Chapter 4 class version(1)


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Chapter 4 class version(1)

  1. 1. Chapter 4Ethics in Research
  2. 2. Roadmap• Reminder: Exam 2 on Tuesday! – Chapters 5, 6, 4 – Format: MC, short answer, maybe matching – Good study guide: outlines at beginning of chapters• Quick review• Chapter 4: Ethics in Research (cover all today)
  3. 3. Announcement• Association for Psychological Science• Discounted membership rates through Oct. 6• Rate for undergrads: $25• – Membership application – Promo code at bottom of page•
  4. 4. Quick Review• Research Validity – Statistical Conclusion – Construct: threats – Internal: threats – External: types• Internal vs. External
  5. 5. Research Ethics• 3 areas of ethical concerns – Relationship between society and science – Professional issues – Treatment of research participants
  6. 6. Relationship Between Society and Science• How do scientists choose their research topics?• Funding for scientific research• Public interpretation of science
  7. 7. Relationship Between Society and Science• Senator Tom Coburn, NSF oversight report
  8. 8. Professional Issues• Research misconduct: fabricating, falsifying or plagiarizing the proposal, conduction, or reporting of research• You make ethical choices at each stage of the research process
  9. 9. Professional Issues• Less obvious forms of research misconduct – Overlooking flawed data – Failing to present/consider work contradicting your own – Changing your work to meet demands of funding sources
  10. 10. Professional Issues• Institutional Review Boards (IRB) require information to ensure professionalism in research: – Purpose – Background & Rationale – Population – Design – Incentives – Risks/Benefits – Privacy/Confidentiality
  11. 11. Treatment of Research Participants• Fundamental to ethical research• Ethical dilemma – Balance risk and benefit• IRB determines if balance is appropriate
  12. 12. Ethical Guidelines—History• Nuremberg Code – Valid research designs – Inform participants; freedom to choose• Tuskegee Experiment – p. 106 – Accurate reporting of results; coercion• Led to creation of ethical guidelines for research
  13. 13. APA’s Ethical Guidelines for Research5 Basic Moral Principles• Respect for persons and their autonomy• Beneficence and nonmaleficence• Justice• Trust• Fidelity and scientific integrity
  14. 14. Respect for Persons and Their Autonomy• Giving people the right to choose to participate (or not)
  15. 15. Beneficence and Nonmaleficence• Beneficence = do good• Nonmaleficence = do no harm
  16. 16. Justice• Who should benefit, who should bear burdens of research• Fairness of benefit distribution
  17. 17. Trust• Researchers should establish and maintain trust with research participants
  18. 18. Fidelity and Scientific Integrity• Truthful reporting of results• Quality research – Valid designs
  19. 19. APA Ethical Standards for Research• Exhibit 4.5, pp. 110-112• Researchers must comply with the following standards
  20. 20. Institutional Approval• Via IRB
  21. 21. Informed Consent• Must do this• Forgoing consent—rare• Consent vs. Assent• Active vs. Passive consent
  22. 22. Deception• Misleading participants about nature of study or omitting details of experiment• Only use when necessary• Can’t use it when harm or severe stress is involved
  23. 23. Debriefing• Post-experimental discussion about the details of a study• Dehoaxing• Desensitizing
  24. 24. Coercion• Can’t exploit people• Must be free to decline or leave study
  25. 25. Confidentiality• Very important in research with humans• Anonymity• Confidentiality
  26. 26. Animal Research• Separate board to review animal research• Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee• (IACUC)