CSI.SP: Observing Urban Space by Maurice Harteveld (25 Feb 2009)

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The invited lecturer has profound knowledge about the changing characteristics of public and private urban space. The envisioned lecture covers city related topics following a two-folded target. As urban space represents the interface of communication and all investigations it is crucial to bring participants nearer to the concept of it. The second part of the lecture block will deal with the role of urban planning in shaping urban space. With this insight participants whould understand the role of urban space and the formal ways planning it.

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CSI.SP: Observing Urban Space by Maurice Harteveld (25 Feb 2009)

  1. 1. Maurice Harteveld (TU Delft) Urban Research Methods Lecture 4: 25-02-09 18:30-20:00 Room F PARALLEL WORLDS LECTURE SERIES 2009
  2. 2. Observing Urban Space Maurice Harteveld, Urban Designer, Planner, and Architect m.g.a.d.harteveld@tudelft.nl www.harteveld.org
  3. 3. Space in the City In general, and relatively, the City has little Open Space The land is mainly private… Montepulciano… “primum electio loci saluberrimi.”: First to choose a healthy place… Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 - c. 15 BC)
  4. 4. Public Space & Form Design: Sizes, heights, walls, views, … Contrast and difference, unity and coherence, … Via di Cagnano… “Mercurio autem in foro aut etiam, ...” Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 - c. 15 BC))
  5. 5. Public Space & Meaning Culture: Use by local residents and entrepreneurs, passer-bys, … Meaning, significance, history, memory, … Strada del Vino Nobile di Montepulciano (Local Wine Route) … “...Apollini Patrique Libero secundum theatrum” Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 - c. 15 BC))
  6. 6. What is Public Space? ‘Publicum’ and ‘Publicis Locis’, by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 - c. 15 BC) Of the People … The place of the people The question shifts to… What is public? “locorum ad usum publicum dispositio…..., quae isdem rationibus in publicis locis designantur.” Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 - c. 15 BC)
  7. 7. Contemporary Conceptions The sole legitimism for a street is when it is public: Without streets no city, said Spiro Kostof (1992) Siena… “The only legitimacy of the street is as public space. Without it there is no city.” (Kostof 1992: 194)
  8. 8. Contemporary Conceptions? The street; what is the street? … and, is only outdoor space public? Space Meaning Piazza del Duomo... “Today, architects and urbanists are [..] challenged by the conundrum of public spaces within private buildings.” Harteveld en Scott Brown (2007)
  9. 9. Contemporary Conceptions! I state that also public interiors enrich the city, even qualitatively can improve. Without publicness no city… De Duomo di Siena of Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta... “History shows how richly the public interiors of private buildings can extend and enhance the city’s public offering.” Harteveld en Scott Brown (2007)
  10. 10. Nolli Map Giambattista Nolli, an architect and surveyor in service of pope Benedictus XIV Without church no city? Pianta Grande di Roma... “Our maps resembled Nolli’s in that they showed the buildings, open spaces and circulation systems of the public sector differently from those of the private sector…” Harteveld en Scott Brown (2007)
  11. 11. Not New, but Different… Las Vegas 1960s Icon for the dispersed city, fragmented and interiorized Day is negated in the casinos, … “We believe that a careful documentation and analysis if its physical form is as important […] …” Venturi en Scott Brown (1972)
  12. 12. Public Space? Caesars Palace faced the Strip with a royal presence. The Roman Baroque wings marked the entry, fountains stands along the roadside. and night is negated on the strip. “… […] as were the studies of Medieval Europe and Ancient Rome and Greece to earlier generations.” Venturi en Scott Brown (1972)
  13. 13. Past, Present, Future Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown on excursion in Las Vegas (1968) Without casino no city? Learning from Las Vegas... “Stardust Hotel = Gothic Cathedrals, Las Vegas Signs = San Gimimnano Towers” Venturi en Scott Brown (1968 in 1972)
  14. 14. Reinterpretation of Nolli Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown revolutionary evolution (1972) ‘Interior Space’ or ‘Interior Oasis’ as public space Strip Nolli’s Las Vegas.... “The interior space and the patio […] have the quality of an oasis” Venturi en Scott Brown (1972)
  15. 15. What does this mean for Urbanism? Building in the City? City in the Building? Private Space – Public Space PUBLIC SPACE Urbanism versus Architecture “a city, according to the opinion of philosophers, be no more then a great house, and on the other hand a house be a little city…” Leon Battista Alberti (1452 / 1485)
  16. 16. 1860s: Urban Pioneers ‘Urbanización’, defined by Ildefonso Cerdá (1863) ‘Städtebau’, defined by Reinhard Baumeister (1876) Early Urban Theorists define Public Space in the City as an Design Assignment … The design of Public Space is traditionally an assignment for Urban Designers Harteveld (2005)
  17. 17. 1960s: Urban Sociologists Hannah Arendt (1958), Jane Jacobs (1961), Jürgen Habermas (1962) et al People com together, exchange ideas, trade, have influence, … Underlined by Sociologists Public Realm - Public Life - Public Responsibility - Öffentlichkeit - Public Sphere - Publicness Exterior and Interior - Open or Roofed - Open to the Public - Democratic Space - Res Publica Rise of sociology after WO II.... “Our maps resembled Nolli’s in that they showed the buildings, open spaces and circulation systems of the public sector differently from those of the private sector…” Harteveld en Scott Brown (2007)
  18. 18. Public Space as a Design ‘Forum Romanum’ in Der Städtebau, by Camillo Sitte (1889) v. ‘Umbau der Stadtmitte von Florenz’ in Der Städtebau, by Joseph Stübben (1890) … Public Space defined by Use; or Public Space defined by Ownership? ‘wherefore presently not only public squares but also enclosed spaces are used’ Sitte (1889)
  19. 19. [α] Public Space Time through Paris as example
  20. 20. Public Space in the City Unhygienic Paris, pictured in ‘Le désagrément d’aller à pied’ (?) Chaos in Paris, pictured in Le Figaro Littéraire (1888) In Practice: The Public Space in the Nineteenth Century. …ownership and with that public/private law were used to control public order Mumford (1961), Benevolo (1980), et al
  21. 21. Private Initiatives Journey to Egypt and Syria (1780s), Napoleonic Travels (1798 – 1799) Design Galeries de Bois in Paris by Victor Louis (1781 – ‘84) Extension Public Space, designed as Bazaar, transformed into a ‘Short-Cut’ through the block. … ‘bazar ou marche couvert’. Volney (1783 – 1785)
  22. 22. New, Clean and …Inside Rise of the Bourgeoisie after the French Revolution (1798 - 1799) Design several Arcades, a.o. Galeries Vivienne en Colbert (1826 resp. 1828) Next to the need for extra Public Space, foremost the need for clean en modern Public Space. New and foremost clean public space for ‘tout de Paris’. In fact for the bourgeoisie to stroll. Benjamin (1935, 1939, 1972)
  23. 23. The Ownership of the Space Galerie d’Orleans in Palais Royal, design Pierre Fontaine (1829) Surroundings of Palais Royal, design Georges-Eugène Haussmann (1854) Control Public Order on Private Premises vs. Public Ownership “…à se soumettre aux ordonnance et règlements du ressort de l’administration de la police.” Alphand (1886)
  24. 24. Improving Quality Public Space General principles of the new Parisian streets, Joseph Stübben (1890) Photo after realization breakthroughs (end 19e century) Construction of Public Services, like Sewerage, under the Public Road “Hausmann again offered the ‘corridor street’ as a solution…” Le Corbusier (1929)
  25. 25. New Problems Lack of transit and supervision, and conflict participants of traffic Collection newspaper clippings of Le Corbusier (1923 en 1924) Rise of car-, traffic trouble “Les heures nouvelle” , “L’urbanisme… un esprit nouveau” L’intran. (1923)
  26. 26. Vertical City Siena in the Medieval Time and New York in Modern Time collection Le Corbusier (1920s) Fascination for New York, reinterpretation history… Plus: “Grande Traversées”, “Autodromes”, “Gratte-ciels”, “Cités Jardins”, ... Le Corbusier (1929)
  27. 27. The Future? Reconstruction Inner City of Paris ‘Plan Voisin’, design Le Corbusier (1926) Ideal Plan of ‘Ville Radieuse’, design Le Corbusier (1930) Air, Light and Space! … “But in this plan I allow for sky-scrapers at intervals of 400 yards …” Le Corbusier (1929)
  28. 28. Spacious Lay-Out Housing and increase of Mobility after Invention Masse production Ford (1910) Design of a. o. Cité des 4000 and Val d’Argent (1963 – ’68 resp. 1964 – ’72) Free-standing Apartment Buildings in a park-like Public Space. De ontwikkelingen zouden “on behalf of the public […] be financed by the public and not by the state.” Le Corbusier (1929)
  29. 29. Surplus of ‘Public’ Space ‘Le Val-d’Argent saccagé’ in Le Parisien of 15 juli (2005) Revitalization and Sanitation; exampl. Fernand Léger (2006), La Barre Balzac (2009) It may be landscaped Space, but foremost extra ‘Public’ Space. “l’îlot Fernand Léger a déjà et va encore connaître des réaménagements marquants à sa périphérie…” Ville-d’Argenteuil (2006)
  30. 30. Real Public Space, where? Créteil Soleil, Val-de-Marne in the ‘Banlieue’ of Paris (1974-2005) Gathering inside the Shopping Mall Air, Light and Space?? Airconditioning, Lighting and Interiors! “Créteil-Soleil est créé dans les années 1970 sur des terrains ayant été déclaré d'intérêt public.” Philippe Baffert, Ministère des Transports, de l'Équipement, du Tourisme et de la Mer (20 novembre 2006)
  31. 31. Public Space Private Hands IN Nineteenth-Century’s Passages: Extra Public Space on Private Property Twentieth-Century’s Malls: Response to the surplus of ‘Public’ Space ii i Privately designed and managed Public Space “Het denken over Openbare Ruimte wordt nu gedomineerd door een hernieuwd kwaliteitsbesef. ” Hajer (1989)
  32. 32. Public Space Private Hands IN Nineteenth-Century’s Passages: Extra Public Space on Private Property Twentieth-Century’s Malls: Response to the surplus of ‘Public’ Space i ii Privately designed and managed Public Space “Het denken over Openbare Ruimte wordt nu gedomineerd door een hernieuwd kwaliteitsbesef. ” Hajer (1989)
  33. 33. Transformation of Public Space Transformations and modification through time, but also A Variety of adoptions in different places, by different urban cultures and societies The transformation of public space in not a linear process “being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long-continued observation” Darwin (1838)
  34. 34. [β] Variables Private Ground designed for the Public
  35. 35. Who’s the Public? Scuola di Atene , Vatican City, by Raphael Sanzio (1509–1510) The Forum Shops at Caesars, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas by Terry Dougall (1992) Transformation of the public & Diversification of the public… “Nam cunctas nationes et urbes populus aut primores aut singuli regunt.” Publius Cornelius Tacitus (ca. 56 – ca. 117)
  36. 36. Diversity Identity AND United Colors of Benetton, Treviso Italy (1980s) Street party in Helsinki (1999) Migratie, globalization, emerge of sub-cultures, lifestyles: Who is the public? “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” Arti1 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
  37. 37. Neutrality Specificity AND Kern Gezond, Den Haag (since 1985) and Wijnhavenkwartier (2011 en 2017) Design Vision China Town, Den Haag (since 2005) and Chinese Poort (2009) Changing populous. The communal idea seems to be forgotten… “Toch dient de openbare ruimte zich niet op één functie te richten, en een zekere neutraliteit te bewaren.” Han Meyer (2006)
  38. 38. Utility Show AND Shinjuku Station, Tokyo (1885-now) Canal City Hakata Fukuoka (1996) Jon Jerde Communal Unity and Community as basis for the Japanse society. “a hyper-dense community the likes of which is not found elsewhere in the world.” Kakuei Tanaka, minister-president (1972)
  39. 39. Outside Inside AND Lower Manhattan Station, New York NY, United States design by Daniel Libeskind (2005) Actual Design Task giving space to the public: Lay-out, Connections and Management “In order […] to create more usable open space, a bonus device has been established…” Voorhees Walker Smith, Smith & Haines (1958)
  40. 40. Publicness has Changed? Jardin du Luxembourg, Paris by Frédéric Bartholdi (1870) Fontaine des Automates by Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint Phalle (1982) Who is the public? “Nam cunctas nationes et urbes populus aut primores aut singuli regunt.” Publius Cornelius Tacitus (ca. 56 – ca. 117)
  41. 41. Publicity Public AND Demonstration in a Mall in New York by Justice for Janitors (2003) Performance in the NY Subway by a Jazz Ensemble (1998) That’s where people pass, that’s where people gather: Demonstrations, Manifestations etc. “…the challenge of the boundary setting is supporting both sides of the boundary.” Madanipour (2003)
  42. 42. Law Regulations AND Citigroup Center Public Space, New York VS - design Hugh Stubbins (1977) Zoning Resolution of the Department of City Planning NYC (1990) Public Regulations focused on Accessibility and Use of Privately Owned Public Space. “Complaints regarding this public space may be addressed to the Department Of city Planning.” Openbare Mededeling op een Bord op 153 Eas53rd Street, NYC (2004)
  43. 43. Liberty Obstruction AND Sign in the Fashion Fair Mall, Fresno CA, US (1970s / 2003) First Amendment Area, Muir Woods CA, US (1990s) ‘Public Freedom of Speech’, ‘Freedom of the Press’, ‘Freedom of Assembly’, etc. “Congress shall make no law … abridging the freedom of speech…” US Bill of Rights,1st Amendment (1789 - today)
  44. 44. Ownership Use AND Warmond, TCN Property Projects, Teylingen (April 2006*) VPRO De Toekomst Dorli for sale in India (December 2005) Does it matter? “Te koop aangeboden: Middelgroot dorp, centraal gelegen in de Randstad, zeer goed ontsloten...” VPRO De Toekomst (2006)
  45. 45. …Fear Critics AND Anti Space (1986) Themed Space (1992) Analogous Space (1992) Generic Space (1995) Empty Space (2002) Capsular Space (2005)… Criticism since the 1980s. “Lost spaces are the undesireble urban areas that are in need for redesign - antispaces.’ Trancik (1986)
  46. 46. Observing the Public & the Private? The mass, the public, …the public sphere The lonely, the individual, …de private sphere Public Sphere and the Private Space, Private Sphere and the Public Space “the public realm, as the sphere of action and speech, contrasts to the private realm of the house hold…” (Arendt 1958)
  47. 47. …Fragmentation & Complexity? La Canopée, Forum des Halles, by Patrick Berger en Jacques Anziutti (2010–2013) L’Emblisement de Paris par le Métropolitain, by A. Robida (1886) The Fragments are Complex and Complexity is Fragmented “interior public space has become an important constituent of the contemporary city .” Harteveld en Scott Brown (2007)
  48. 48. …Fiction & Reality? Grand Canal in The Venetian Resort Hotel Casino, Las Vegas (1999) Fondamenta del Soccorso in Venetia Fiction is Reality, and Reality is Fiction… “Bring people together and they create a collective surplus of enjoyment;...” Gordon Cullen (1961)
  49. 49. Observing The City Disperse – Compact, Fragmentation – Unionization, Envisioned – Grown… Diversity, Identity, Liberty, Publicity… Rethinking Public Space “interior public space has become an important constituent of the contemporary city .” Harteveld en Scott Brown (2007)
  50. 50. Rethinking Public Space Public – Private, Cultural Meaning – Design, Outdoor – Indoor, Lack – Surplus… Neutrality, Specificity, Utility, Diversity, … Public Sphere, Public Realm, Public Life, Public Quality “interior public space has become an important constituent of the contemporary city .” Harteveld en Scott Brown (2007)
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