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  1. 5. Farm stats for Illinois
  2. 6. Development of farm/rural land in IL 1997-2002 2002-2007 1982-2007 Agricultural land converted to developed land (acres) 110,000 121,500 663,900 Prime agricultural land converted to developed land (acres) 63,700 76,900 442,800 Rural land converted to developed land (acres) 136,500 161,500 808,900
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  4. 10. Read at least 5 of the profiles in the “Trailblazers” document and answer the following Qs before the start of class on Monday 3/7: For any 5 of the profiles, briefly describe the key players (e.g., people or organizations), the challenge(s) they faced and what they accomplished. Compare and contrast the farmland preservation strategies in the profiles that you read. Identify at least 2 similarities and 2 differences between strategies. Discuss whether you think any of the farmland preservation strategies are relevant to IL or specifically the community where you grew up. For 2 of the profiles, find another source of information on the web, provide the URL and describe something interesting that you learned from the additional source that was not in the assigned reading.
  5. 11. Of the 735 farmers who were over 55, only had 350 children who farmed, a proportion (48 percent) that represents less than half of the number that will be needed to replace the current generation of farmers as they retire. The 2008 Farm Poll found that 42 percent of farmers planned to retire in the next five years. Among those farmers who planned to retire, only 56 percent had identified a successor.
  6. 13. Most farmers love farming and see it as more than a job.
  7. 14. Most farmers think there is a need for beginning farmer support programs
  8. 15. Many farmers are leery of value-added farm enterprises
  9. 16. “ Illinois is blessed with many excellent farmers. Those appearing in this publication do not constitute a complete list. For the purposes of this book, parameters were placed on the definition of “innovative.” There are many innovative grain farmers in Illinois. They are characterized by a willingness to try the latest technology, always pushing to improve their production efficiency, and do an excellent job of managing their operations. This book is not intended to take anything away from them, but that was not the kind of innovation sought out for this project. Instead, the farmers included in this publication are engaged in alternative entrepreneurial enterprises outside of (or in addition to) conventional corn and soybean farming. Most are adding value and marketing their products directly to consumers. Most do not have off-farm jobs.”
  10. 17. Growing #s of farmers think that supplying “local food” is an important opportunity
  11. 18. $50 billion > 95% imported
  12. 19. Most farmers do NOT have a succession plan.
  13. 20. Madison, OH Dekalb, IL Dane, WI Lancaster, NE
  14. 21. 4 Corn Belt counties on the Urban Edge
  15. 22. Agricultural statistics
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  20. 27. Policy options to reduce nuisance complaints • County ordinance requires new buyers to sign a statement that they were advised of rights of nearby farmers. • County officials are designated as mediator and initial judge of complaints by non‐farmers. • States authorize special agricultural districts where agricultural operations have special legal protections against nuisance complaints.
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  28. 35. PLC is one of more than 1700 land trusts across the country committed to preserving land.
  29. 37. With a Conservation Easement, the Landowner continues to own the land and may sell it or pass it on to heirs. Again the CE remains with the property regardless of ownership. Donation of a CE to Prairie Land Conservancy may provide the landowner income tax, property tax or estate tax benefits. Careful planning is required and any landowner contemplating donation of a CE should consult with their attorney and financial adviser about the effect of such a donation on their individual tax situation. In most cases, a CE does not restrict non-commercial hunting. Public Access is generally not required, but can apply in some situations. Future construction of buildings may require negotiation, e.g. a barn. Management of the property to maintain the conservation value. A management plan is typically developed as part of the CE negotiation process.
  30. 38. Other Conservation Options 1) Donation of Land For Conservation A Landowner may choose to donate property to Prairie Land Conservancy for the permanent protection of the conservation values of the property. The donation would qualify as a charitable gift for income tax purposes. 2) Bargain Sale of Land With this option the Landowner sells their property to Prairie Land Conservancy for less than the fair market value. This provides cash as well as certain tax advantages to the Landowner. 3) Leases or Management Agreements Non-permanent agreements between a Landowner and Prairie Land Conservancy that limits development or allows for optimal management of natural resources on a property. There are no tax advantages with these types of agreements.
  31. 40. 1. Numerical Achievements. Judging by acres and farms preserved, the 46 programs have impressive accomplishments. But in relation to the preservation job in front of them, the results are mixed. Only a half dozen programs have come close to completing their acquisitions in relation to the total farm acres and farms in their jurisdictions and according to stated program goals. 2. Land Market Impacts. A strong indication of easement effectiveness is that protected parcels largely remain in farming, even for the many properties that are later purchased by non-farmers. Purchasers tend to lease their newly acquired land to active farmers for ease of management and tax reasons. Are agricultural easements working?
  32. 41. 3. Local Agricultural Economies. It is far less clear that easements are effective in contributing to another important agricultural condition—economically viable farms and local support services such as farm supply outlets, tractor dealers and processing facilities. Such services continued their long decline in many communities with easement programs, because of more powerful economic forces, including changes from traditional agricultural to suburban customers. 4. Influencing Urban Growth. Easements effectively help to redirect or influence urban growth in about a half dozen of the communities served by sample programs, working largely in conjunction with local government planning policies, zoning and other land use regulations, and service delivery limitations. 5. Long-Term Preservation. Most sample programs are not prepared for the long-term job of protecting the continued viability of their holdings and preventing or responding to problems of noncompliance with easement restrictions. They have not put sufficient resources into stewardship activities, as seen in inconsistent and incomplete efforts to periodically monitor the conditions of easement properties.
  33. 42. A successful farmland protection policy must: ... acknowledge that a farm is more than land . A program that focuses on land, but overlooks the management part of the farm is bound to fail. It may keep land from being developed, but will not retain economically viable open land with the opportunities and incentives that make land a farm. Open, unattended land with no economic return will not long resist development, nor should it.
  34. 43. 2008 FARM BILL - Beginning Farmer Development Program Program Basics The Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program (BFRDP) is a competitive grant program administered by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) that funds education, extension, outreach, and technical assistance initiatives directed at helping beginning farmers and ranchers of all types. While the BFRDP was first authorized in the 2002 Farm Bill, it never received funding during the annual appropriations process. With the 2008 Farm Bill, the BFRDP now has mandatory funding to operate as an annual competitive grant program. The BFRDP is targeted especially to collaborative local, state, and regionally based networks and partnerships to support financial and entrepreneurial training, mentoring, and apprenticeship programs, as well as “land link” programs that connect retiring with new farmers, innovative farm transfer and transition practices, and education, outreach, and curriculum development activities to assist beginning farmers and ranchers. Topics may also include production practices, conservation planning, risk management education, diversification and marketing strategies, environmental compliance and credit management.
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  36. 47. Farm On is for a beginning farmer who: Iowa State Beginning Farm Center
  37. 55. <ul><li>Goal: The goal of the network is to support programs that foster the next generation of farmers and ranchers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Need: The economic future of the nation's agriculture depends on the ability of a new generation to enter farming. The barriers faced by the next generation are creating a crisis in agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges to farm entry include: </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient farm entry strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient farm succession and retirement strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to acquire the initial capital investment </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in identifying viable farm entry opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in obtaining appropriate financial, managerial, and production assistance for the entering and exiting parties </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of appropriate community support </li></ul><ul><li>The Network believes that programs that help create the opportunity for young people to begin a career in agriculture, particularly by addressing farm access, must be part of the government's rural development effort. </li></ul>National Farm Transition Network
  38. 56. <ul><li>NFTN has developed programs that link retirement and farm exit approaches with farm entry strategies. Programs representing at least twenty states have established Farm Link programs to &quot;link&quot; beginning and retiring farmers. The majority of these programs lack funding to meet demand. Many of these programs provide seminars and consultations that assist farmers in discovering ways to successfully transition viable farm businesses from one generation to the next. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the desire to enter farming remains strong (i.e. with program ratios of beginning/retiring farmer inquiries running as high as 10:1), the barriers to entry remain formidable. All participating programs agree that one-on-one technical assistance and resource information and referral are essential. </li></ul><ul><li>NFTN has developed new transition and tenure strategies which facilitate the entry of the next generation and the exit of the existing farmer. These strategies are regionally appropriate and respond to the unique needs of the full range of existing farmers and land owners. </li></ul><ul><li>NFTN holds annual conferences with the goal of sharing information, strengthening existing programs and helping to establish new programs. It maintains a web site and list serve. </li></ul>What has been accomplished by the NFTN?
  39. 57. Of Iowa’s 30.7 million farm acres, 47 percent are owned by women. But a growing share – ~ 20 percent – is now owned by single women, many of them elderly, with a far different take on farming than their male counterparts. According to a recent survey ~ 1/3 rd of these women landowners in IA believe that conservation is more important than maximizing income.
  40. 59. From the article: Margaret Doermann’s Iowa farm has some of the richest soil in the state, which is why she insists it be farmed the way her husband did, using strong conservation practices to preserve it. So it was a shock to discover the tenant farmer she’d hired after her husband’s passing was treating her land like, well – a rental property. “ I was awakened in the middle of the night by a tractor tilling the hillside,” Mrs. Doermann says. Her husband “had always tilled it in a contour [across the hillside] to limit erosion. But when I went out the next morning, that hill had been tilled up and down so the soil would wash right off.” Doermann’s rude awakening didn’t end there. The water in the stream near the field looked like “brown gravy” – full of soil runoff from the hillside. She and her daughter wound up in a lawyer’s office arguing with the farmer over how to till the hillside. A new lease now specifies the soil preparation she wants. “ Well, you know what?” Doermann said to three women at a small gathering of farm-land owning women last month. “The very next spring, he did it again.”
  41. 62. Jack Erisman – Pana, IL owner/operator of largest organic grain farm in IL Jack decided to start farming organically after visiting a very well managed organic farm… unfortunately the manager of this farm was out of agriculture just a few later because the land passed to a new owner who decided to rent to a new tenant
  42. 63. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL LAND TENURE PROJECT CREATES NEW RESOURCES FOR IOWA FARMLAND OWNERS DES MOINES, Iowa -- A two-year study of sustainable agriculture and land tenure in Iowa has analyzed legal questions relating to Iowa farmland ownership and the transfer of land to a new generation of owners, many of whom will rent or lease farmland to others. Drake University's Agricultural Law Center and the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture at Iowa State University today announced the results of the joint project at a news conference on the Drake University campus in Des Moines. The Sustainable Agricultural Land Stewardship (SALT) project involved researching farm lease agreements and compiling resources for landowners about how farm leases can be used to encourage soil conservation. These resources are available at a new website created as part of the project. .
  43. 65. Landowners guide to sustainable farm leasing
  44. 68. Farm Leases and Sustainability This quick-reference guide first looks at several ways to encourage your tenant to adopt sustainable practices. These methods can be broken down into the following categories. ‣ Tenure Security ‣ Investment Protection ‣ Cost-sharing ‣ Risk-sharing ‣ Communication Each of these methods has different costs and benefits, which will be examined, and your decision to use any of these tools should be based on your specific circumstances.
  45. 69. Rented Land in Iowa: Social and Environmental Dimensions (2010),