Estimatesmany people lived in the Americas in recordsSo how based on archaeological data and written 1492? from European settlers range from as low as 8 million to > 100 million "Native Americans“ in 1492 Dozens of distinct language groups
Paleoindian period in IL Anthropologists believe that the first humans to arrive in North America crossed the Bering Land Bridge at least14,000 years ago. They call this period of Native Americanhistory Paleoindian, meaning ancient Indian. Paleoindianpeople left behind distinctive spear points, and other types of stone tools at hundreds of campsites in IL. C-dating of Paleoindian activities in IL has not beenpossible because no organic remains have been found at Paleoindian campsites in IL but spear points similar tothose found in IL have been found in other parts of North America at sites containing 10-12,000 year old organic remains.
Paleoindian spear points, Fulton County, Illinois. Notice the notch at the base.This characteristic of Paleoindian points distinguishes them from points made at other times
Of the more than 45,000recorded archaeological sites in Illinois, less than 400 (0.9%) represent the Paleoindian culture! Paleoindian sites are foundthroughout the entire state, which suggests a way of life adaptable to many landscapes. Based on the small number of artifacts found at each site, and the small size of most Paleoindian sites, archaeologists believe that small numbers of Paleoindians lived together in very temporary camps.
Archaeologists have yet to find a Paleoindian site in Illinois with any evidence of their specific food choices, but there is strongevidence that they were nomadic hunter /gatherers and a little evidence that they hunted megafauna.
Archaic period Anthropologists refer to the period from ~3000 to ~10,000 years ago as the Archaic period of Native American culture.Early Archaic people (8-10,000 years ago) continued the nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle of the Paleoindians, but began using many new types of tools.Middle Archaic people (5-8000 years ago) were less nomadic. For at least part of the year, they lived in villages.Late Archaic people (3-5000 years ago) still hunted and gathered, but they also cultivated plants to supplement their food supply.
Archaeologistshave identified over 8300 Archaic sites in Illinois!Keep in mind that theArchaic period lasted ~7,000 years, muchlonger than any other cultural period.
Archaic people in North Dogs probably played a America (and other key role in thecontinents) developed an development of theextraordinary relationship hunting techniques used with wolves. by Archaic people.Some of the earliest domesticated dogs in North America were found at an Early Archaic settlement in Greene County, Illinois.
Dog burial, Koster site, Greene County The remains of at least four domesticated dogs were buried by EarlyArchaic people at the Koster site more than 8000 years ago. Each dog was laid on its side in a shallow grave and then covered with dirt. None of the graves appear to have been marked. The dogs were buried in an area ofthe village where residents also buried the remains of adults and children.
Near the end of the Archaic Period, 4000-5000 years ago,people in Illinois began to cultivate plants. This new way of life had dramatic effects… changing the types of foodpeople ate, the tools they used, societal structure, religious beliefs, and the way they interacted with their neighbors.
Wadlow point, Airport site, Sangamon County. This Late Archaic knife (~ 4000 years old) is typical of those found in central and southwestern Illinois. It was made fromchert, a silica-rich rock that can be shaped by slowly chipping away unwanted material. Chert is found in limestone bluffs along the lower part of the Illinois River valley and other locations in the state.
Woodland Period 1250-3000 years agoThe Woodland period is dividedinto Early (3,000 to 2,200 years ago), Middle (2,200 to 1,800 years ago) and Late (1,800 to 1,250 years ago) sub-periods. Like the Archaic Period, eachWoodland sub-period represents a slightly different way of life.
Pottery first appears in Illinois during the Early Woodland period. Before this time, containerswere probably made of wood, plant fiber, or leather. Long-distance trade and new forms of artisticexpression flourished during the Middle Woodland period. The bow and arrow and the cultivation of corn distinguish the Late Woodland period. In contrast to the Archaic Period, cultural changeoccurred much faster during the Woodland period.
Ceramic figurine Smiling Dan site, Scott County.This tiny, less than one inch tall, 2,000-year-old clay figurine is an example of many human figurines made by Native American artisans in IL during the Middle Woodlandperiod. Figurines are often the only clues to the appearance of ancient Native Americans.
Ceramic bowl, Elizabeth site, Pike CountyPrehistoric pottery was made by mixing together clay, temper (stone, sand, shell or crushed pottery added to strengthen the pot andensure even drying), and water. Just the right amount of water madethe mixture plastic, but strong enough to be shaped into containers. After shaping and smoothing the container, Native Americans often decorated the exterior with symbols such as the abstract bird seen on this two thousand year old bowl. In Illinois, people of the Woodland period were the first to make extensive use of pottery.
Mississippian Period The Mississipian cultures, most famous for their earthen mounds,flourished in what is now the Midwestern and Southeastern United States from approximately 500 AD to 1500 AD
Key characteristics of the Mississippian cultures • Large earthen mounds - usually square, rectangular, or occasionally circular. Structures (domestic houses, temples, burial buildings, or other) were usually constructed on top of the mounds. • Maize (corn) based agriculture - the development of Mississippian culture coincided with adoption of comparatively large-scale, intensive maize agriculture, which could support larger populations and craft specialization • Shell derived tempering agents used in ceramics
Additional characteristics of the Mississippian cultures •Widespread trade networks extending as far west as the Rockies, north to the Great Lakes, south to the Gulf of Mexico, and east to the Atlantic Ocean. •Chiefdom or complex chiefdom social organization. Combined political and religious power in the hands of one or a few. •Beginnings of a settlement hierarchy, in which one major center (with mounds) has clear influence or control over a number of lesser communities, which may or may not possess a smaller number of mounds.
Historical period In 1673, the Illinois were a large, powerful group of tribes that numbered more than 10,000 people and occupied alarge territory. However, in 1832, when they ceded the last of their Illinois lands to the US government, they had been reduced to a single village of fewer than 300 people.
http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/index.html If you would like to learn more about the history of Native Americans in IL, the Illinois State Museum has a great collection(both physical and on- line)
Route followed by Louis Joliet and Pere Marquette
Timeline for Louis Joliet and Pere Marquette’s expeditionOctober 1672: Louis Joliet was commissioned by the French Governor ofQuebec, to join Father Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit priest, on an expedition tofind and explore the Mississippi RiverMay 1673: A seven man expedition including Father Jacques Marquette andLouis Joliet set off in birch bark canoes to the north shore of Lake Michigan toGreen Bay, then up the Fox RiverJune 1673: Joliet and his party reach the Mississippi River. They explored theMississippi, meeting many different Indian tribes. They eventually realizedthat the Mississippi River did not lead to the Pacific Ocean but flowed into theGulf of Mexico. They turned back at the mouth of the Arkansas River afterencountering natives carrying European trinkets, fearing an encounter withcolonists from Spain. Father Jacques Marquette drew a map of the landthrough which they passed and kept a diary of the voyage of exploration1674: The expedition followed the Illinois river back to Lake Michigan whereFather Jacques Marquette remained at the mission of Saint Francis Xavier atthe head of Green Bay. Louis Joliet went on to Quebec arriving in August 1674and reported the expedition’s findings.
Louisiana Purchase (from France) in 1803 530 million acres for ~ 42 cents per acre (2012 dollars)
The journals of early explorers (e.g., Father JacquesMarquette (aka Pere Marquette) and Louis Joliet)provide detailed descriptions of the naturalenvironment in IL."There are prairies three, six, ten, and twentyleagues [a league is ~ 3 miles] in length, and three inwidth, surrounded by forests of the same extent;beyond these, the prairies begin again, so that thereis as much of one sort of land as the other.Sometimes we saw the grass very short, and, atother times, five or six feet high”.� �Louis Joliet,1674
"At first, when we were told of these treeless lands, I imagined that it was a country ravaged by fire, where the soilwas so poor that it could produce nothing. But we have certainly observed thecontrary; and no better soil can be found, either for corn, for vines, or for any fruit whatever."Prairie State: Impressions of Illinois, 1673-1967, by Travelers and Other Observers. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968)
“We now took up our journey across the plains...Fields of prairie frequently spread before the eye, likethe boundless expanse of the ocean… Its apparentboundary is the horizon… So vigorous a growth ofgrasses and flowering plants, covers these plains,that in several places, we found them to overtop ourshoulders, sitting on horseback; a proof, if any proofwere wanting, of the strength and richness of thesoil.“— Henry Rowe Schoolcraft 1821
In the November 17, 1838 issue of the Prairie Beacon newspaper ofHillsboro, Illinois, was a column called "A Traveler in Illinois." The writerinformed the reader about the prairie and how it was changing as morepeople arrive and settle in the state."In no section of the Union, perhaps, are the effects of heavyrain more strikingly visible than in Illinois. The tenacious clay,which everywhere underlies the soil, prevents that free andspeedy absorption of water which takes place in more sandy orstony regions. As a consequence, the water accumulates morerapidly, and causes a sudden rise in the creeks and branches.Our traveler found some difficulty in fording the streams and inmore than one instance was obliged to swim with his horse. Heobserved that the water had a very thick and muddy appearanceand at this he was not in the least surprised, on noticing howdeeply the roads and ravines had been gullied out. When oncethe prairie sod has been broken, especially on a declivity, theprocess of erosion becomes extremely rapid; and the onlymethod to prevent the formation of a deep ravine is to supply anew turf by sowing blue grass."
Illinois agriculture expanded very rapidly in the nineteenth century, growing from only thousands of acres in 1818 to 12 million acres by 1850 to a peak of ~ 33 million acres in 1900. The portion of farmland rated as “improved” increased from 41.9% in 1850 to 84.5% in 1900. What is“improved” land? One of the first 3 plows manufactured by John Deere in 1838
Farmland peaked at > 90% of the land surface ofIL over 100 years ago and has gradually declined to a little less than 75% So… what happened to the ~ 15% of IL that is no longer farmland? 85% 80% 26.8 75% million 2007
Summer annual crops have become dominant in the Corn Belt
Is this what your county looks like? • In 2001, 8 counties in IL had more than 80% of their land surface planted to crops. • 22 counties had 70-79% of their land surface planted to crops. • 28 counties had 60-69% of their land surface planted to crops.Which IL county has the highest % of cropland?
Major causes of accelerated erosion in Illinois Moldboard plow Tractor power Adoption of soybeans and decline of forages Construction and Mining
One of the most negative ecological effects of accelerated soil erosion in IL has been the sedimentation of streams and lakes. The bottomland lakes in the IL River basin have lost more than 72% oftheir volume, with some of them now completely filled with sediment. As the bottomland lakes filled in, waves generated by wind and river traffic resuspend the bottom sediment. Contaminants stored in the sediment become more harmful to aquatic biota when regularly resuspended. http://iahs.info/redbooks/a236/iahs_236_0483.pdf
Sedimentation has dramatically changed the geomorphology of the Illinois River. Because ofnavigation requirements, a minimum water depthof 9’ is maintained along a 300’ navigation channel by a system of locks and dams and by regular dredging. Outside the navigation channel, the water depth rapidly decreases due to continued sediment accumulation. The Illinois River is therefore gradually transforming itself into a narrow riverchannel in the middle of a wide flood plain without the diversity of small side channels and bottomland lakes.
The bottomland lakes along the Illinois River valley were significantly altered when theChicago River was reversed in 1900 causing all of Chicago’s sewage and some water from Lake Michigan to flow into the Illinois River. The increased flow raised the water level in theLower Illinois River valley resulting in an increase in size of the bottomland lakes. Sloughs, wetlands, and small lakes were flooded by thehigher water creating bigger lakes but negatively effecting the ecology.
The completion of the 9-foot navigation waterway with a system of locks and dams along the Illinois River in the 1930s raised the water level even higher flooding some bottomland ecosystems butlarge areas formerly occupied by bottomland lakes and wetlands were cut off by levees and drained for agricultural purposes.
Hydric soils – Legacy of glaciation in the Upper Mississippi River Basin
Presettlement ILcontained ~ 8 million acres of wetlands. >90% have been drained.IL currently has over 400,000 acres of wetlands but only~ 6000 acres of high quality largelyundisturbed wetlands remain today.
History of DrainageIn 1849, Congress passed the 1849first of the Swamp Land Acts,which granted all swampland inLouisiana to the State forreclamation. In 1850, the Act wasmade applicable to 12 otherstates including IL, and in 1860, itwas extended to include MN and 1850OR.Although most states did notbegin immediate large-scalereclamation projects, thislegislation clearly set the tonethat the US federal government 1860supported wetland “reclamation”for settlement and development. ~ 65 million acres in 15 states
States with major loss of wetlands between 1860 and 1900 http://water.usgs.gov/nwsum/WSP2425/images/fig10.gif
Improvements in drainage technology greatly accelerated drainage of wetlands after the civil war.As the use of steam power expanded, replacing handlabor for digging ditches and manufacturing drainage tiles, the production and installation of drainage tiles increased rapidly.By 1880, 1,140 factories in the US located mainly inIllinois, Indiana, and Ohio manufactured terra cotta drainage tiles.
During the 1930s, the USDA provided free engineering services to farmers interested in installing artificial drainage.Assistance with drainage projects switched over to cost share in the 1940s. Organized drainage districts throughout the country coordinated efforts to drain wetlands.States with major loss of wetlands between 1900 and 1950 ?
During the 1950s – 1970s, the Federal Government continued to directly subsidize or facilitate drainage of wetlands through a widevariety of public-works projects, technical practices, and cost-shared drainage programs administered by the USDA.Tile and open-ditch drainage were considered conservation practices under the USDA’s Agriculture Conservation Program (ACP). States with major wetland loss 1950-1990
Many of the endangered species in IL are associated with wetlands•Approximately 60 of the 98 vertebrate species listed as threatened orendangered in Illinois use wetlands at least some time during their life.•Eight of the nine mammal species listed as threatened or endangeredin Illinois use wetlands as habitat.•Four of the five amphibian species listed as threatened or endangeredin Illinois use wetlands as habitat.•11 of the 30 fish species listed as threatened or endangered in Illinoiseither live or breed in wetlands.•29 of the 41 bird species listed as threatened or endangered in Illinoisare strongly associated with wetlands.•Approximately 18 percent of Illinois native wetland plant species arelisted as threatened or endangered.
In 1820, old growth forests occupied ~ 14 millionacres (~ 40%) of IL. Within a century only slightlymore than 8% of the original forest remained, and today only 11,600 acres, or 0.9%, is left. Rarer forest types, such as sand forests, have virtually vanished from Illinois. The removal of Illinois’forests during the 19th century rivaled the pace of the cutting of tropical rainforests today. http://dnr.state.il.us/orep/ctap/sumrepo/chap5/forover.htm
Transformation of Illinois’s forests13.8 million acres 4.2 million acres
Only 4 tracts of old growth forest > 10 acres remain in IL Shawnee National Forest 2,800 acres Cache River State Natural Area 1,600 acres Cypress Creek National Wildlife 500 acres Refuge Beall Woods State Park 329 acres http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_old_growth_forests
Hundreds of thousands of acres of pastures and forage cropland were converted to row crops or abandoned beginning in the 1940s as Illinois farmers switched from animal husbandry to row-crop production. Woody plantsquickly re-established themselves on abandoned pastures. The shift of land back into forest has been uneven, with forest acres growing in northern IL, while forest acrescontinue to dwindle in the south. Overall, forested land has increased 41% (1.24 million acres) compared to 1926. http://dnr.state.il.us/orep/ctap/sumrepo/chap5/forover.htm
17 counties in south central IL each lost more than 5,000acres of forest land between 1962 and 1985. http://dnr.state.il.us/orep/ctap/sumrepo/chap5/forover.htm
Wooded parcels in Illinois tend to be small. Only 11% of the 214 "Grade A" and "Grade B" forest sites cataloged by the Illinois Natural Areas Inventory are greater than 100 acres in size. Each of the morethan 169,000 private forest owners is estimated to own only 21.5 acres on average. An analysis of 13 counties in south central Illinois found that the vast majority of "forests" in this region were smaller than one acre in size, the equivalent of backyards with trees. http://dnr.state.il.us/orep/ctap/sumrepo/chap5/forover.htm
A total of 508 species of woody plants(284 of them shrubs) are found in Illinois forests. Nearly half (49%) of the plant species rare to Illinois are found in its woodland ecosystems. Twelve Illinoisnative forest plant species are thought to have been extirpated. http://dnr.state.il.us/orep/ctap/sumrepo/chap5/forover.htm
Forests make up ~75% of Illinois wildlife habitat today. 80% of the mammals and amphibians and 60% of the birds in IL need forested land for at least part of theirlifecycles; in all, the woods are home to more than 420 vertebrate species. http://dnr.state.il.us/orep/ctap/sumrepo/chap5/forover.htm
White tailed deer, IL‘s largest and most coveted game animaltoday, was so victimized by habitat change and hunting that by 1901 it had been virtually eliminated from the state.. Today IL is home to more deer than were present in 1818 and in many parts of the state, deer are a road hazard and garden pest. The reversion of farm fields to woods, and the recovery of understory inwoods where it had been suppressed by grazing livestock, provided deerwith a perfect habitat. The change in habitat plus the lack of predators has led to a population explosion
Invasion by Aliens Defoliation (a common disease symptom) increases the amount of sunlight that falls on the forest floor; this benefits sun-loving species (many of which, unfortunately, are aggressive exotics) and thus changes the species composition of that level of the system.Most of these plants, such as the amur honeysuckle and the autumn olive, were introduced to Illinois as ornamentals or wildlife habitat. Unfortunately, they thrive in environments lacking the pressures frompredators and competitors that keep their spread under control in theirown native habitats. Common buckthorn is a pest in northern Illinoiswoods while multiflora rose is a problem everywhere in Illinois; garlic mustard now is recorded in 41 counties, and probably is present in many more.There are even weed trees--the amur maple, white mulberry, golden rain tree, and tree of heaven. In areas where these aliens thrive, thenatural succession of forest plants may be altered and the structure of the forests themselves thus drastically changed. http://dnr.state.il.us/orep/ctap/sumrepo/chap5/forover.htm
Strip mining of coal in IL began around 1910 with the introduction of thesteam shovel for removing the overburden. By the 1960s more than half ofthe coal mined in IL was by stripping. From a record level of 1,350 mines in 1935, the number of active coal mines has declined less than 15 today. During the years of rapid technological advancement, little attention wasgiven to the serious adverse effects of coal mining. By the late 1970s, over 200,000 acres of land had been disturbed by surface and deep mining of coal. Of this disturbed acreage, over 22,000 acres contained exposed refuse materials (gob and slurry), tipple sites and toxic or sparsely vegetated spoilbanks.
> 200,000 acres in IL and > 1 million acres in the Midwesthttp://www.idaillinois.org/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/ccpl&CISOPTR=35&CISOBOX=1&REC=5
Chicago in 1900 82,000 horses produced 600,000 tons of manure +Sewage from 1.7 million people Where did it all go ? http://www.archives.gov/research/american-cities/images/american-cities-101.jpg
There is more to eat in Lake Michigan!!I am an Asian carp!