Rosenblum - XML for the Rest of Us

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Rosenblum - XML for the Rest of Us

  1. 1. XML in Book Production Processes <ul><li>Presented by </li></ul><ul><li>Bruce D. Rosenblum </li></ul><ul><li>CEO </li></ul><ul><li>Inera Incorporated </li></ul><ul><li>AAUP, June 19, 2010 </li></ul>
  2. 2. DOI Stands For... <ul><li>Digital Object Identifier </li></ul><ul><li>Dusty Old Imprint </li></ul><ul><li>Death Of Ink </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Publisher’s Conundrum <ul><li>Gutenberg: (Surveying the Frankfurt Book Fair) </li></ul><ul><li>“ This commodity must be as precious as gold!” </li></ul><ul><li>Gates: “Cheap as dirt, actually. And on its way out. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s called print. You invented it, or so history claims” </li></ul><ul><li>John Updike </li></ul><ul><li>Print: A Dialog (1995) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Transformative Technologies…
  5. 5. …Demand New Product Features <ul><li>Automatic reflowable text </li></ul><ul><li>Richly hyperlinked </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamically updated </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible for visually impaired </li></ul><ul><li>Reading a standard PDF on a small screen is not good enough! </li></ul>
  6. 6. eBook Foundation <ul><li>XML </li></ul><ul><li>Yuck! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(We know you’ve been trying to avoid it for years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Sorry… you can’t hide any longer) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. XML Is Not Easy <ul><li>XML requires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XML is a software issue </li></ul>
  8. 8. Where In The Workflow? <ul><li>You can introduce XML at: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before editing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-publication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each point has pros and cons </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Original XML Dream <ul><li>Authors create XML manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>Editors edit XML manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>XML single-source publication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eBooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derivative products </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Author Reality <ul><li>Authors use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Perfect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LaTeX </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Author Reality <ul><li>Most Authors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not think structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not like production tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outside Authors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brilliant subject matter experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to train and support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even harder to control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t get IT to install XML editing tools </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Post-Publication XML <ul><li>Author submits Word manuscript </li></ul><ul><li>Edited in Word </li></ul><ul><li>Typeset (InDesign/Quark) </li></ul><ul><li>Proof and typeset corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Publish print and PDF </li></ul><ul><li>Create XML/ePub from PDF </li></ul>
  13. 13. Post-Publication XML Issues <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No workflow changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of XML unchecked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra production time and cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Errors discovered in XML creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s not an integrated workflow </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Post-Publication ePub Issues <ul><li>ePub created from PDF usually lacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich metadata of XML file (e.g. DOI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal hyperlinks to footnotes, references, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 508 accessibility compliance (float positions, table scope attributes, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broken hyperlinks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially extracted from multi-column reference lists </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. XML First Workflow <ul><li>Accept Word manuscript from author </li></ul><ul><li>Convert manuscript to XML </li></ul><ul><li>Edit XML manuscript </li></ul><ul><li>Typeset XML </li></ul><ul><li>Proof and typeset corrections in XML </li></ul><ul><li>Create final PDF, ePub, etc. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one file conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File is continually validated to DTD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires XML editing software for all editors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training is expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freelance editors not practical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Editors work amidst XML tags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or XML editing customization is expensive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. XML “Middle” Workflow <ul><li>Accept Word manuscript from author </li></ul><ul><li>Clean up manuscript and style paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>Edit in Microsoft Word </li></ul><ul><li>Convert Word to XML </li></ul><ul><li>Typeset from XML </li></ul><ul><li>Proof and typeset corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Create final PDF, ePub, etc. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Editors work in Microsoft Word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower training costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freelance editors are practical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure enforced prior to final pages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires running application in-house for XML </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. A Quick Word on DTDs <ul><li>There is no single DTD for book publication </li></ul><ul><li>Three main choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TEI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DocBook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NLM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do I choose? </li></ul>
  20. 20. DTD Selection <ul><li>Based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Front list vs. back list vs. historical content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline(s), e.g. Humanities vs. Life sciences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your XML use-cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools you may want to use </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. TEI DTD <ul><li>Origins: Academic community (Brown University) </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used in humanities </li></ul><ul><li>Great for historical materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. preserving line break/pagination information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Least-known by suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Weakest commercial tool support </li></ul>
  22. 22. DocBook DTD <ul><li>Origins: Technical publication (O’Reilly) </li></ul><ul><li>Great for technical and trade books </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of commercial tool support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FrameMaker, ArborText </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Well-known by suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>OASIS standard </li></ul>
  23. 23. NLM DTD <ul><li>Origins: Scholarly journal archiving & publication </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used by journal publishers </li></ul><ul><li>Great for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science publications, multi-author works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers doing books and journals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Well-known by suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Growing commercial tool support </li></ul><ul><li>NISO standard </li></ul>
  24. 24. DTD Commonalities <ul><li>Any of these DTDs work well for simple monographs </li></ul><ul><li>All of these DTDs are designed for customization, if necessary </li></ul>
  25. 25. XML For Book Publishers <ul><li>More difficult than journals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But much to be learned from the lessons of journals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions are improving daily </li></ul><ul><li>The time for XML is now </li></ul>
  26. 26. Questions? <ul><li>Bruce Rosenblum </li></ul><ul><li>Inera Incorporated </li></ul><ul><li>+1 (617) 932-1932 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.inera.com </li></ul>

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