Tapsa 11 09
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Tapsa 11 09

on

  • 704 views

Presentation by Jim Bogden, Healthy LGB Students Director, to the Tri-Area Pupil Services Administrators on Nov. 13, 2009 in Manassas, Virginia.

Presentation by Jim Bogden, Healthy LGB Students Director, to the Tri-Area Pupil Services Administrators on Nov. 13, 2009 in Manassas, Virginia.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
704
Views on SlideShare
704
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Thank Sandra Leonard, Melissa Fahrenbruch, and Howell Wechsler. Leah T. introduce herself and mention highlights of past involvement in these issues. Jim B. introduce himself and mention highlights of past involvement. Introduce Clinton A. and Jo-Anne F.
  • Our goal is to increase your ability and intention to provide services for LGBQ youth. The idea is to integrate the needs of these kids into the types of work you are already doing, not to teach NEW roles, tasks, or services. We don’t aim to change your personal attitudes. We respect the fact that many people have strong opinions about Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual people that might be grounded in religion or conviction. But regardless of personal opinion, LGBQ youth exist and we as professionals need to address their needs as we do for everyone else. The second major goal follows the first and carries it a step further.
  • Sexual minority youth (i.e., students who either identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or reported any same-sex sexual contact) were significantly more likely than other students to have carried a weapon (26% vs. 15%), been in a physical fight (42% vs. 28%), and to have been in a gang (19% vs. 9%). They were also significantly more likely to have skipped school because they felt unsafe (13% vs. 3%), been bullied (44% vs. 23%), been threatened or injured with a weapon at school (14% vs. 5%), and to have experienced dating violence (35% vs. 8%) or sexual contact against their will (34% vs. 9%).
  • Again, we need to look at Massachusetts data because it is the best available. Sexual minority youth (i.e., students who either identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or reported any same-sex sexual contact) were significantly more likely than other students to report a range of sexual health risk behaviors that put them at risk of HIV infection or other STDs. Unfortunately, we don’t have good numbers broken down by race/ethnicity. [Brainstorm] Why are all of these behaviors higher in sexual minority youth?
  • Key points: 57% of all diagnoses were among MSM 40% of all cases in this age group were African-American MSM More Latinos than Whites were diagnosed 85% of cases among African-American and Latino men were among MSM 9% of cases were among injection drug users, but few cases of IDU among MSM Among straight kids, more than 4 times as many women than men were diagnosed. Part of this discrepancy might have to do with some women having older partners. The number of straight white men diagnosed did not even average to 1%
  • This important new study from California demonstrates the link between social rejection and health risk behaviors. The researchers interviewed 244 young White and Latino LGB adults about their family experiences as teenagers and their current health risk behaviors. They documented that negative family reactions to an adolescent’s sexual orientation are associated with several negative health problems in LGB young adults. As you can see, about 2/3 of those interviewed whose families were most rejecting developed Unfortunately, the researchers didn’t have enough funding to reach out to African Americans during their first round. They found that family rejection was a bit higher among Latino families compared to whites, and higher for young men compared to young women. We can only speculate what they will find when they study African-American families. An intriguing aspect of this work is that the differences between moderate and low rejection scores are not as dramatic as between moderate and high rejection. In other words, if a family is only a little bit accepting the mental health effects on the child are greatly improved. We need to get this encouraging news out to families. The project is currently developing a brief workshop for families that APA has promised to help disseminate.
  • There are a few things all of these programs have in common. All involve multiple sessions in small group settings. All engage participants in issues relevant to their lives, far beyond a narrow focus on methods to prevent HIV transmission And of course, they are non-judgemental
  • This gets us into mental health issues. Sexual minority youth (i.e., students who either identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or reported any same-sex sexual contact) were significantly more likely to report thinking about suicide or attempting it — rates of depression are high too. A recent study of 415 African American adolescents and young adults (15-21 years of age) from Atlanta and Providence, found that those who were clinically depressed were four times more likely to have had unprotected sex. ( Depression, Risky Sex Behavior Linked in African American Youth , September 6, 2006: http://www.lifespan.org/news/2006/09/06/depression-risky-sex-behavior-linked-in-african-american-youth). This is very disturbing. Some people look at such statistics and conclude that the “homosexual lifestyle” is inherently unhealthy. It might appear that gay people are doomed to lives of unhappiness. What might be other causes of these high rates of suicide? [click] The effects of discrimination, bullying and violence might have something to do with it. Sexual minority youth were significantly more likely than other students to have been bullied, been threatened or injured with a weapon at school, been in a gang, and to have skipped school because they felt unsafe. [click] Can students learn if they are not in school? [click] Sexual minority youth were also significantly more likely to have experienced dating violence – especially young lesbian women.

Tapsa 11 09 Tapsa 11 09 Presentation Transcript

  • Jim Bogden, MPH Healthy LGB Students Project Director American Psychological Association Tri-Area Pupil Services Administrators Manassas, VA November 13, 2009 Preventing Health Risks and Promoting Healthy Outcomes Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth
  • Mission of the APA Healthy Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students Project
    • To strengthen the capacity of state education agencies, school districts, and schools to prevent risk behaviors and improve health outcomes among L esbian, G ay, B isexual, and Q uestioning ( LGBQ ) students…
    • …particularly African- American and Latino young men who are attracted to men
    • Funded by the CDC Division of Adolescent and School Health
  • Workshop Goals
    • To increase participants’ intentions to provide programs and services to prevent HIV and other health risks and promote healthy outcomes among LGBTQ youth
      • designed to help professional school staff members work with LGBTQ adolescents, doing what they as professionals are already educated and expected to do
    • To engage participants in planning how to carry out their intentions
  • Number of Sexual Minority Students Depends on How They Are Defined
    • 4% of Mass. high school students described themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual (across all races/ethnicities)
    • 5% of students said they had any same-sex sexual contact in their lifetime
    • In all, 6% of students were “sexual minority” (either self-identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or had any same-sex sexual contact)
    Massachusetts Department of Education, 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey LGB identity Same-sex sexual contact Sexual minority One-fourth had no same-sex sexual contact One-third called themselves straight
  • Some Teens Resist Classification
    • Flexible, fluid, nonchalant views of human sexuality
    • Refuse to be defined by sexuality
    • Want to be free to be themselves
    • The term ‘gay’ said to carry too much baggage; now queer, gayish, boidyke, stem, polyamorous, flexual , tranny , etc.
    • Not interested in gay activism
    “ I don’t like labels. I’m a human being.” Seventh grader, Hoover Middle School, San Francisco, CA
  • Selected Health Risks of Sexual Minority Students, Mass., 2005 Both sexes and all race/ethnicities Massachusetts Department of Education, 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
  • Cases of HIV and AIDS Diagnosed Among Young Men Ages 15-19 (All Sexual Orientations), by Race/Ethnicity and Year of Diagnosis, 2004–2007 in 39 Areas with Confidential, Name-Based HIV Infection Reporting1 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Supplemental Report 2009;14:2 2 US Census, 2006 American Community Survey . US Male Population Ages 15-19, 2006 2
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Supplemental Report 2009;14:2 Cases of HIV and AIDS Diagnosed Among African American Adolescents Ages 15-19, by Sex and Year of Diagnosis, 2004–2007 in 39 Areas with Confidential, Name-Based HIV Infection Reporting 1
  • Percentage by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Mode of HIV Transmission of 1,351 Adolescents Aged 15–19 Years Diagnosed with HIV or AIDS in 2006 in 33 States and 5 U.S. Territories with Confidential Name-Based HIV-Infection Reporting HIV infection attributed to injection drug use Each of the 100 figures represents 1% of the total number of teens diagnosed in 2006 Other 1% White, non-Hispanic 14% Hispanic 16% Black, non-Hispanic 69% HIV infection attributed to male-male sex HIV infection attributed to male-female sex Key Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Sexual and Reproductive Health of Persons Aged 10–24 Years—United States, 2002–2007.” MMWR Surveillance Summaries , July 17, 2009; 58(No.SS-6), Table 16.
  • Minority Stress Theory as Applied to LGBT People
    • LGBTQ youth and adults have greater rates of mental health problems
    • A major reason is that many experience chronic stress due to:
      • stigma, discrimination, and victimization
      • expectations of rejection
      • concealment of self
      • internalized homophobia
    • These stresses can lead to social isolation, shame, low self-worth, hopelessness, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicide risk
    Ilan H. Meyer, Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: Conceptual Issues and Research Evidence, Psychological Bulletin , 2003, 129:5;674–697
  • Long-Term Effects of Family Rejection on LGB Young Adults Rejection score Caitlin Ryan, et al., “Family Rejection as a Predictor of Negative Health Outcomes in White & Latino Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Young Adults,” Pediatrics 123(1), January 2009. Whites and Latinos, both sexes; N=244
  • Identity Development Challenges for Black Youth
    • “Black youth and their decisions about sex are usually presented as wrong, immoral, and dangerous…
    • “From the classroom to popular culture, the idealized strong Black woman appears at one of two poles: either asexual or hypersexual.
    • “A rigid representation of masculinity… can crowd out a healthy view of the sexual and emotional feelings that [gay/bi young Black men] experience as they grow into adulthood…”
    www.blackaids.org Cohen, C.J., et al., Reclaiming Our Future: The State of AIDS among Black Youth in America, Black AIDS Institute, 2005
  • Minority Stress Theory (revisited)
    • Minority stress and minority resilience interact
    • Minority status is often associated with protective resources such as group solidarity and cohesiveness
    • Coping skills are strengthened by:
      • personal acceptance of one’s identity
      • family support
      • non-stigmatizing social environment
      • supportive peer social group
    • Personal resilience to cope may not be enough without social support
    Ilan H. Meyer, Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: Conceptual Issues and Research Evidence, Psychological Bulletin , 2003, 129:5;674–697
  • Signaling Approachability
    • How can you signal to students that you are a safe person with whom to discuss issues related to sexual orientation and gender identity?
  • Creating Safe Spaces for LGBTQ Youth
    • LGB students in schools with a gay-straight alliance:
      • reported a greater sense of belonging
      • were less likely to miss school because of safety concerns
      • reported hearing fewer homo-phobic remarks and experienced less harassment and assault
      • were more likely to report incidents of violence and harassment
    Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network, 2007 National School Climate Survey Organizations that can help with GSAs:
  • Teaching So That LGBTQ Youth Will Hear
    • Sexual minority students in Massachusetts were less likely to report being taught HIV prevention— despite attending the same classes
    • LGB students in schools that have addressed sexual orientation in the curriculum:
      • report a greater sense of belonging
      • are less likely to miss classes
      • are more likely to talk to teachers about sexual orientation
    Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network, 2007 National School Climate Survey
  • For Example, the Need to Clearly Define “Sexual Intercourse”
    • Types of sexual behavior among 7 th grade students in Houston, Texas, 2004
  • Characteristics of Effective HIV Prevention Programs for Young Black Men
    • Multiple sessions of a cohesive, trusting group
    • Non-judgmental acceptance of all behaviors and concerns
    • Engaging participants in guided discussions of real issues in their daily lives
      • racism and discrimination
      • educational opportunities
      • male identity formation
      • healthy relationships
      • family life
    One such program is: www.effectiveinterventions.org
  • Risks of Violence Among High School Students, Mass., 2005 Both sexes and all race/ethnicities Massachusetts Department of Education, 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
  • School-Wide Effects of Bullying and Harassment
    • Diminishes victims’—and onlookers’—capacity to concentrate and expend energy on academics
    • May cause students to stay home from school or cut classes
    • Diverts teachers’ attention and reduces instructional time
    • Harms the school’s reputation
    • Opens the school/district to lawsuits
      • legal fees
      • lost staff time
      • greater insurance premium costs
  • Activity: My Role in Bullying Prevention and Victim Assistance
    • Review the handout, “Characteristics of Effective Bullying Prevention Programs”
    • Discuss the feasibility of implementing the recommendations in your school
    • Identify your role in promoting bullying prevention and victim assistance
  • APA’s Model of Direct Intervention Services for Individual Students
    • Support youth without requesting disclosure of personal details regarding sexual orientation or gender identity
    • Treat any disclosure seriously and counsel students about further disclosure to others
    • Promote responsible health and sexual behaviors, including HIV/STI testing, abstinence, and risk reduction
    • Identify next steps, perhaps including referrals to community agencies
  • Thank You This presentation was supported by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cooperative Agreement U58DP000440. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official views of CDC or the US Department of Health and Human Services.