about their demands for social & political equality “Suffragettes”
militants - arrested and imprisoned
1917: She and her daughter, Christabel, formed the Women’s Party in 1917:
Equal pay for equal work Equal marriage & divorcelaws Equality of rights & opportunities in public service A national system of maternity benefits
Representation of the People Act
1918 - Women over 30 got the right to vote
All men gained suffrage
Property qualifications were completely eliminated!
Reform Act of 1928
Women over 21 years of age gained the right to vote at last!
La Belle Epoque The Beautiful Age 1870-1914
France Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) France “goaded” into declaring war by Bismarck France loses – Napoleon III is captured 1871 – German unification Emphasizes the weakness of France
Third French Republic Declared!
Napoleon III abdicated
New government headed by Adolphe Thiers
continued the fight against the Germans
France surrendered in February, 1871 after 40,000 Parisians died
The Third French Republic
Thiers’ government was seen as:
Too conservative Too royalist Too ready to accept a humiliating peace with Prussia
French government established itself at Versailles, NOT in Paris.
Parisians angry Opposed policies of new gov’t Attempted to restore order in Paris
Paris in Revolt!
The Paris Commune [Communards] was elected on March 28 and established itself at the Hôtel de Ville
Allowed trade unions & workers cooperatives to take over factories not in use and start them up again
Set up unemployment exchanges in town halls
Provide basic elementary education for all they were strongly against church-controlled schools
Attempted to set up girls schools
Daycare near factories for working mothers
Civil War! Communards Troops from Versailles
The Commune was suppressed by government troops led by Marshal Patrice MacMahon during the last week of May, 1871
Known as the “Bloody Week”
Paris City Hall Destroyed
Declaring the3rd French Republic
An Overview of the 3rd French Republic
Politically very unstable.
Rivalry between monarchists and republicans
A number of scandals including The Dreyfus Affair [L’Affaire]
Because there were so many factions, all governments were coalitions
Still, it survived longer than any other regime since 1789!
The Dreyfus Affair
The Dreyfus Affair
In 1894 a list of French military documents [called a bordereau] were found in the waste basket of the German Embassy in Paris
French counter-intelligence suspected Captain Alfred Dreyfus, from a wealthy Alsatian
Jewish family one of the few Jews on the General Staff
The Dreyfus Affair
Dreyfus was tried, convicted of treason, and sent to Devil’s Island in French Guiana
The real culprit was a Major Esterhazy, whose handwriting was the same as that on the bordereau
The government tried him and found him not guilty in two days
The Dreyfus Affair
A famous author, Emile Zola, published an open letter called J’Accuse!
He accused the army of a mistrial and cover-up The government prosecuted him for libel Found him guilty sentenced to a year in prison
The Dreyfus Affair Dreyfusards Anti-Dreyfusards
Public opinion was divided it reflected the divisions in Fr. society
The Dreyfusards were anti-clericals, intellectuals, free masons, & socialists
For Anti-Dreyfusards, the honor of the army was more important than Dreyfus’ guilt or innocence
Were army supported, monarchists, & Catholics.
Dreyfus, the Traitor!
The Dreyfus Affair
Dreyfus finally got a new trial in 1899
Brought back from Devil’s Island a broken man
Found guilty again, BUT with extenuating circumstances Was given a presidential pardon Exonerated completely in 1906 Served honorably in World War I Died in 1935
19th C. French Life
World Exposition 1889 Gustave Eiffel 1,063 ft tall 7,300 tons $1.6 million to build Entrance to Fair
Vive La Bohème!
The Bohemian Way Challenged status quo by rejecting mainstream values and mocking the bourgeoisie Comprised of Artists Students Writers
The Bohemians Motto: “Truth, beauty, freedom and love” Frequented cafés & music halls Most popular areas: Latin Quarter Montmartre
The Bourgeoisie Fashion, behavior, etiquette mimicked the aristocracy Frequented: Theater Opera Restaurants Casinos Gardens
Le Moulin Rouge Est. 1889 Most famous symbol of the Bohemian life
At The Moulin Rouge Dancers (Can-Can) Elephant Drink Absinthe