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Chapter 4 class version(1)

Chapter 4 class version(1)






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    Chapter 4 class version(1) Chapter 4 class version(1) Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 4Ethics in Research
    • Roadmap• Reminder: Exam 2 on Tuesday! – Chapters 5, 6, 4 – Format: MC, short answer, maybe matching – Good study guide: outlines at beginning of chapters• Quick review• Chapter 4: Ethics in Research (cover all today)
    • Announcement• Association for Psychological Science• Discounted membership rates through Oct. 6• Rate for undergrads: $25• www.joinaps.org/?p=PCR13&s=join – Membership application – Promo code at bottom of page• www.psychologicalscience.org
    • Quick Review• Research Validity – Statistical Conclusion – Construct: threats – Internal: threats – External: types• Internal vs. External
    • Research Ethics• 3 areas of ethical concerns – Relationship between society and science – Professional issues – Treatment of research participants
    • Relationship Between Society and Science• How do scientists choose their research topics?• Funding for scientific research• Public interpretation of science
    • Relationship Between Society and Science• Senator Tom Coburn, NSF oversight report
    • Professional Issues• Research misconduct: fabricating, falsifying or plagiarizing the proposal, conduction, or reporting of research• You make ethical choices at each stage of the research process
    • Professional Issues• Less obvious forms of research misconduct – Overlooking flawed data – Failing to present/consider work contradicting your own – Changing your work to meet demands of funding sources
    • Professional Issues• Institutional Review Boards (IRB) require information to ensure professionalism in research: – Purpose – Background & Rationale – Population – Design – Incentives – Risks/Benefits – Privacy/Confidentiality
    • Treatment of Research Participants• Fundamental to ethical research• Ethical dilemma – Balance risk and benefit• IRB determines if balance is appropriate
    • Ethical Guidelines—History• Nuremberg Code – Valid research designs – Inform participants; freedom to choose• Tuskegee Experiment – p. 106 – Accurate reporting of results; coercion• Led to creation of ethical guidelines for research
    • APA’s Ethical Guidelines for Research5 Basic Moral Principles• Respect for persons and their autonomy• Beneficence and nonmaleficence• Justice• Trust• Fidelity and scientific integrity
    • Respect for Persons and Their Autonomy• Giving people the right to choose to participate (or not)
    • Beneficence and Nonmaleficence• Beneficence = do good• Nonmaleficence = do no harm
    • Justice• Who should benefit, who should bear burdens of research• Fairness of benefit distribution
    • Trust• Researchers should establish and maintain trust with research participants
    • Fidelity and Scientific Integrity• Truthful reporting of results• Quality research – Valid designs
    • APA Ethical Standards for Research• Exhibit 4.5, pp. 110-112• Researchers must comply with the following standards
    • Institutional Approval• Via IRB
    • Informed Consent• Must do this• Forgoing consent—rare• Consent vs. Assent• Active vs. Passive consent
    • Deception• Misleading participants about nature of study or omitting details of experiment• Only use when necessary• Can’t use it when harm or severe stress is involved
    • Debriefing• Post-experimental discussion about the details of a study• Dehoaxing• Desensitizing
    • Coercion• Can’t exploit people• Must be free to decline or leave study
    • Confidentiality• Very important in research with humans• Anonymity• Confidentiality
    • Animal Research• Separate board to review animal research• Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee• (IACUC)