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Anallysis Of Existing Methods And Future Nedds (Professor Dylan William)

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Comparative analysis of assessment practice and progress in the UK and USA …

Comparative analysis of assessment practice and progress in the UK and USA
Theme: Analysis of existing methods and future needs.
Professor Dylan Wiliam, Deputy Director and Professor of Educational Assessment, Institute of Education University of London

Published in: Technology, Economy & Finance
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  • 1. ‘ , » ‘25‘; '*m. s.' . ar. ~:~= -:—v— ~ ~ <—«— 4"-* ~"~——‘- -an "-"‘ 7 '5’ ; at"-=3‘ i '; '1wr- *« -r‘-_-F = ':<« ~. « v '— —. 'w~~*-. ;. «:-~. ——-3-: :—-a»-——~; r;-u; ..: gw «-77-~ . I ‘ ‘ ~ -~ v V « V 2 . . —_ . . . .-‘ 'rsl; |uinstt7 l‘: du. .)n nu H , ~ ' . -. ; ' ¢~ -’mn| n,: r . -5sI/ ssnllall . s}'<u-n1 H: i(' }» «-}>~- ' ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘. -u| ~]. ‘ lllI I| In 1:. Comparative analvsis of assessment practice and grgggcss in the UK and USA p1'ofc: :so1' ]3_'l:1n ''i1'1:un Dcputfv [)ircctor and P1'ot-cssor ofEduc:1t1onal Assessment Insututc of-Educatmn. Um'crs1Lj' of London Ccrrnmr ‘u}“, and b‘ ‘
  • 2. I‘. ._ _ O .0 . - ‘7 . . » ‘D :13.» 4 ~41‘. »4 (ll iii A ii; Ill qh-stal~. es" game is out of the bottle. and cannot put it bacl» Thu "hi want. the more likely you are to rpm Thc- Clearm you are about what you t the less. lil~. e|y it is to mean anything cfl to us IS to try to develop “tests worth teaching to" it. bu The only thing I This is fundamentally an issue of validity.
  • 3. Comparative analysis of assessment practice and progress in the UK and USA Theme: Analysis of existing methods and future needs, '~m, ~l , ;:~ar L‘: ‘.‘l, n‘ W ‘I, ‘n, Deputy Director and Professor of Educational Assessment, Institute of Education University of London L :3
  • 4. "—/ v . .:, tensi/ amass of assessment Using teacher assessment in certification is attractive: Pflncreases reliability (increased test time) i 3 increases validity (addresses aspects of construct under-representation) But problematic i: Lack of trust ("Fox guarding the hen house") Problems of biased inferences (construct-irrelevant variance) Can introduce new kinds of construct under-representation (5-minute university)
  • 5. Validity Validity is a property of inferences, not of assessments ’/ alodltv Is an mtc; -gr.1tI. ~~: - ~: — xaman. -:— | |A~’1'”_}l‘l>§-HT, -”, .?Tf”‘. >;- degree to / Vh| Ch empuncal .3,| dencs; - and tho; ~«; .r»: ¢t1r, al rarer, -naive-s sI. J[_~r_w-'; rI the aa-71-‘: -quam and appropnateness 01 1nferenc>: —s and arrnmws, has-; —-i1 on test sr; J? ?? -in nth»; -r ma: -d~: —s of assessment ¢Mess| c_ 19529 p 13.. "@119 . ~aIIdat»3s not '_i rest taut an vt‘a'; ;~. 'en1rc«: -n cm‘ (1373 arising from a soecmed . :.zc; ~;»'9durea C r1:vnDa«: n T f4 7 ‘ »: «n7r_; -~'n3'; r: Iv‘ r_; »na: H' . <ahdrty subsumes r~el| ab»| rt. ' fairness CODY‘: -flTn’, Q."8t;3gE ~: Hr’: such thing as 3 salad ~nr nnrJ: »': ed Inqalldk assessment : Ha such thing as a biased assessm-: nt ~= A pans asnnorum for thunkmg about assessment
  • 6. Threats to validity inadequate reliability Construct-irrelevant variance z: The assessment includes .3sper_ts that are lfl€‘1E‘. ‘3TlI to the construct of rrterest E the assessment 18 too big Construct under-representation ti The assessment falls to include imp-artant aspects of the construct of Interest '7 the assessment is ’tr: ~:v small With clear construct definition all of these are technicaI—not va| ue—issues
  • 7. A , .‘ be - ga IK — - as > — . ,. — . . &/ &J ‘—« 5‘ — ~.4 &/ To design an assessment system that is: Clstrit: ~ut»: —-:1 ; .Eo that e. id~: -nce cc-llection is not undertaken €l'ltiTEl', -' at the end Synop-tr‘: So that learning has to accumulate
  • 8. A f‘ / S «- 5’ ‘w_/ :4 ~_a . _. . « Beliefs about what constitutes learning; Beliefs in the reliability and validity of the results of various tools; A preference for and trust in numerical data, with bias towards a single number: Trust in the judgments and integrity of the teaching profession: Belief in the value of competition between students: Belief in the value of competition between schools: Belief that test results measure school effectiveness: Fear of national economic decline and education's role in this: Belief that the key to schools‘ effectiveness is strong top-down management‘.
  • 9. Conclusion There is no “perfect" assessment system anywhere. Each nation's assessment system is exquisitely tuned to local constraints and affordances. Assessment practices have impacts on teaching and learning which may be strongly amplified or attenuated by the national context. The overall impact of particular assessment practices and initiatives is detennined at least as much by culture and politics as it is by educational evidence and values.
  • 10. Conclusion (2) It is probably idle to draw up maps for the ideal assessment policy for a country. even although the principles and the evidence to support such an ideal might be clearly agreed within the ‘expert‘ community. instead. focus on those arguments and initiatives which are least offensive to existing assumptions and beliefs. and which will nevertheless serve to catalyze a shift in them while at the same time improving some aspects of present practice.

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