CSI.SP: Informal Sao Paulo by Jaap Klaarenbeek (18 Feb 2009)
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CSI.SP: Informal Sao Paulo by Jaap Klaarenbeek (18 Feb 2009)

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‘Informal Practices’ will be the central theme of Jaap Klaarenbeek’s lecture on the 18th. Various instances of informality will be showed, the ‘magnitude’ of informality in São Paulo and ...

‘Informal Practices’ will be the central theme of Jaap Klaarenbeek’s lecture on the 18th. Various instances of informality will be showed, the ‘magnitude’ of informality in São Paulo and the way it effects the city’s urban life and space. During the lecture several types and modes of informality will be distinghuished, as well as the way in which these practices emerged in São Paulo’s urban landscape, and the forms in which they use the urban space. In his lecture Jaap will shed a light on the tensions between formal and informal and the complex typologies they produce, as well as the symmetries and asymmetries between formal and informal ‘worlds’ in São Paulo. Jaap Klaarenbeek is graduating on an investigation on the topic of informality in São Paulo.

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    CSI.SP: Informal Sao Paulo by Jaap Klaarenbeek (18 Feb 2009) CSI.SP: Informal Sao Paulo by Jaap Klaarenbeek (18 Feb 2009) Presentation Transcript

    • Jaap Klaarenbeek (CCUC) Informal São Paulo Lecture 3: 18-02-09 19:30-20:30 Room C PARALLEL WORLDS LECTURE SERIES 2009
    • Informal practices Its use of, and the effect on, urban spaces Setup: -Theoretic background - Layers of Informality - Mapping Informal São Paulo - Informal Practices Inside the favela Outside the favela
    • Informal Practices Its use of, and the effect on, urban spaces
    • Informal Practices Its use of, and the effect on, urban spaces
    • Informal Practices Its use of, and the effect on, urban spaces
    • Informal Practices Its use of, and the effect on, urban spaces
    • Informal Practices Its use of, and the effect on, urban spaces
    • Informal Practices Its use of, and the effect on, urban spaces
    • Characteristics of the Formal 1. Definitions 2. Categorizations 3. Distinctions 4. Relations
    • Formal - Informal Some Complications in Western Philosophical thought thought 1. Recurring problem: objects are conceptualized as stabile, bounded and based through means of denial. 2. Tension to result in binary structure with a first term (superior/positivity) and second term (inferior / negativity). 3. Result: a relation of opposition and exclusion – instead of similarity, conformity and fusion between the two mode in the dualism. Moreover: in this way of treating subjects, the story gets a normative narrative of ‘developement’and ‘progress’.
    • Formal - Informal Its use of, and the effect on, urban spaces 1. That the informal is inseparable from the formal 2. That the relation between formal and informal is differently understood in different academic fields. 3. That the informal does not have a static definition.
    • The Slum / ‘Favela’ Embodiment of the ‘Informal City’
    • Formal contra Informal Polarized dichotomy
    • Urban Context Informal city growth 1. Informal Economy Informal Processes 2. Informal Politics & Social Relations Informal Production 3. Informally Built Environments Informal Use
    • Urban Context Informal city growth 1. Informal Economy Informal Processes 2. Informal Politics & Social Relations Informal Production 3. Informally Built Environments Informal Use Working Definitions
    • Informally Built Environments Unclear Land-Ownership, Self-Management Construction, Building without Plans, Ad-hoc Problemsolving Architecture
    • Informally Built Environments Unclear Land-Ownership, Self-Management Construction, Building without Plans, Ad-hoc Problemsolving Architecture
    • Informal Politics & Social Relations Absence of Government, Self-Organized Initiatives, Relations of Trust
    • Informal Economy Unregistered Jobs, No Tax Payment, Little Income Certainty, No Access to Social Safety Net, Unstable Working Conditions. Informal Jobs both Inside and Outside of favelas
    • Urban Context Informal city growth
    • - 11 mln inhabitants -1.500 sqkm - 870 sqkm urbanized - 1/3 illegally occupied - home to 2,5m inhabitants - 1,9mln live in favelas - more than 2000 favelas - 65% favelas on protected land - peripheral growth - 130.000 roads - 6 mln cars - 60 km metro lines - 26 km of cycle tracks (20 in parks) - +/- 1.000 private helicopters - 260 landing pads (compare NY:16) Urban Context Informal city growth
    • - 1900: Allotment of Chacara’s - 1970’s: Grileiros - Organized groups invaded and allotted Coffee boom & Skyrocketing expansion - ‘Profit was a certainty’ land to raise financial profits. - Uncoordinated informal expansion Urban Context ‘A question of formal or informal has until recently never been much of a question. Things just happened’.
    • Urban Context ‘the projects by the municipality carried out were always lagging far behind. There has never been any planning, only ad-hoc problem solving. What they did was basically sewing and stitching fragments of urban tissue’.
    • Population living in favelas: - 11 mln inhabitants - 1957: 8.500 shacks -1.500 sqkm -1972: 1,2% - 870 sqkm urbanized - 1997: 18,9% - 1/3 illegally occupied - home to 2,5mln inhabitants - 1,9mln live in favelas - more than 2000 favelas - 65% favelas on protected land - 130.000 roads - 6 mln cars - 60 km metro lines - 26 km of cycle tracks (20 in parks) - +/- 1.000 private helicopters - 260 landing pads (compare NY:16) Urban Context In fact, the whole growth of the city has been uncontrolled.
    • Focus on Informal Settlements Informal city growth 1. Favorable political climate (social federal government) 2. Normalized urban growth 3. Economical situation (energy autonomous, strong agriculture) 4. Strength of popular movements (democracy & rising income)
    • Focus on Informal Settlements Unclear Land-Ownership, Self-Management Construction, Building without Plans, Ad-hoc Problemsolving Architecture
    • Focus on Informal Settlements Also many of the residences of the elite are located on locations where it is forbidden to construct.
    • Focus on Informal Settlements Collective actions are undertaken by elites to close streets. This has become a common phenomenon.
    • Focus on Informal Settlements Changing Understanding - Favela often understood as image of contra-modernity or a phenomenon that is goes with the stage of ‘transitory-urbanism’, a phase in the development of the city from a pre-modern to a modern society. In modernization times the favelas were commonly seen as ‘cancerous sores on the beautiful body of the city’. ‘It was assumed that the dwellers in precarious shacks were precarious themselves, and that comparing their condition with the surrounding opulence would turn them into angry revolutionaries’. ‘Such was the nightmare/ fear of the Right and the daydream of the Left.’.
    • Marginality Thesis Marginiality Thesis: The ‘Marginality Thesis’ holds that informal employment is concentrated amongst marginalized populations, whether these be poor nations, deprived localities and regions, the unemployed or illegal immigrants. Refutation of the ‘Marginality Thesis’ - A multitude of studies reveals that the majority of informal employment is conducted by formal businesses undertaking a portion of their trade on an off- the-books basis; - That those in formal employment undertake more informal employment than those excluded from the formal sphere; - And that lower-income areas conduct less informal employment than more affluent localities.
    • Focus on Informal Settlements Changing Understanding - Favela often understood as image of contra-modernity or a phenomenon that is goes with the stage of ‘transitory-urbanism’, a phase in the development of the city from a pre-modern to a modern society. - Recent understanding that favela’s are not pre-modern nor transitory. They are here to stay. - They have to be understood as just another urban typology. (just like: CBD, garden city, historical center, edge city, gated enclave, etc)
    • ? Focus on Informal Settlements First problem: lack of information
    • Mapping the Informal City Informal city growth
    • Mapping the Informal City
    • Mapping the Informal City - Produced on the basis of Google Earth - Common critique: Hardly based on locally gathered information
    • Informally Built Environments Informal Use e Informal Politics & Social Relations Informal Production on Informal Economy Informal Processes s
    • habitation construction infrastructure Informally Built Environments Unclear Land-Ownership, Self-Management Construction, Building without Plans, Ad-hoc Problemsolving Architecture
    • Paraisópolis example: - 64,16 of the housholds has fresh water -21,66 has sewerage - 18,5 has official electricity - house value approx: R$30.000,-. Informally Built Environments Self-management construction: Building without plans, no end goal, limited resources, no tools, consolidation, flexible.
    • Outside - Inside - Whereas the street sides of the blocks are generally in well constructed state and are connected to urban infrastructure, the insides of the blocks are highly complex, accessibility difficult and dangerous, and infrastructure precarious. Informally Built Environments Infrastructure: ‘Gatos’, not because economical Factsheet: Infrastructure necessity but pure lack - 51,1% has fresh water supply - 16,8% has sewerage - 18,5 %has official electricity connection - average house value approximately R$30.000
    • Informally Built Environments Public Space
    • Informally Built Environments Reamins probelematic. Yet, consolidation seems to be assured already. Communities have their own regulations and registers.
    • Informal Politics & Social Relations Absence of Public Authority solved by Self-Organization: Protection, Collective initiatives (food, services, mail, telephone, infrastructure), Political voice, Planning(!).
    • Culture - 95% never visited a cinema, theater or museum - no house for culture, square or cinema Informal Politics & Social Relations Self-Organization: Protection, Political voice, Collective initiatives (food, services, mail, telephone, infrastructure)
    • Paraisópolis Powerlifting Gilson Clemente, owner of GCA Gym and GCA Powerlifting Coach has informally developed a program to attract young Paraisópolis residents to powerlifting. The program’s rationale is based on protecting young people at risk by: 1. engaging them in disciplined, goal oriented activity; 2. improving self-esteem through coach and team-mate support, as well as competition reward; 3. introducing healthy lifestyle guidelines in a positive manner; 4. keeping them away from dangerous environments; 5. building a socially supportive network; 6. stimulating commitment to further formal education. Informal Politics & Social Relations Recent trend: ‘NGO-istation’ for increased access to financial support and political voice. Bottom-up formalization. Authorities are reluctant in cooperation.
    • Informal Politics & Social Relations Mutirão: Communal design and build projects. Adoptation by formal housing programmes. Currently on hold.
    • Informal Economy Self-sustaining markets in larger communities. As diverese as the formal economy.
    • Solicitors Office Pizzeria & Paraisópolis Church Delivery - 5.000 commercial establishments - Strong ‘Shopkeepers Union’ LAN-house Bakery Supermarket CD shop Furniture Shop Building Materials Bar Pet Shop Pharmacy Clothing Restaurant Construction Company Informal Economy Increasing coordination through assemblies, recognized by formal companies. Yet, often not by the formal authorities. Butcher Hairdresser & Bar Video Rental & CD Shop Nail Stylist Youth Fashion Clothing
    • Informal practices beyond the borders of the ‘favela’ 1. Occupations (buildings and spaces) 2. Comerce 3. Transport (goods & people) (Temporary) occupation, Transformation, Singular Events, Non-spatial transformations
    • Temporary Occupations Informal Economy. Temporary but repetitive occupation. Street peddlers. Form integrated networks.
    • Continuous Occupation Derilict spaces. Living, Camelôs, NGO’s (Coopamare),
    • Nilson Garrido Boxing Academy Boxing school under derelict viaduct in Central São Paulo
    • Nilson Garrido Boxing Academy Boxing school under derelict viaduct in Central São Paulo
    • Nilson Garrido Boxing Academy Car tires as boxing bags, constructed a boxing ring from scrap material that he found and used other materials to make rudimentary fitness machines/apparel
    • Nilson Garrido Boxing Academy A German photographer that visited São Paulo, managed to win a sub-category of the World Press Photo in 2007 with a series of photos shot at the boxing school of Garrido
    • Nilson Garrido Boxing Academy The many car passengers that passed under the viaduct were surprised by what they saw, while the thousands of cars that passed over the viaduct didn’t note anything of what was going on.
    • Nilson Garrido Boxing Academy Host of the international Mercosul boxing tournament 2007
    • Nilson Garrido Boxing Academy The boxing academy became the starting point for a Phd dissertation and broad discussions about the use of derelict urban spaces in central São Paulo. Plans were made for several locations.
    • Continuous Occupation 20.000 empty buildings. Heavily organized. Enforcing rights to citizenship.
    • Temporary Transformations Minhocão – The Great earthworm - Awarded as the verall winner of the ‘Most ugly construction of São Paulo’
    • Temporary Transformations Awarded as the verall winner of the ‘Most ugly construction of São Paulo’
    • Temporary Transformations On Sundays opened for public as a 3,5km linear ‘park’.
    • Non-spatial Transformations ‘Beco do Grafite’ – Grafity Alley, Functions as open air atelier & art expo.
    • Jaap Klaarenbeek Urban Detectives +31(6)43757809 j.klaarenbeek@urbandetectives.com Thanks for your attention!