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Roman Civilization Roman Civilization Presentation Transcript

  • Roman Civilization
  • Others may fashion more smoothly images of bronze, evoke living faces from marble, plead causes better, trace the wanderings of the heavens and foretell the rising of stars. But you, Roman, your arts will be these: to teach the ways of peace to those you conquer, to spare the vanquished and tame the proud! --Vergil’s Aeneid Book VI, 847-853.
  • Unit I: Rome’s Mythical Origins View slide
  • In the Aeneid, the Romans traced their heritage back to the great Trojan hero Aeneas, son of the goddess Venus. • The Trojans fought a war with the Greeks for ten years. Eventually, the Greeks devised a trick to destroy the city of Troy. View slide
  • Aeneas, prince of Troy, fled the city and experienced a series of adventures on his way to Italy, including an affair with Dido, queen of Carthage.
  • Eventually, Aeneas arrived in Italy, married Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus, settled in Latium and founded the city of Lavinium. When he became an adult, Aeneas’s son Ascanius left Lavinium and founded a new city Alba Longa.
  • After 11 generations, Aeneas’s descendant Numitor ruled Alba Longa. • Numitor’s brother Amulius overthrew him and forced Numitor’s daughter Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin.
  • Rhea Sylvia then had an “encounter” with Mars, the god of war, and gave birth to twins, Romulus and Remus. • They were left by the river where a wolf nursed them. A shepherd found them and raised them.
  • The twins overthrew Amulius and put Numitor back on the throne. • Romulus and Remus then decided to found their own city. • While building the wall of the city, Remus jumped over Romulus’ section of wall laughing at how low it was. • Romulus killed his brother and continued to build his city, which was called Rome (753 BC).
  • Rome did not have any people, so Romulus made the city a refuge for criminals and murderers. Romulus soon had a number of men in his new city, but no women.
  • Romulus invited a neighboring tribe called the Sabines to feast with the Roman men. • During the feast, Romulus and the Roman men stole all of the Sabine women. • The Sabine women “married” the Roman men and had children. • The two tribes merged and Romulus ruled jointly with the Sabine King Titus Tatius.
  • Rome expanded from a small village to a small city, and encompassed seven hills. • Capitoline, Palatine, Aventine were most prominent. • The Tiber River flowed by the city.
  • From 753-509 B.C., Rome’s expanding population was governed by a series of seven kings. • Romulus (753-716 B.C.) • Numa Pompilius (715-674 B.C.) • Tullius Hostilius (673-642 B.C.) • Ancus Marcius (641-617 B.C.) • Tarquin Dynasty (Etruscan Origin) – Tarquinius Priscus (616-579 B.C.) – Servius Tullius (578-535 B.C.) – Tarquinius Superbus (534-509 B.C.)
  • The last of the Rome’s Etruscan kings, Tarquinius Superbus, had a son, Sextus Tarquinius. • Sextus Tarquinius became attracted to his friend’s wife, Lucretia, who was a very virtuous woman. • One night Sextus raped Lucretia; rather than endure the shame, Lucretia killed herself (510 BC).
  • This event angered the Roman people. • The Romans needed a hero who would save them from the Superbus family; they were led by a man named Brutus. • Brutus and the rest of the Roman people chased Tarquins out of Rome. • Romans changed their government from a monarchy to a republic in 509 BC.
  • While Rome’ Republic was being established, enemies gathered. The Tarquins gained the support of other Etruscan warlords and attempted to regain control of Rome. • Lars Porsena of Clusium gathered an army in support of the Tarquins. According to most Roman accounts, Lars Porsena arrived at Rome, but was sufficiently impressed by Roman bravery.
  • Roman Courage: Horatius Cocles • By holding the bridge on the Tiber until it could be destroyed, Horatius Cocles, Spurius Lartius, and Titus Herminius saved Rome from the attack of Lars Porsena’s Etruscan army.
  • Roman Courage: Mucius Scaevola (the Lefthanded) "I am Gaius Mucius, a citizen of Rome. I came here as an enemy to kill my enemy, and I am as ready to die as I am to kill. We Romans act bravely and, when adversity strikes, we suffer bravely. I am one of three hundred other Romans willing to give their own life to kill Porsenna.”
  • Cincinnatus was another great Roman hero. • Cincinnatus was a patrician who lived in humble circumstances until an invasion caused him to be called to serve Rome as dictator (absolute authority for 6 months), an office which he immediately resigned after completing his task of defeating the rival tribes.
  • The Roman res publica was a form of government that is a mixture of class-system (Patricians = noble Roman families & Plebeians = non-nobles) and representative government. • S.P.Q.R.  Senatus Populusque Romanus = “the Senate and People of Rome.” • The idea of cooperation between patricians (Senators) and plebs (People) was an important part of Roman identity throughout the Republican period (509 to 27 BC). • The res publica allowed the common people to participate, but the wealthy to dominate.
  • Structure of Roman Republic Consuls= 2 executives elected to one-year terms. -----------------Senate (legislature made up of 300 patricians) ------------------------------Patricians (wealthy aristocrats who had most of the power in Roman society) ----------------------------------------------------------Plebeians (citizens, workers, small farmers) ----------------------------------------------------------------Slaves
  • 494-287 BC: The Political Struggle Between Patricians and Plebs • Roman plebeians (farmers/workers) resented their lack of power and refused to serve in the army until they received a voice in government. • The patricians allowed the plebeians to create the Assembly of Tribes and wrote a law code (the Twelve Tables) that was the same for all. • The office of 10 Tribunes of the Plebs was created: – Had the power of veto (“I forbid”) over decrees made by any official (even consuls)
  • Important Political Offices • Consuls (2) executives elected annually; had power of imperium: could command army, make laws, and assemble the senate. • Senate (300 retired consuls) provided legislation-proposals to Assembly; power to declare war.
  • ANALYSIS OF ROMAN CENTURIATE ORGANISATION Class Property Rating (drachmae: denarii after 211 BC) No. of votes in electoral assembly Military service Aristocrats Patricii (patricians) n.a. (hereditary) 6 Officers/legionary cavalry Equites (knights) hereditary/over 25,000?* 12 Officers/legionary cavalry First Class 10,000 - 25,000? 80 Legionary cavalry Second Class 7,500 - 10,000 20 Legionary infantry Third Class 5,000 - 7,500 20 Legionary infantry Fourth Class 2,500 - 5,000 20 Legionary infantry Fifth Class 400 (or 1,100) - 2,500 30 Legionary infantry (velites) Proletarii (a.k.a. capite censi) Under 400 (or 1,100) 1 Fleets (oarsmen) Commoners
  • Cursus Honorum—Ladder of Offices Power to veto
  • In the early centuries of the Roman Republic… • Roman army was influenced by Etruscans and Greek city-states of Italy. • This was most suitable for a “parttime” citizen army. • Weapons and equipment were Etruscan or Greek imitations, and most battles were fought using the Greek 'phalanx'.
  • In 390 BC, a Celtic invasion resulted in the burning of Rome.
  • Vae victis, Roman punks!!! The Roman phalanx was easily outflanked by fastmoving Celts…Rome was sacked!
  • After the Romans recovered, they developed the legion, a flexible unit of 4500 citizens. It was made up of three age groups (maniples) deployed in staggered lines. • This allowed the different lines to fall back without disrupting the entire formation. • Each consul would be assigned two legions and given operational control of Republic’s areas. Hastati 17-22 Principes 23-30 Triarii 31-46
  • Roman Triplex Acies Formation Enemy H H H H T T T T H P P P P P P H H H T T P P T T
  • The effectiveness of the legion allowed Rome to gradually expand… …until most of central Italy was under its control
  • Aqueducts were built to guarantee Rome’s water supply.
  • Step 1: Locate a suitable source of water and begin carving an angled trench from the source to the route into the city.
  • Every 20 yards shafts were dug from the surface to the route of the aqueduct.
  • The finished aqueduct would run across the terrain at a slight incline that allowed the water to flow slowly to its destination.
  • Roman Religion • The Romans were polytheistic (worshipped many gods), and borrowed Greek deities, giving them Roman names.
  • Unit II: The Punic Wars (264-241, 218-202, 149146) Rome vs. Carthage
  • From 400-270 BC, Rome gradually expanded… …until most of Italy was under its control
  • From 338-264 BC, Rome developed a framework for integrating the tribes and city-states of Italy into a broad confederation. • When a tribe was defeated, part of its territory would be annexed by Rome to provide land for Roman/Latin colonists, which would act as "watchdogs,“ keeping an eye on defeated foes. • The defeated tribe was allowed to keep the rest of its territory in return for binding itself to Rome with military alliance, requiring the new ally to contribute a number of fully equipped troops each year, to serve under Roman command.
  • Structure of Rome’s Italian Confederation Roman Citizens (citizens of Rome and Latium; full rights and privileges) -----------------Latin Colonists (scattered throughout Italy; could vote in Roman elections) -------------------------------------- Socii (conquered Italians; no rights of citizenship; must supply troops to Rome every year)
  • The Romans created a very effective road network to tie together their expanding empire in Italy.
  • To further consolidate its power, Rome moved against the Greek city-states of southern Italy. • In 280 the Greek cities in Italy recruited King Pyrrhus of Epirus, a famous Hellenistic commander skilled in phalanx warfare. • The Roman army relied on its legion formation, which was capable of flexible open order fighting.
  • Although Pyrrhus “won” 2 out of 3 battles against the Romans, but lost so many of his men (winning "Pyrrhic victories") he was forced to leave Italy.
  • Each legionnaire was equipped with the following: • Lorica: leather or metal body armor. • Helmet: rounded, back-flap, earholes. • Scutum: wood shield, rounded with brass rim and boss.
  • Pilum: javelin with bendable head. Gladius: short (24 inches), stabbing sword.
  • Punic Wars • By 264 B.C. Rome dominated Italy and was ready to expand beyond the peninsula. • Rome’s expansion brought Rome into conflict with the empire of Carthage.
  • Carthage • Colony of Phoenicia, founded in 814 BC. • By 570 BC it had become independent of Phoenicia. • Controlled trade in western Mediterranean.
  • Carthage was more oligarchy than republic… • It’s senate was dominated by a merchant aristocracy. • Carthage relied on its navy to project power in the Mediterranean. • Carthage did not rely on citizens. It hired mercenaries to defend its interests.
  • What caused the First Punic War? Rome and Carthage fought to control Sicily.
  • The First Punic War (264-241 B.C.) • War focused on Sicily. • Mostly naval battles. • Rome lost 19% of its citizens in the war.
  • Romans create corvus, a device which interlocks two battling ships.
  • Carthage then suffered a series of naval defeats. • In 242, Carthage sued for peace on Roman terms, retreated from Sicily, and agreed to pay reparations for 10 years. • In 238 B.C., Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca and his son Hannibal travel to the shrine of Melkart and swear eternal hatred for Rome…
  • The Second Punic War (218-202 B.C.) The war I am about to describe is the most memorable of any that have ever been waged. --Livy Scipio Africanus Hannibal Barca
  • After the First Punic War, Carthage expanded into Spain to gain control of its mineral resources.
  • The Romans saw the growing Carthaginian influence in Spain as a threat. • They signed a treaty (226 BC) in which Carthage agreed not to cross the Ebro River.
  • As the power of Carthage grew in Spain, Rome looked for a way to block their enemy. • Rome decided to make alliance with Saguntum (222 BC), a city south of the Ebro. • The Romans warn Carthage’s commander in Spain, Hannibal Barca, to stay away from Saguntum. • Hannibal ignored the warning and attacked Saguntum, capturing it after siege of 8 months.
  • This action provokes the Second Punic War. Rome sends a delegation to Carthage with an ultimatum: Fabius: Here we bring you peace and war. Take which you will! Carthaginian Senate: Whichever you please—we do not care! Fabius: We give you war! Carthaginian Senate: We accept it; and in the same spirit we will fight it to the end!
  • From Saguntum, Hannibal marched across the Pyrenees and Alps with 40,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry and 34 African war elephants.
  • He reached Italy with 20,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, and a few elephants.
  • Scipio Longus
  • Roman army under consul Scipio Sr. sent to halt Hannibal. Hannibal & Scipio Sr. fight at Ticinus River. Hannibal’s Numidian cavalry attack Roman flanks; Roman line collapses. Hannibal victorious, recruits 30K Gauls.
  • Roman Senate orders consul Longus, now in Sicily, to halt invasion of Africa, march to northern Italy, and attack Hannibal. Longus rushes north and arrives at the Trebia River. Hannibal fakes an attack; Longus orders his men to skip breakfast, cross the river and attack Hannibal. Carthaginian cavalry rout Roman cavalry then hammers Roman flanks. Romans turn and flee…10K Romans KIA…
  • June 217 BC: Hannibal marches south towards Rome; ambushes Roman army at Lake Trasimene, killing 30,000 Romans.
  • Hannibal’s plan was to win enough victories to convince Rome’s Italian allies to break away.
  • After disaster at Lake Trasimine Roman senate appoints Fabius Maximus as dictator.
  • Fabius followed the Carthaginian army through Italy, monitoring their activities. • He fortified threatened cities, wore down the enemy with guerilla warfare and prevented their resupply. • This tactic provided his nickname ‘the delayer.’ • Eventually the Romans grew impatient with this “unmanly” behavior and elected 2 new
  • Rome then gathered an army of 80,000 infantry and 7,000 cavalry. • Hannibal had 40,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry. The two forces met near Cannae on August 2, 216 BC.
  • Cannae – 216 BC
  • Carthaginian cavalry swiftly crushed the Roman cavalry, but the Roman infantry began to force the Carthaginians back.
  • Hannibal signaled his wings to wheel inward while the Carthaginian cavalry attacked the rear, encircling the entire Roman army. Over 50,000 Romans were killed.
  • Two more serious blows rocked Rome after Cannae: • Most of Rome’s southern Italian allies defected to Hannibal. • Hannibal made an alliance with Philip V of Macedonia.
  • Rome hung tough… • Hannibal's received limited support from Carthage’s senate. Few reinforcements sent. • Fabius’s “delay” strategy is reinstituted. Action shifts to Sicily and Spain.
  • • • • • • • Rome finds a general… 234: Scipio the Younger is born. 218-216: Survives Ticinus, Trebia, and Cannae. 212: Scipio's father and uncle killed in Spain. 210: Given command of legions in Spain at 25. 209: Captures New Carthage. 206: Defeats last Carthaginian army in Spain.
  • Tactics Used by Scipio in Spain Carthaginian Forces Scipio
  • After being elected consul in 205, Scipio pushed for an invasion of North Africa. • Prior to landing in North Africa, Scipio had made an alliance with Numidian King Masinissa. • 203: Romans and Masinissa’s Numidians burn Carthaginian camp at Utica killing 40,000. • 202: Carthaginian Senate recalls Hannibal. • Battle of Zama: Carthaginians squeezed between Roman infantry and Numidian cavalry.
  • Reasons for Roman Victory • Capable leaders: Fabius Maximus/Scipio Africanus. • Greater Roman man-power. • Loyalty of the Italian allies in central Italy. • Failure of the Carthaginians to send reinforcements to Hannibal. • Peace settlement: Carthage lost Spain, had to pay 10,000 talents of gold (1 talent = 71 lbs.); navy limited to 10 ships, and she was forbidden from raising an army or waging war without Rome's permission.
  • Rome next targeted Macedonian king Philip V, who had allied himself with Carthage in 215.
  • The Romans defeated Philip’s Macedonian phalanx at Cynocephalae.
  • When Philip V died in 179 BC, he was succeeded by Perseus, who tried to turn the Greeks against the Romans. • The Romans destroyed the Macedonians at Pydna (168 BC). • In 146 BC, Macedon officially became a Roman province.
  • Culturally, the impact of Rome’s conquests of the Greek world was enormous. • Scipio Aemilianus (185/4-129) (grandson of Scipio Africanus and the destroyer of Carthage) gathered together a group of Greeks, including Polybius (historian) and Panaetius (a Stoic philosopher) and formed what became known as the Scipionic Circle. • Roman stoics will follow a philosophy of duty: one must recognize the role that fortune assigns, and then must fulfill that role by taking up a particular career and never fail in carrying out the duties of that position.
  • After the Second Punic War, Carthage became a minor commercial power, but still the source of hatred for a faction of Roman senators led by… Cato the Elder… Who ended every speech with the declaration…                                                               Carthago delenda est!
  • Third Punic War (149-146 B.C.) • The Third Punic War lasted three years, after which Carthage was utterly destroyed. • Rome was now master of the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum).
  • The Romans were suspicious of the other Hellenistic kings, particularly the Seleucid King Antiochus III, who employed Hannibal as a military adviser. • The Romans destroyed his army at the battle of Magnesia (189 BC).
  • Unit III: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic 133-27 BC
  • Rome’s conquests of the second century BC flooded Roman society with wealth and slaves. Territorially, Romans began to refer to the Mediterranean Sea as “Mare Nostrum,” or “Our Sea.”
  • Roman soldier (200-178 BC) Spurius Ligustinus: • “I was a common soldier in the army, fighting against Philip in Macedonia… After Philip and the Macedonians were vanquished…I at once volunteered to go with the consul M. Porcius to Spain…I served, for the third time, as a volunteer in the army which was sent against Antiochus and the Aetolians… After Antiochus, I served in Spain, once under Q. Fulvius Flaccus and again under Ti. Sempronius Gracchus.”
  • The Triumph of Gn. Manlius Vulso (187 BC)… • In his triumph Cn. Manlius had borne before him 200 golden crowns, each weighing 12 pounds, 220,000 pounds weight of silver, 2103 pounds of gold, 127,000 Attic tetrachmas, 250 cistophori, 16,320 golden coins of Philip's mintage…He distributed amongst the soldiers 42 denarii for each legionary, twice as much for the centurions, and three times as much for the cavalry, and double pay for all. • Still worse things were witnessed amongst his soldiers every day' for it was through the army serving in Asia that the beginnings of foreign luxury were introduced into the City… • These men brought into Rome for the first time, bronze couches, costly coverlets, tapestry, and other fabrics, and - what was at that time considered gorgeous furniture - pedestal tables and silver salvers. • Banquets were made more attractive by the presence of girls who played on the harp and sang and danced, and by other forms of amusement, and the banquets themselves began to be prepared with greater care and expense. • The cook whom the ancients regarded and treated as the lowest menial was rising in value, and what had been a servile office came to be looked upon as a fine art. Still what met the eye in those days was hardly the germ of the luxury that was coming.
  • Economically, wealth and slaves transformed the Roman economy…and Roman society. • In Italy, wealthy patricians acquired land in Italy from war-ravaged pleb farmers. • These patricians created large estates called latifundia, farmed by slaves. • Many plebs lost everything.
  • 133-121 BC: The Gracchus brothers used the office of tribune to force the senate to focus on redistributing land to plebeians.
  • Because of their land reform policies both Gracchus brothers were killed by order of the Senate (Senatus consultum ultimum).
  • Lack of land reform led to waves of unemployed farmers heading to Rome to find new opportunity. They soon became an unemployed mob.
  • The economic crisis had a military effect— landless men could not serve in the legions. • The lack of troops became an issue during the Jugurthine War (111-104 BC, Rome vs. Jugurtha, king of Numidia).
  • Matters became worse when Rome faced a deadly challenge from the north. • Two Germanic tribes (Teutones and Cimbri) began to threaten Roman trans-Alpine interests.
  • The Roman senate appointed commanders to deal with both crises, but their appointees failed miserably.
  • Marian Reforms: • The people demanded action, and elected the general Gaius Marius consul. • To increase Rome’s military effectiveness, Marius waived property requirements for military service. • Unlike part-time citizen soldiers, Marius’s recruits were paid, given uniforms and equipment, and promised land when they were discharged.
  • These newly-enlisted soldiers became dependent on their generals for financial security. • Soldiers began to show more loyalty to their commanders than the Senate. • Rival political leaders sought the position of consul so they could be assigned armies, conquer new lands, and pay their soldiers with loot.
  • Soon, rival factions formed into something like political parties. • Gaius Marius, was a novus homo (new man; non-patrician consul), represented the populare faction (pro-plebeian, wanted to bypass senate and use tribunes to introduce laws). • Lucius Cornelius Sulla, a patrician, represented the optimate faction (senators who wanted senate and patricians to be dominant).
  • Marius and Sulla served together in the North African war against Jugurtha (Massinissa’s adopted grandson). When Marius took sole credit for the Jugurthan victory, Sulla became very bitter.
  • Sulla had been an effective commander against Jugurtha and during the Social War (90-87), in which Rome fought against its Italian socii.
  • Sulla was given command of the war against Mithridates of Pontus in 88. This command was overturned by a tribune, who gave the command to Marius.
  • Sulla attacked Rome with his loyal legions, and ordered the death of Marius’s supporters. Marius fled to Africa. • Sulla went back to Asia to continue the war against Mithradates. • While Sulla was fighting Mithradates, Marius and his supporters returned to Rome and terrorized the optimates.
  • In 84 BC, Sulla returned to Rome, crushed the populares, and appointed himself dictator. • He then posted proscription lists of every Roman populare supporter he wanted dead. Thousands were “legally” murdered. • Sulla greatly strengthened optimate control of the Republic.
  • Further adding to the tense political situation in Rome and Italy were periodic slave revolts. • By the 1st century B.C., roughly 20-30% of the people in Italy were slaves. • There were 2 major slave revolts in Sicily between 135-100 B.C.
  • The most serious slave revolt occurred in Italy from 73-71 B.C.; it was led by Spartacus (a slave and a gladiator). • Spartacus defeated several Roman armies before consul Marcus Crassus defeated him. • 6,000 “Spartacans” were crucifed along the Appian Way.
  • In the late 60s BC, Marius’s nephew, Gaius Julius Caesar began to make a name for himself as a rising populare star.
  • Also in the 60s, Gnaeus Pompey became Rome’s greatest general. • Lex Gabinia of 67 BC granted Pompey powers in any province within 50 miles of the Mediterranean Sea for three years.) His power was extended until 61 BC to defeat Mithradates.
  • 60 BC: Caesar forms First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus; they agree to help each other attain the consulship. a) Marcus Crassus (wealthiest man in Rome) b) Pompey (Rome’s greatest general) c) Caesar (excellent politician that plebeians love).
  • Caesar elected consul (59-58 BC); passed laws that gave land back to plebs. Afterward, he was assigned to govern the province of Gaul (tribune Publius Vatinius passed law giving Caesar 5 year term/58-53 BC).
  • Caesar commanded an army that was totally devoted to HIM!!!
  • Here he campaigned for 9 years (58-50 BCE)…
  • During this time he fought against most of the Gallic tribes, the Germans (bridging the Rhine), and even managed to launch an invasion of Britain.
  • In 52 BC, when Caesar thought he had pacified Gaul, a Gallic chief named Vercingetorix launched the most serious revolt Caesar had ever faced. Caesar was able to contain the revolt by forcing the rebels into the hill-top village of Alesia.
  • At Alesia Caesar conducted the greatest siege in history. Romans kept 80,000 Gauls from breaking out of Alesia, and prevented 200,000 Gauls from breaking in.
  • Vercingetorix was forced to surrender to Caesar.
  • By 51 BC the triumvirate was falling apart. Crassus was killed in Syria fighting Parthians (53 BC), and friendship between Pompey and Caesar was on the rocks. Pompey had married Caesar’s daughter Julia; when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two remaining triumvirs was gone.
  • Caesar’s successful military campaigns advanced his political career, but caused suspicion among optimate senators and earned the jealousy of Pompey. The optimates wanted to prosecute Caesar for conducting an illegal war into Germania that the Senate never authorized. Cato the Elder
  • Caesar wanted immunity from prosecution; the optimates refused. • Various political compromises were attempted, but Caesar and the optimates could not reach an agreement. • On December 1, 50 BC, the tribune Curio proposed a motion that would force both Pompey and Caesar to both lay down their commands, and the motion was passed 370 votes to 22. • The optimates then asked Pompey to take up command of the local legions and to raise more in defense of Rome against Caesar.
  • In 49 B.C., the Senate demanded Caesar give up his army and return to Rome (where he would probably be killed). Caesar refused, crossed the Rubicon River with an army, and marched on Rome. Alea iacta est!
  • In 48 BC, Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalus (in Greece); Pompey fled to Egypt so Caesar followed. Pompey’s Cavalry Pompey Caesar Caesar’s “4th Line”
  • • • • • • • • The Civil War that followed (49-45 BC), saw Caesar move rapidly to take the offensive. 49 BC: Caesar controls Italy: Pompey flees to Greece. 49-48: Caesar fights Pompey’s forces in Spain. 48: Caesar crushes Pompey at Pharsalus in Greece. 48-47: Caesar in Egypt (romance w/Cleopatra produces son, Caesarion). 47 BC: Caesar vs. Pharnaces II (son of Mithradates) at Zela (Veni, vedi, vici). 46 BC: Caesar vs. Cato (Thapsus, North Africa). 45 BC: Caesar vs. Pompey’s sons in Spain (Munda).
  • In 46 BC Caesar returned to Rome to celebrate a quadruple triumph.
  • After winning the civil war, Caesar appointed himself “dictator for life.” He forgave his opponents. Several of them (Cassius, Brutus) plotted against him. Caesar was lured into the senate house and assassinated in March, 44 B.C.
  • After Caesar’s assassination, a second triumvirate is formed: Octavian (Caesar’s adopted son), Marc Antony (Caesar’s loyal deputy), and Lepidus (a supporter of Caesar).
  • This “second triumvirate” first defeated Caesar’s assassins in 42 B.C. and then divided the Roman world among themselves. Octavian took western half of Roman empire, Antony too eastern half.
  • The second triumvirate soon fell apart, when Antony fell in love with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra. • The two lovers were accused of plotting against Rome. Octavian crushed them at the Battle of Actium leaving him the undisputed ruler of Rome.
  • The defeat of Antony left Octavian as the sole ruler of Rome. • Octavian (Augustus) claimed to support the republic but actually laid the foundation for the return of monarchy and an epic expansion of Rome’s Empire.
  • For most of his time in Gaul, Caesar could rely on Pompey’s power to frustrate the plans of his optimate opponents. • 54 BC: Pompey’s wife (and Caesar’s daughter) died. • 53 BC: Crassus killed fighting Parthians in the east. • 52 BC: Caesar crushes Vercingetorix’s revolt. • 51 BC: Optimates woo Pompey. • 50: Curio is tribune. • 49: Mark Anthony is tribune. • 49-45 BC: Civil War
  • Unit IV: Age of Emperors
  • Octavian (Augustus) claimed to support the republic but actually laid the foundation for the de facto return of monarchy and an epic expansion of Rome’s Empire. The reign of Augustus inaugurated the principate (in which Augustus and all emperors up to 284 AD were granted absolute power by the senate). Princeps = first citizen I’m number one!
  • How did the Roman emperors maintain their hold on power? • Bribe the army to guarantee its loyalty. • Publicly show deference to the senate. • Give powerful Romans important jobs as governors of provinces.
  • The creation by Augustus of a Praetorian Guard (emperor’s bodyguard) guaranteed that the emperors had the military means of asserting their will.
  • Supply the people with food and entertainment (bread and circuses).
  • Augustus led Rome’s imperial expansion throughout the Mediterranean. During the reign of Augustus (27 B.C. to 14) the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace, began; it lasted 200 years.
  • The Romans tied their empire together with an unparalleled road network. This led to unprecedented prosperity for many people living within the borders of the empire.
  • Trouble in the Provinces
  • During the reign of Augustus trouble began when Rome began expanding from Gaul into Germany. • Varus, Roman governor of Germania took three legions (XVII, XVIII, XIX) to subdue the rebels and is ambushed in Teutoburg forest. 15,000 Romans killed. Rome’s expansion into Germany halted.
  • Augustus’s early successors—Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero—showed promise when appointed but later revealed great faults.
  • • • • • Augustus (ruled 27 BC-14) established the JulioClaudian dynasty. Tiberius (Augustus’s step-son) was effective, but hated being emperor; he “retired” to Capri where he became a debauched old man; ruled 14-37. Caligula, insane, was assassinated; ruled 37-41. Claudius (Caligula’s uncle) was thought to be physically and mentally challenged. Appointed emperor by the Praetorian Guard. Conquers Britain; poisoned by his wife (Nero’s mother) ruled 41-54. Nero (Claudius’s stepson) was insane; overthrown and commits suicide.
  • During Nero’s reign, Briton Queen Boudicca revolted when Romans seized her territory seized. • Boudicca’s army destroyed several Roman cities (including London) and killed 70,000 Romans until crushed by pro-consul Suetonius Paullinus.
  • The trouble in Britannia was followed by a great fire in Rome which destroyed much of the city. • Nero blamed the fire one a new religious group called “Christians,” and ordered their prosecution.
  • Some Romans thought that Nero had ordered the fire set in order to clear an area where he wanted to build a new palace, “the Golden House.” • While his new palace was being built, Nero ordered the building of an enormous statue of himself (a “colossus.”)
  • Nero’s erratic behavior and extravagant lifestyle financially strained the empire. • In 68, Nero was forced to commit suicide. He was the last of the Julio-Claudians. • Nero’s death led to civil war in the “Year of Four Emperors” (68/69) (Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian). All 4 had been governors of provinces.
  • The civil wars of the year 68/69 are brought to an end by Flavianus Vespasian, the tough governor of the eastern provinces (Egypt, Syria, Judea). • Vespasian established the Flavian dynasty, which consisted of himself and his two sons (Titus and Domitian).
  • In order to solidify political support for their new dynasty, the Flavians (Vespasian, Titus, Domitian) built a new amphitheater on the site of Nero’s Golden House. It became known as the Colosseum.
  • Vespasian is successful emperor; dies of natural causes. Titus is successful dies young of fever. Domitian has long reign but is assassinated. •Senate appoints Nerva (a respected senator) emperor. •Nerva adopts the respected general Trajan.
  • Nerva’s adoption of Trajan started a trend. Trajan adopted Hadrian, who adopted Antoninus, who adopted Marcus Aurelius.
  • During Trajan’s reign (98-117) the empire reached its greatest extent; during the reign of Hadrian (117-138) the Romans stopped expanding.
  • The Romans began to rely more on fortifications like Hadrian’s Wall in Britannia and the limes, which connected the Rhine-Danube frontier.
  • Hadrian’s decision to adopt Antoninus (138-161) furthered the stability of the Roman empire.
  • With the death of Antoninus (138-161), Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus became co-emperors. Aurelius was a “reluctant” emperor. He was deeply philosophical, adhering to the Stoic belief in duty. His book, The Meditations, is considered one of the greatest works of Stoic philosophy.
  • During the reign of Aurelius the empire faced many challenges. • After returning from a war with Parthia in the east, the Roman army brought back plague. • This greatly reduced the population of militaryaged manpower.
  • During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Germanic tribes aggressively penetrated the Rhine-Danube frontier. Saxons Franks Allemanni Ostrogoths & Visigoths
  • The Germanic tribes originated in Scandinavia, from which they moved south around 1000 BCE. • By 100 BC some tribes reached the Rhine; by 200 AD the Danube.
  • In the early years of Pax Romana, the Germanic tribes were not a real offensive danger to Rome: • poverty ensured poor armor and weapons • they had limited tactics, consisting of ambushes and a mass charge. • divisions into numerous small tribes meant a lack of political cooperation.
  • • • • • • Over time, the Germanic tribes became a more aggressive threat to the Roman Empire: Small tribes began to form large confederations: Southern Germans came together into the Alamanni. Middle Rhine groups combined to form the Franks. North Germans grouped as Saxons. Eastern German tribes formed into Ostrogoths and Visigoths.
  • When “good” emperor Marcus Aurelius died in 180, Pax Romana ended and Rome began its decline. •Politically, the empire suffered from the misrule of bad emperors, starting with Commodus, the son of Marcus Aurelius. •The Germanic tribes grew more aggressive. •Plague from the east also hurt the empire.
  • Unit V: Crisis and Recovery 250-350 C.E.
  • From 192-285 the Romans suffered from political instability, with 18 out of 24 emperors were assassinated! 180-192 Commodus 180-192 Commodus 192 Pertinax 192-193 Pertinax 192-193 Didius Julianus 193 Didius Julianus 193-211 Septimius Severus (died natural causes) 211-217 Antoninus (Caracalla) 217-218 Macrinus 218-222 Elagabalus 222-235 Severus Alexander 235-238 Maximinus Thrax 238 Gordian I & Gordian II 238-244 Gordian III 244-249 Philip the Arab 249-251 Decius (killed by Goths) 251-253 Trebonianus Gallus 253 Aemilius Aemilianus 253-260 Valerian (captured by Persian Sassanids; died in captivity) 260-268 Gallienus 268-270 Claudius Gothicus (plague) 270-275 Aurelian 275-276 Tacitus 276-282 Probus 282-283 Carus 283-285 Carinus
  • In the period 192-285, the longest reigning emperor was Septimius Severus (193-211). • His policies had a long-term impact on empire’s future: • Promotion for provincials (particularly in the army) • Permission for soldiers to marry • More pay for the army • Contempt for senate • Success against Parthians leads to rise of Sassanid Persians.
  • In the 250s a grave threat appeared in the east: The Sassanid Persian empire (224-651). • Sassanid kings waged war to try to recreate the borders of the ancient Persian empire. This would require them to conquer the eastern portion of the Roman empire. Cataphract
  • Large parts of the Roman empire broke away, creating sub-empires (the Gallic and Palmyran). • By 260 it seemed as if the Roman empire would collapse.
  • Things began to turn around in 270, with the rise of a series of soldier-emperors known collectively as the Illyricani (emperors from Illyria). • Claudius II "Gothicus" (268– 270) • Aurelian (270–275) • Probus (276–282) • Diocletian (284–305) • Illyrian emperors recovered the provinces lost earlier.
  • Emperor Diocletian (284-305) had stabilized the empire by creating a tetrarchy: empire divided into quadrants each controlled by a co-emperor.
  • To meet the external threats, Diocletian expanded the army (from 25 to 50 legions); this required enormous tax increases.
  • Rise of Christianity
  • The religion of Christianity developed in Rome’s Middle Eastern province of Judea.
  • A Jew named Jesus was born during the reign of Augustus; during the reign of Tiberius he began preaching a new faith.
  • Jesus’ disciples believed he was the messiah (savior) but other Jews disputed this. • Roman officials believed their rule was threatened by the growing controversy so Jesus was crucified as a rebel in 33.
  • After Jesus’ death his disciples proclaimed he had risen from the dead; all who accepted Jesus as the messiah became known as Christians. • His disciples preached Jesus’ message: Love your enemies & do not judge others. • Christianity grew out of Judaism’s monotheistic roots. The Bible reflects the split that will occur after the crucifixion of Jesus. • Old Testament is part of Bible both Jews & Christians feel is valid. Only Christians view the New Testament as a valid religious document.
  • Saul of Tarsus was a devout Jew who persecuted the early followers of Jesus for breaking Jewish law. • He changed his name to Paul after a revelation convinced him of the truth of Jesus' divinity.
  • Spread of Christianity • Paul spread Christianity by traveling throughout the Roman empire during Pax Romana, setting up churches.
  • The Romans feared that Christian rejection of their deities would bring divine punishment; when local officials thought Christians were causing trouble, they sometimes had them killed.
  • Persecutions backfired when martyrs like Perpetua (in 203) showed serenity in the face of death. Many Romans wanted to know more about this powerful new religion.
  • In 312 Constantine ended the tetrarchy and became sole emperor after defeating his rivals. He converted to Christianity after his victory at the Milvian Bridge. In hoc signo vinces! In 313, he issued Edict of Milan, allowing all religious groups to worship freely.
  • Unit VI: Decline and Fall of Western Roman Empire
  • By 330 Emperor Constantine relocated the capital to Constantinople, on a peninsula where Europe and Asia meet.
  • After 320, Emperor Constantine decided on new imperial strategy: borders lightly defended; “punching power” supplied by mobile cavalry army stationed back from the borders. Constantine also began to recruit more Germans into the Roman army.
  • By the 370s, the empire was informally divided into western and eastern halves.
  • In the 370s the Romans became aware of a new potential threat from the northeast…
  • A migration of Asiatic nomads known as Huns, put more pressure on Roman borders. Terrified of the advancing Huns, the Visigoths asked to settle inside the Empire. The emperor Valens was engaged in a campaign against the Sassanids and was desperate for new soldiers, so he granted the Visigoths permission to settle if they would serve in the Roman army.
  • Roman mistreatment led to a Goth rampage inside the province of Thrace. A Roman army, led by the Emperor Valens destroyed at Adrianople.
  • The Romans opened the battle with an attack on the Goth camp, but were flanked by Goth cavalry. Emperor Valens and 2/3 of his army were killed.
  • After Adrianople, Goths are allowed to settle within the empire and serve as foederati, army units made up of Germans, commanded by their own tribal chiefs.
  • In the year 395 the Roman empire was formally divided into two halves: eastern (ruled by an emperor in Constantinople) and western (ruled by an emperor in Ravenna, Italy).
  • Each half of the empire tried to foist the Goths off on the other half. • In 410 the Goth King Alaric, frustrated by the failure of the Romans to find a homeland for his people, sacks the city of Rome.
  • By 450 AD the Visigoths had established themselves in the Roman province of Gaul.
  • In 450 the Huns, led by their king Attila, invaded the Western Roman Empire.
  • Roman general Flavius Aetius forms alliance with Visigoths against Attila.
  • Romans and Visigoths defeated Attila at Battle of Chalons in 451.
  • The Western Empire limped along for another 25 years (476) before the last “emperor” was deposed by a Germanic king and the western Roman empire was divided amongst Germanic tribes. •Franks-Gaul •Angles/Saxons-Britain •Visigoths-Spain •Vandals-North Africa •Ostrogoths-Italy •The Roman Empire would continue in the east for another 1,000 years.
  • Causes for Decline of Western Roman Empire • Bad emperors • After an emperor died, Rome’s generals often used their armies to gain power. • Germanic tribes attacked the empire. • In 395, Roman empire divided Western and Eastern Empires. • The eastern provinces were much wealthier than the western provinces and geographically better protected.