1865 1890 in a Nutshell

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1865 1890 in a Nutshell

  1. 1. 1865-1890 25 Years of History in a Nutshell
  2. 2. The “Unofficial” Civil War <ul><li>Official Civil War ended at Appomattox in April of 1865 </li></ul><ul><li>Southern mentality – </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions between N & S - high </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reconstruction <ul><li>After the Civil War, the South was wrecked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economically </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Physical Wreckage <ul><ul><li>Most of fighting in South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings, businesses severely damaged </li></ul></ul>Charelston, SC - 1864                                                                 
  5. 5. Psychological Damage <ul><li>Confederate dead behind the stone wall of Marye's Heights, Fredericksburg, Virginia, killed during the Battle of Chancellorsville, May 1863 </li></ul>Civil War Refugee
  6. 6. Economic Damage <ul><li>13 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Were “Freedmen” citizens? </li></ul><ul><li>14 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners take advantage </li></ul>
  7. 7. The End of Reconstruction <ul><li>1872 </li></ul><ul><li>The bad news is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedmen still treated badly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth of KKK (terrorists of the time) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The good news is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward economic swing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And… </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Industrialization <ul><li>Technological Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edison (electricity, light bulb, phonograph) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morse (telegraph) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bell (telephone) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oil as fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Transcontinental Railroad </li></ul>
  9. 9. Industrialization <ul><li>Bessemer Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier & cheaper to remove impurities from steel </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Birth of Big Business <ul><li>Robber Barons vs. Captains of Industry </li></ul><ul><li>John D. Rockefeller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Oil Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>philanthropist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Andrew Carnegie (photo) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnegie Steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Gospel of Wealth” </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Social Darwinism <ul><li>Charles Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>natural selection evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert Spencer & William Graham Sumner extend to human society </li></ul><ul><li>Problems??? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Issues of Industry <ul><li>Workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsanitary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political Bosses & Corruption </li></ul>
  13. 13. Economic & Social Impact <ul><li>Larger gap between rich & poor </li></ul><ul><li>Tenements </li></ul><ul><li>Economy grows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More money to spend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer goods & services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leisure activities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Political Impact <ul><li>Birth of Socialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An economic and political philosophy that favors public (instead of private) control of property & income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor Unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariffs & Labor Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlement house (Hull House) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Westward Expansion <ul><li>Western Frontier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homestead Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work in the West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Mining <ul><li>Gold rush </li></ul><ul><li>Mines opened throughout West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Ranching <ul><li>Adopted Mexican ranching equipment & dress </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle boom (consumers demanded beef over pork) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cow towns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle Barons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Birth of the American </li></ul><ul><li>Cowboy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fact vs. Myth </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Farming <ul><li>Hard life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backbreaking labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bugs & pests = problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Droughts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building a house </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few to no trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built dugout or “soddie” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soddie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walls & roof built from blocks of sod </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost = less than $10 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many “homesteaders” headed back east </li></ul><ul><li>Technology eased farming labor </li></ul>
  19. 19. The End of the Frontier??? <ul><li>Turner’s Frontier Thesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1893, Frederick Jackson Turner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontier life made Americans who were: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socially mobile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ready for adventure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bent on self-improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Committed to democracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>No Where to Go… </li></ul>

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