CSI.SP: Introduction to São Paulo by Roberto Rocco (11 Feb 2009)


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The first official lecture will introduce São Paulo in a way that people who have never been there get a brief overview of the historic dynamics that help shaping the megacity of today and well acquainted participants hear a refreshing story about the ‘city of contrasts’.

Published in: Travel, Technology, Education
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    The lectures is part of the 'parallel worlds lecture series 2009'. For a full overview see http://urbandetectives.com/projects/csi/sp/index.php?v=pre&p=prelectures&lang=en
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CSI.SP: Introduction to São Paulo by Roberto Rocco (11 Feb 2009)

  1. Roberto Rocco (TU Delft) Introduction São Paulo Lecture 1: 11-02-09 19:00-20:00 Room C PARALLEL WORLDS LECTURE SERIES 2009
  2. Building a South American Metropolis Roberto Rocco Chair Spatial Planning and Strategy TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Urbanism and Urban Renewal
  3. • Brazil (and LA as a whole) has entered a new demographic phase. Birth rates are lower, the population is mostly urban (+88%). • Many cities must face historically produced problems, the result of decades of strong demographic pressure (migration), poor governance and lack of effective planning strategies. • Meanwhile, a new economic scenario (globalisation?) is creating new urban form and structures. Human activity is differently distributed over the territory. • Here I try to describe some urban processes originated or connected to migration processes
  4. 1. What IS São Paulo today 2. Historical origins and growth process 3. Most relevant problems today 4. Some relevant sites (ideas)
  5. Lima Salvador Brasilia Belo Horizonte Rio Asuncion Curitiba Sao Paulo Cordoba Porto Alegre Santiago Montevideo Buenos Aires
  6. Rank Country GDP (PPP) $m GDP per country PPP — World 61,006,604 — European Union 12,626,921 1 United States 12,409,465 World Bank (2006) 2 China 8,572,666a 3 Japan 3,943,754 4 India 3,815,553b 5 Germany 2,417,537 6 United Kingdom 1,926,809 7 France 1,829,559 8 Italy 1,667,753 9 Brazil 1,627,262 10 Russia 1,559,934 11 Spain 1,133,539 12 Canada 1,061,236 13 South Korea 1,056,094 14 Mexico 1,052,443 15 Indonesia 847,415 16 Australia 643,066 17 Turkey 612,312 18 Argentina 558,755 19 South Africa 557,971b 20 Thailand 549,265 21 Iran 540,207 22 Netherlands 537,675 23 Poland 533,552 24 Philippines 408,637
  7. 41 Estonia 16,414 2004 42 Kuwait 16,301 2004 GDP per capita PPP 43 Slovakia 16,041 2004 44 Saudi Arabia 15,229 2004 45 Saint Kitts and Nevis 14,649 2003 46 Trinidad and Tobago 14,258 2002 47 Lithuania 14,158 2004 48 Argentina 14,109 2001 49 Poland 12,994 2003 50 Mauritius 12,895 2004 51 Latvia 12,666 2004 52 Croatia 12,324 2004 IMF (2005) 53 South Africa 12,161 2004 54 Seychelles 12,059 2003 55 Chile 11,937 2004 56 Libya 11,624 2003 57 Antigua and Barbuda 11,523 2004 58 Botswana 11,41 2003 59 Malaysia 11,201 2004 60 Russia 11,041 2004 61 Uruguay 10,72 2004 62 Costa Rica 10,434 2000 63 Mexico 10,186 2000 64 Bulgaria 9,223 2004 65 Romania 8,785 2004 66 Brazil 8,561 2004 67 Thailand 8,368 2004
  8. GDP PPP compared
  9. GDP Per Capita PPP compared
  10. Top ten FDI host economies in 2000 (US$ mi)source: UNCTAD, 2004 FDI inflow 2000
  11. Composition of the economy Agriculture Industry Services USA 0.9% 20.4% 78.6% Netherlands 2.1% 23.9% 73.9% Germany 0.9% 29.1% 70% Argentina 9.5% 35.8% 54.7% Brazil 8% 38% 54% China 11.9% 48.1% 40%
  12. GDP per metropolitan PPP (2005) State of British Cities (2006) 21 Randstad: 216
  13. São Paulo ‘in comparison’ Nordzee Campinas Area: 8.051 Km2 Area: 8.313 Km2 c. 2.000 urbanised 50km Amsterdam 75km Utrecht Den Haag Rotterdam S Atlantic SPaulo 0 10 20 0 10 20 Santos
  14. Metropolitan Area: 8.051 km2 Urbanised Area: app. 2.000 km2 Main Municipality: 1.500 km2
  15. São Paulo ‘in comparison Randstad-Holland Randstad-Holland land Sao Paulo Metropolitan ulo Metropolitan l Metropolitan
  16. Possible contrast?
  17. Possible contrast?
  18. Possible contrast? Amsterdam Zuidas Amsterdam Centrum Sao Paulo Centrum Sao Paulo Berrini Marginal
  19. The Tordesillas Treaty 1494 In 1494, with the seal of the Pope, Portugal and Spain modestly divided the world amongst them. Most of South and North America (then unknown) fell out of the Portuguese share.
  20. An Unimportant Colonial City Rubber cycle 1890-1945 Sugarcane cycle c.1530- 1640 Cacao cycle c.1820-1920 Gold Cycle c.1690- 1790 Coffee Cycle 1808-1929 In colonial times, S Paulo had very little importance. First the sugar cane plantations in Pernambuco and then the gold digging in Minas constituted the main colonial activities, until the arrival of coffee plantations to the South East part of the country.
  21. Number of Estimate Indians in 2000 number of Indians in 1500 2007: c.175 million
  22. African population 1531: First sugar cane “engenho” Sugarcane cycle (‘factory’) c.1530- 1640 1537: The Church declares Amerindians “human beings” 1550: First African slaves Gold Cycle 1559: Significant traffic of slaves c.1690- 1790 1720: Prohibition of Amerindian Slavery Cacao cycle Sugar cane cycle: 1.350.000 slaves c.1820-1920 Gold cycle: 650.000 Coffee cycle: 250.000 Other activities (cotton, tobacco, Coffee Cycle domestic labour: 1.100.000 1808-1929 1888 Slavery abolition: (700.000 slaves) TOTAL: c. 3.300.000
  23. ‘European’ Immigration Total immigration of Europeans (estimate after 1850): >5-7 million
  24. Brazil Total Population (2000 Census): 169.872.856
  25. An Unimportant Colonial City In 1822, Brazil got independent from Portugal. SP gained some importance when the Brazilian Imperial court chose to place a Law Academy in the city in 1827. 1750: Pop 20.000 Picture showing Benedictine Monastery and Church and the Faculty of Law in 1860
  26. An unimportant Colonial city
  27. An unimportant colonial city Eastern central area of the city in 1892 (Largo do Bixiga). Market colonial forms.
  28. 1850:The Coffee Revolution & industrialization Pop 31.000 1880: The great coffee plantations commercialise their products in the city. The coffee economy produces the development of urban activities, because it demands a complex Sao Paulo Railway Station (1892) is built with English organization of financing, capitals. transport, commerce and export.
  29. 1895 European Immigration Pop 131.000 1900 Pop 239.820 Slavery abolished, it was necessary to have paid labour force. European and Japanese immigrants come to the city en masse. Workers at Textile Factory around 1910. The factory belonged to Matarazzo family The Black population is small in the city. Freed slaves establish in peripheral areas (later districts of the city)
  30. European Immigration The population of the city grows enormously: 1895: pop. 130.000 (54%of which were foreigners). 1900: pop. 239.820 (growth of 84% in 5 years!) 1900: Almost half of the population speaks Italian. Other: Spanish and Portuguese. 1905: First Syrian and Lebanese (50.000 Lebanese until 1946) 1908: Fist Japanese (500.000 along the XX century) 1920: Armenians, Jewish, Germans, Polish, Russian Pop in 1920: 579.000
  31. New Urban Paradigms Rua Direita. Central Core circa 1860.
  32. New Urban Paradigms The capital generated by coffee was (for c. 1895 the first time in the history of the In 1880 the country) re population invested in the was 31.000 country itself. It meant more and more coffee plantations but also urban transformation. 1915 In 1920 the population was 579.000 L. Badaro street corner Dr Falcao st 1895 and 1915
  33. New Urban Paradigms The model for the new architecture was the French eclectic style. Even the simplest houses tried to emulate its forms. In the central core, new services are offered. European workforce provide the basis for new consumption and architectural patterns.
  34. Economic progress Industry and urban change brings changes in urban form, structure and economic bases. Small industry begins to appear in order to tend to the growing agglomeration necessities. Workers in front of textiles factory c. 1900
  35. A new elite comes into view Traditional Boarding School Des Oiseaux, c. 1900 Note Art Nouveau Style. The elite is composed by rich Portuguese landowners and enriched Italian, German and Jewish families
  36. A new elite comes into view The construction of a big opera house is a sign of the elite’s search for a more urban and sophisticated life style. Perhaps the biggest sign of change in mentalities. Anhangabau 1914 Opera House
  37. A new elite comes into view Anhangabaú Valley in 1915, with Opera House and Hotel
  38. The elite seeks new spaces The opening of Aveninda Paulista, some kilometers away from the central core, signified a major change in urban structure. At the time of its inauguration, it was considered a “faraway” refuge for the wealthy. The names of families who owned houses in the Avenue shows not only Portuguese landowners (The Coffee Barons) but also Italian, German and Jewish industrialists, lawyers and traders. Avenida Paulista c. 1902
  39. The ‘European’ city Anhangabaú Valley c. 1915
  40. The ‘European’ city Central Cinema, c. 1916
  41. The ‘European’ city Patriarch Square c. 1925
  42. The ‘European’ city Patriarch Place in 1925.
  43. The ‘European’ city Anhangabaú Valley, 1927
  44. The ‘European’ City Anhangabaú Valley c. 1932
  45. Central Business District 15 Novembro Street, c. 1915
  46. Central Business District 15 de Novembro Street c. 1906
  47. New urban facilities: The Central Market New City Market 1933 AE
  48. New mentalities: the urban man In 1940 the pop reached 1.32 million In a country still predominantly agrarian, the surge of a metropolis represented the appearance of a new kind of mentality and life style. Sao Joao Avenue with Martinelli Building 1937
  49. The urban man Anhangabau Valley in 1929.
  50. The urban man Sao Jose Cinema in 1929
  51. The urban man Central Post Office Agency in 1938
  52. Urban Problems Tramway at Cathedral Square in 1937
  53. Immigration: 2nd WW 1940: Pop 1.32 million In the 40’s, the city population reaches its first million. Thousands of refugees arrive from Eastern Europe (Poland, Ukraine), Germany (Jews, but also Germans) and Italian. After 1950, European immigration decreases. edding in an Italian Family in 1940 (Bela Vista)
  54. After WW II: The new prominence of the USA in the New Urban Paradigm international arena shifts paradigms. New urban models come from the North. The belief in “progress” and the Fordist model of production asks for new Urban Form and Structure. Beginning of massive internal migration. Anhangabau Valley in 1949
  55. After WW II: New migration trends & new urbanity Sao Joao Avenue 1951 1950 Pop: 2.19 m
  56. After WW II: New migration trends & new urbanity São João Avenue (Rua Líbero Badaró) 1952
  57. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm The adoption of more and more buses instead of tramways allows the sprawling of the city to distant peripheries. Newly arrived migrants establish themselves in those peripheries. Tram 55 and bus 74 in Casa Verde District, 1953
  58. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm
  59. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm Anhangabau Av Prestes Maia c1950
  60. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm Anhangabau Valley and Tiradentes Ave c. 1948
  61. After WW II: New Urban Paradigm São João Avenue 60’s
  62. Consequences of Rapid Growth
  63. 1960’s Major Internal Migrations Rubber cycle 1890-1945 Sugarcane cycle c.1530- 1640 1960 Pop: 3.7 m Cacao cycle c.1820-1920 Gold Cycle c.1690- 1790 Coffee Cycle Industrial Era 1970 1808-1929 Pop: 5.9 m
  64. Population growth municipality SP
  65. Slums Paraisopolis, the second biggest favela in Sao Paulo, houses approximately 60.000 people (Delft= 120.000).
  66. Slums The State is absent from the space of the ‘favela’. Its inhabitants have their own laws. The community is controlled by one drug dealer who uses many of the dwellers as his “employees”. He himself lives in a luxury condominium. Drugs must not be used inside the space of the ‘favela’. They are mainly sold to the rich dwellers of the buildings. They come from Bolivia and Colombia, in their way to USA and Europe. Notice parabolic antennas.
  67. Military Rule (1964 1986) In 1964, while a social democrat was president, a military coup d’etat took place. Elections were abolished. The mayor of the city and all fist echelon staff would be indicated by the Brasilia. Institutions were shattered. Planning the city became a matter of social control. Cathedral Square in 1969
  68. 1930- 1973: Economical Growth through import substitution policies building up an internal market through: Direct public investment in heavy industry and infrastructure (State owned) + . subsidies for strategic sectors + . strong labour: workers are protected: Unions are strong where industry is. (Workers are weak where old colonial and post colonial structures subsist)
  69. 1973: The oil crisis Explosion of External Debt (International Interest Rates Rocket) Growth is based on increase of debt + corruption + bad management Inflation (directly linked to the oil prices raises) Depression of commodity prices (in Brazil: resulted in internal migrations) 1979: The Debt Interest Rates crisis Growth comes to a sudden hault. : 25% industry 20% unemployment 1980’s: The “lost decade” Lost of investment capacity by the State Recurrence to increasing international DEBT Hyperinflation Chronic unemployment
  70. 70 and 80’s: Bad Management Environmental Decay
  71. 70 and 80’s: Bad Management+Social polarization
  72. 70 and 80’s: 1970 Pop: 5.94 mi Bad Management 1980 Social polarization Pop: 8.49 mi
  73. 80’s: congestion The ‘decadence’ of the old core
  74. Avenida Paulista: The new centrality
  75. Avenida Paulista: Elites go West
  76. Paulista Av.
  77. MASP Art Museum of Sao Paulo
  78. Decaying living conditions and squatting in the Centre
  79. Meanwhile in the old centre: Sao Vito Building
  80. Sao Vito Building • The building houses 510 families or 1200 people • Floors: 28 • (25 type floors, auditorium and grand salon in the last floor, 15 commercial units in the first floor and 13 in the second floor) • 624 apartments • Only 30% of dwellers pay administration costs monthly • 423 apartments are illegaly occupied • 201 apartments are occupied by owners
  81. Typical Floor Plan 11 28 m2 10 09 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 17 08 1.2 m 07 23 22 21 04 03 02 01 24 06 05
  82. Sao Vito Building
  83. Sao Vito Building
  84. Sao Vito Building quot; Sao Vito “, May 2003, a vertical condominium occupied by 1200 poor people. External View. (c) Contrasto
  85. Sao Vito Building Internal View of an apartment. May 2003.
  86. Sao Vito Building Internal View of an apartment. May 2003.
  87. Sao Vito Building
  88. Sao Vito Building
  89. Some Social-Spatial Indicators
  90. Homogeneous Zones
  91. Census 2000: 1. Whites (68,0%), 2. Coloureds (25,0%), 3. Blacks (5,1 % ), 4. Asian (2,0%) 5. Amerindians (0,2%).
  92. 90’s Emigration: Centre looses almost 20% of pop. Causes: 1. Low birth rate (national trend) 2. Deconcentration of industrial production 3. Disappointment with lifestyle/housing/economic opportunities 4. Cost of life (plots are cheaper in outside municipalities) In the 90’s, the population of the city decreased in 600.000
  93. Human Development Compared
  94. Irregular occupation of urban land Area covered by irregular occupations is 338,8 km2, or 22,5% of the total area of the municipality (1500 km2)
  95. Social Vulnerability Scale % of the wealth of the poorest 50% in relation to the richest 50% No serious vulnerability Low vulnerability Middle vulnerability High vulnerability Very high vulnerability Parks, green areas, dams and inhabited places
  96. Favela Paraisopolis
  97. Paraisopolis Favelas
  98. Other Favelas: Human and Ecological Hazard
  99. Old and New Centralities
  100. The South-west Zone
  101. Avenida Faria Lima
  102. The New Corporate Axis
  103. The New Corporate Axis The New Corporate Axis does not have all functions typical to central areas. Its form is linear, an axis along the Pinheiros River, including some important transversal avenues.
  104. The New Corporate Axis
  105. The New Corporate Axis
  106. Corporate Axis
  107. New Solutions for the Periphery
  108. New solutions for peripheries The Municipality PT Labour Party), tries to intervene in the peripheries by installing massive education, culture and sports equipment, all gathered in large complexes known as CEU. There are about 12 of them already.
  109. New solutions for peripheries
  110. New solutions for peripheries Jardim Pantanal, Tiete River Bassin. Meyer: 267
  111. New solutions for peripheries
  112. Old Centre Revitalisation
  113. Meanwhile in the Old Centre: Central Area Regeneration
  114. Downtown Regeneration
  115. Downtown Regeneration COPAN building, designed by Oscar Niemeyer in the late 50`s
  116. Fabrica Pompeia Architect Lina Bo Bardi
  117. Pinacoteca Architect Paulo Mendes da Rocha
  118. Pinacoteca
  119. Pinacoteca
  120. Pinacoteca
  121. Pinacoteca
  122. Sala Sao Paulo Architects Nelson Dupré & Ismael Solé
  123. Downtown Regeneration
  124. Centro Viejo
  125. Centro Viejo
  126. New Peripheral Centralities Guarulhos Centre (International Airport of Sao Paulo)
  127. New Peripheral Centralities Alphaville (Edge City Development)
  128. New internal migrations: Conformation of a macro metropolis
  129. A Global Macrometropolis
  130. r.c.rocco@tudelft.nl