Migration:Resons and Patterns

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Migration:Resons and Patterns

  1. 1.  The legislative definition of Migratory Birds are species that in the course of their annual Migratory birds are some of nature’s most magnificent creatures, playing significant ecological, economic, and cultural roles in the U.S. and internationally. Neotropical migratory birds, sometimes called nearcticneotropical migrants, are those species that nest in the United States and Canada ("nearctic" region) and migrate south to the tropical regions of Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean ("neotropics") for the winter. Migration is predicated primarily upon food resources. Since most insects become unavailable during our harsh winters, insect-eating birds find abundant food resources in the tropics. Many raptor species also follow this migrating food chain. Over half of all bird species nesting in the US are classified as neotropical migratory birds. Some or all of the populations of 338 species—which include many of our songbirds, waterfowl, birds of prey, waterbirds and shorebirds— migrate each fall to the tropics. migration traverse certain parts of the United States, Canada, Mexico, Russia, or Japan. This includes not only neotropical (long-distance) migrants, but also temperate (short-distance) migrants and resident species. Migratory birds may be at risk due to lack of adequate protection during the nesting season or while on their way to and from their breeding grounds.
  2. 2. The Baltimore Oriole (Icterus Gabula) stands about 6.5 inches high. Also the Baltimore Oriole has a quite sharply pointed bill. The male has a black head, back, and wings. The tail is also black on the Baltimore Oriole. It has orange underpants, tips, and rump. The Baltimore Oriole male has a white wing bar and edges. The female Baltimore Oriole is totally different though, because the female has brownish-gray and dull yellow upper- parts. The female has an orange breast. a gray belly and two wing bars. The immature male is similar to the Baltimore Oriole female grown up but is a brighter orange and it has variable amounts of black on its head. The breeding habitat is deciduous trees, lawns, and the open fields. The clutch size is about three to six eggs. The length of incubation is about twelve to fourteen days. The days to fledge are twelve to
  3. 3. fourteen days. The Baltimore Oriole eats mostly insects, but eats lesser qualities of fruit nectar. In the summer, the Baltimore Oriole lives in Nova Scotia, Canada, however in the winter it lives in the southern parts of the United States of America and in Mexico. One interesting fact about the Baltimore Oriole is that it was named by Lord Baltimore, a 17th century English Man who founded the Maryland colony and wore a cloak the colors of orange and black, the colors of the Baltimore Oriole. The Baltimore Oriole is also the Maryland State bird. I really like the Baltimore Oriole because of its vivid colors and its unique body texture that is why I picked the Baltimore Oriole for my bird.
  4. 4. The bird your about to hear about is the Rose-Breasted Grosbeak. Its scientific name is Pheucticus Ludovicianus. The song of the Rose-Breasted Grosbeak. sounds like a whistling noise. Its wingspan is 7.25 inches long. It has a large pale blue breast with a rosy-red patch. The adult Rose-Breasted Grosbeak. has a rosy-red triangular breast patch, black head, white under parts, white patches on its wings, white spots on a black tail, and rosy-red wing linings. The immature Rose-Breasted Grosbeak. is similar to the adult but duller. A similar species is the Plumaged Black Headed Grosbeak. the Plumaged Black Headed Grosbeak is different because it has a buffier breast patch. The food source of the Rose-Breasted Grosbeak. is mainly insects, fruit, seeds, and flowers. Rose-Breasted Grosbeaks live in woodland areas. They build their nests in mid-story or canopy. The Rose-Breasted Grosbeak. has an open-cut nest. The Rose-Breasted Grosbeak. builds its nest in the mid-story. The Rose-Breasted Grosbeak. Can lay up to 3 to 6 eggs at one time. It takes the Rose-Breasted Grosbeak. 13 to 14 days for the eggs to hatch. It takes 9 to 12 days for the babies to leave the nest. The Rose-Breasted Grosbeak migrates to Central America and northern South America in the winter and returns to the northern United States and Canada in the summer. An interesting fact about the Rose-Breasted Grosbeak is that it is very beneficial to farmers by consuming many potato beetles.
  5. 5. The number of the winged guests has shown an upward trend during the last five years, official sources said. In 1997-98, 35499 migratory birds were spotted in this wetland which increased to 43,933 next year. This number got doubled to 70,555 in 1999-2000 in comparison to 1997-98. The number further incresed to 81,848 in 2000-2001 and touched a high of 1,14,082 in 2001-2002 and last year it crossed 1.5 lakh.
  6. 6. Humans have always been fascinated and inspired by the phenomenon of bird migration. In ancient Greece the bird of Athena represented the renewal of life. A dove, with an olive branch in its beak, returned to Noah's ark to announce the end of the deadly flood. The dove has remained a symbol of peace and hope. During the era of the Pharaohs in Egypt, the falcon had protective powers and was linked to royalty. For the Native Americans birds had different meanings, but always positive and linked to the concepts of unity, freedom, community, safe return, love and celebration of life. In dreams birds embody fantasy, ideas and thoughts. The image of a flying bird is immediately connected with lightness and freedom, hence the expression ―free as a bird‖. Many people associate flocks of migrating birds in the typical V-like alignment with the change of season, but also with
  7. 7. perfection, beauty and harmony. Until the 18th century people believed that swallows sank in mires at the beginning of autumn and appeared again as amphibians in the following spring. And still today some parents mark their houses with painted storks to indicate that a new baby has been born. In almost all cultures, flocks of birds have announced the arrival of spring for centuries, and the yearly rebirth of nature associated with it. The social acceptance of birds as messengers of life was accompanied by the knowledge that migration had an important role to play in ecosystem functioning.
  8. 8. Migratory birds are some of nature’s most magnificent creatures, playing significant ecological, economic, and cultural roles in the U.S. and internationally. Neotropical migratory birds, sometimes called nearctic-neotropical migrants, are those species that nest in the United States and Canada ("nearctic" region) and migrate south to the tropical regions of Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean ("neotropics") for the winter. Migration is predicated primarily upon food resources. Since most insects become unavailable during our harsh winters, insect-eating birds find abundant food resources in the tropics. Many raptor species also follow this migrating food chain. Over half of all bird species nesting in the US are classified as neotropical migratory birds. Some or all of the populations of 338 species—which include many of our songbirds, waterfowl, birds of prey, waterbirds and shorebirds—migrate each fall to the tropics. The legislative definition of Migratory Birds are species that in the course of their annual migration traverse certain parts of the United States, Canada, Mexico, Russia, or Japan. This includes not only neotropical (long-distance) migrants, but also temperate (short-distance) migrants and resident species. Migratory birds may be at risk due to lack of adequate protection during the nesting season or while on their way to and from their breeding grounds.
  9. 9. Indian subcontinent plays host to a number of migratory birds in summers as well as winters. It is estimated that over hundred species of migratory birds fly to India, either in search of feeding grounds or to escape the severe winter of their native habitat. The numerous wildlife sanctuaries set up in the country serve as their temporary habitat. Bird lovers from all over the country visit these sanctuaries to get a glimpse of some of the rarest species of birds in the world. The beauty of the birds, combined with the splendor of the natural environment provides the perfect setting for a nature lover. Usually, birds start migrating towards other areas when they perceive the tailwind to be favorable. However, once they start their migration journey, nothing can stop them, except extremely bad weather. Many birds prefer to fly at a higher altitude while migrating. This is because winds usually prevail at higher altitudes and at the same time, the cold temperature at these altitudes helps them in diffusing the body heat, which is generated by their flight muscles. The timing of the migration is usually a mixture of internal and external stimulus.
  10. 10. My bird is the Ovenbird. The scientific name of the Ovenbird is Seiurus Aurocapillus. It’s identification marks are it’s size which is 5 ½ to 6 ½ inches tall. Olive-brown stripes cover this bird’s back. A light orange patch on it’s head can only be seen at a close range. An adult ovenbird has a white rung around it’s eye. On a young bird the tips of the tail feathers are a rust color. Sparrows and Ground Dwelling Warblers are birds that resemble the Ovenbird. Teach, teach, teacher is the song of the Ovenbird. Ovenbirds are found mostly in the Eastern parts of North America. The Ovenbird eats mostly insects and plant matter. Domed nests can be found on the ground or in deciduous and evergreen trees. A nest is shaped like an old-fashion oven. An Ovenbird breeds from Central Canada South to Northern Georgia. Ten days later the Ovenbirds will fledge. It takes 22 days for the eggs to hatch. The Ovenbird lays 4 to 6 white eggs in a nest. I learned many interesting facts about the Ovenbird. One fact is the Ovenbird is some times called the teacher bird. Another interesting fact is the secret way they hide their nest on the ground. Researching the Ovenbird was fun.
  11. 11. The Canada Goose is a great bird to research. It’s scientific name is Branta Canadensis. I like learning about it because it stays here in the summer time from Canada. In the winter they go to Florida in a V- shape. The color of it is a dark gray, brown and the neck is black with white cheeks. The tail is white at the bottom and black at the tip. The length of it is 25 to 45 inches, and it weighs 6 to 9 pounds. The wing span is 4 to 9 feet. Similar species of the Canada Goose are the Snow Goose and the Tundra Swan. In the winter the Canada Goose lives in Florida where the weather is warm. However, in the spring of the year this migratory bird moves to the Northern part of the country where it breeds. It builds it’s nest of muskrat houses on tree stumps and in lakes and ponds. They build them close to other geese. The Canada Goose eats grain, crops, grass and other vegetation,mollusks and crustaceans on shores. The female lays 6 to 8 eggs in a nest. It takes 17 days for the eggs to hatch. After 42 days the young leave their nest. This is called fledging. These geese mate for life which means they stay with the same partners until they die. The young babies are called goslings. After doing much research on this interesting bird, I learned many interesting facts. One fact is large geese honk while small geese cackle. The Canada Goose can be seen flying in New York skies forming a V shape. I have enjoyed researching the Canada goose.
  12. 12. My bird is the Northern Pintail. The Northern Pintail lives in the United States and north. Its scientific name is Anas Acuta. It is 18.5 inches tall. Its wingspan is 35 inches wide. The male has brownish-blackish feathers with a white stripe down the middle. The birds neck is pure white. Its bill is pure black, along with its tail. It also has a brownish –blackish head, too. The female has a white stripe down middle , but the female has yellowish feathers. It also orangish-yellowish head. The female also has a black bill and tail. Just like the male does. The immature birds upper parts are brown and black, and it has white stripes on itsback. The Northern Pintails habitat is near any kind of salt water. Like the ocean, sea or anything like that. It nests in a grassy area near salt water and its nest is a bowl of flat grass. It is a vegetarian with a diet of vegetables, grass, and seeds. The Northern Pintail breeds in the central United States. It lays 6 to 9 olive eggs, in its bowl of flat grass. It takes the eggs 22 to 25 days to hatch into the new world. When the immature bird hatches from the egg, it takes 36 to 57 days to leave their parents and their nest. An interesting fact about my bird is that it burps to attract a female. Another interesting fact about my bird is that it got its name by because it breeds in the north and it is a pintail. That’s why they call it the Northern Pintail.
  13. 13. The Black-Throated Green Warbler’s (Dendroica Virens) upper parts are olive green. The throat and sides of the breast is black. The face is yellow. It has greenish cheeks. The female and immature bird has no black on the throat or upper breast. The throat of the female and the immature bird sometimes has black spots on it. It stands about 4 and a half inches tall. It has dark legs and a thin pointed beak. Some birds that resemble my bird are the Hermit Warbler, Golden-cheeked Warbler, Black Burnian Warbler, Townsend Warbler, Cap May Warbler, the Palm Warbler and the Magnolia Warbler. They resemble mine because they all have yellow faces with black on them. It lives in the pine forests of central and southeastern Canada, and open stands of hemlock. They are found in the United States near the Great Lakes, throughout New England and down through the Appalachian Mountains, south to Georgia. It has been seen from Florida to Texas, south to northern South America and in the West Indies. In the summer the Black –Throated Green Warbler lives in the Northwest Territories, Ontario, Newfoundland, south to northern New Jersey, Long Island, Ohio, Minnesota, Alberta and in the mountains of Georgia. Its nest is made out of grass, moss, plant fibers, hair, and feathers. My bird normally eats insects and berries. It lays about 5 eggs that have speckled brown dots on them. It takes the baby warblers 12 days to hatch. It takes of on flight 9 days after they are hatched. An interesting fact about the Black-Throated Green Warbler is that it is the commonest warbler in migration. Another interesting fact is that its distinctive song is easy to learn. ( zee- zee- zee-zoo-zee )
  14. 14. The name of my bird that I am researching is the Mallard duck. The scientific name of this bird is Anas Platyrhynchos . It’s green head usually gives it away. The male Mallard has a gray back, chestnut breast, yellow bill, green head, gray flanks, and a white ring around it’s neck. The habitat of the bird is marshes, swamps, ponds, lakes, and bays. It has a clucth size is 6-15 eggs, the length of incubation is 24-30 days and time until the babies leave the nest is usually 42-60 days. It eats roots, wild flowers, reeds, cat tails, duck weed, seeds, millet, rice, smart weed, plants, and insects. It breeds on open water. It breeds in the Northeastern United States. It flies from Texas to New York just to mate. It is related to a bird that burps. It also nests in a tree while only few ducks do.
  15. 15. My bird is the Common Merganser. It’s scientific name is Mergus Merganser. It has a wingspan of 37 inches and a length of 18 inches. The male has a green head, which often looks black, and a white breast, flanks, and belly. It has white sides and a red long pointed bill with serrated edges to help catch slippery fish. The female has a gray body and brownish crested head with a white throat and a well-defined white chin. It also has a sleek tapered crest, which is more obvious on females than it is males. The Common Merganser eats mostly fish but it eats smaller quantities of aquatic invertebrates. It nests in tree cavities or on the ground near water. It sometimes will nest in an abandoned hawk’s nest. The Common Merganser lives near wooded rivers and ponds. The Common Merganser is found in Southeastern Alaska, Manitoba, and Newfoundland, South to Northern New England, Michigan, and California. In the winter they are found in southern to northern Mexico and sometimes in the Gulf coast. The Common Merganser breeds in wetlands and open water. It’s clutch size ranges from 6 to 17 eggs. The length of incubation goes from 28 to 35 days. It takes 65 to 85 days to fledge. An interesting fact is that many Common Mergansers were shot because it was thought that they destroyed valuable game fish. We now understand that the Common Merganser is beneficial by helping to prevent overpopulation of fish, which helps the surviving fish become greater in size.

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