The 1980’s chapter 22
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The 1980’s chapter 22



Reagan, Bush, and Clinton

Reagan, Bush, and Clinton



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    The 1980’s chapter 22 The 1980’s chapter 22 Presentation Transcript

    • The 1980’s
      Chapter 22
      Welfare State
      Loss of U.S. Military Strength
      Lost Morality
    • The New Right
    • Conservative Political Activism
      Reduced Size of Government
      School prayer
      Strong military
      Free-market economies
      Gun control
      Equal Rights Amendment
      Busing to end segregation
      Gay Rights
    • Republican Campaign Strategy
      Focus on:
      The Iranian hostage crisis
      Claims that U.S. military had fallen behind the Soviet Union
      Double-digit inflation, soaring interest rates and high unemployment
      Reagan quipped, "A recession is when your neighbor loses his job; depression is when you lose your job. Recovery is when Jimmy Carter loses his."
    • Campaign Commercials
    • "Are you better off now than
      you were four years ago?"
    • Reaganomics
      A.K.A. Supply-side economics/Trickle-down economics
      Reagan believed that economic growth can be best managed by people who produce goods
      Reduced corporate tax
      Tax cuts were accompanied by deregulation of airlines, trucking, banking, and television.
      Personal tax rates for the top tax bracket dropped from 70%to 28% in 7 years
      This is the opposite of Keynesian “demand-side” economics which relied upon government spending
    • Trickle-Down?
    • Reaganomics
      Like other stimulation efforts, Reagan's policies also resulted in budget deficits and a increased national debt.
    • Did Reaganomics Work?
      Inflation FELL from 12.5% to 4.4 %
      Interest rates
      fell 6%
      Eight million new jobs were created as unemployment fell
      An 8% growth in private wealth.
      > # number poor
      31.8 million in1981
      39.3 million in 1992
      > budget deficit
      $994 billion in1981
      $2,867 billion in1989
      Soaring national debt
      Trade deficit grew
    • Trickle-Down?
    • Economic Problems
      Deficit Concerns
      Gramm-Rudman Hollings Act
      Savings and Loan Scandal (S&L)
      October 19, 1987
      Over 1,000 savings and loan institutions failed
    • “Evil Empire” SpeechMarch 8, 1983
    • Reagan and the Cold War
      Felt USSR still posed a threat and military needed to renewed strength
      Increased the Pentagon’s budget
      B-1 Bomber
      M-X Missile
      10x MIRV
      Each 20x Hiroshima
    • Reagan and the Cold War
      Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) – Star Wars
      Satellite-based missile defense system
      Could we afford it?
      Was it possible?
    • S.D.I. in the NewsMarch 25, 1983
    • Geraldine Ferraro
    • Reagan and the Cold War
      USSR continued to plod through costly insurgent conflict
      Lech Walesa
    • Reagan and Latin America
      Sandinistas of Nicaragua – pro-Soviet government that Reagan targeted for removal
      Contras – a large army recruited and trained by the CIA, “freedom fighters”
      Congress cut funding for contras in 1984 fearing a Central American “Vietnam”
      The executive branch would continue to fund this initiative through illegal means (Iran-contra Affair)
    • Iran–Contra Affair
      Iran was sold 1,000 anti-tank missiles
      Those profits were used to buy weapons and supplies for the contras in Nicaragua
      1986 – Public becomes aware…
      A downed supply plane in Nicaragua was found to be carrying US weapons to the Contras
      A Lebanese newspaper reported that the U.S. sold missiles to Iran
      On T.V. President Reagan denied and one week later affirmed that weapons were indeed sold to Iran
    • Iran–Contra Affair
      The Tower Commission – formed by Reagan to investigate the Iran-Contra Affair
      Criticized the actions of members of the Executive Branch including Oliver North andDefense Secretary Caspar Weinberger
      Could not determine that the President knew/ordered the program, BUT
      President ought to have had better control of the National Security Council staff.
      "If the president did not know what his national security advisers were doing, he should have.”
    • 1986
    • Ronny and Gorby
    • Soviet Union Changes
      Perestroika – “restructuring”, began the dismantling of the Soviet-era command economy and its replacement with a market economy
      Glasnost – “openness”, policy of transparency in the activities of all government institutions in the Soviet Union
    • Yuppie
    • 1988 Presidential Election
    • Michael Dukakis
      Lloyd Bentsen
    • Dan
    • Bentsen-Quayle Debate
    • Potatoe?
    • Tiananmen Square
    • 56
      Middle East Quick Quiz
      How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions
      1) Who created most of the borders and countries of the Middle East?
      a. France and England
      b. Jordan and Syria
      c. Saudi Arabia
      d. The United Nations
      e. The United States
    • 57
      Middle East Quick Quiz
      How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions
      2) What language is spoken in Iran?
      3) When did it become illegal for women in Iran to go without wearing a veil? (with 5 years)
    • 58
      Middle East Quick Quiz
      How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions
      4) What is the most populous Islamic country in the world?
      a. Egypt
      b. Indonesia
      c. Iran
      d. Saudi Arabia
    • 59
      Middle East Quick Quiz
      How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions
      5) Which of following is Iraq?
    • 60
      Middle East Quick Quiz
      How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions
      1. A
      2. Farsi
      3. 1983
      4. B (196 million people)
      5. C
    • 1991 Gulf War
      In 1990, Iraq invaded its oil-rich neighbor to the south, Kuwait
      US/UN forces sought to remove Iraqis from Kuwait and ensure that Iraq did not invade Saudi Arabia
      "This aggression will not stand"
      Fighting began on January 17, 1991, when U.S.-led air units launched attacks against Iraq
    • Gulf War - Coalition Forces
    • 63
      Iraq Basics
      Who? Ethnic Groups
      A. Arab
      • 2/3 of Iraq
      B. Kurd
      • 1/4 of Iraq
      • Own language & customs
      • Brutally suppressed in Iraq
    • 64
      Iraq Basics
      Who? Religion
      A. Shiite
      • 3/5 of the population
      B. Sunni
      • 2/5th of population
      • 90% of world’s Muslims
      C. Main differences: Who should lead the Muslim community?
    • 65
      Baath Party
      B. What does it do?
      • Secular (non-religious) government
      • Uses oil $ for government projects
      • Hussein begins to eliminate opponents
    • 67
      Persian Gulf War Pictures
      Kuwait Oil Well Fires from Space
      View from the space shuttle Atlantis of black smoke billowing from burning oil wells in Kuwait, which were set ablaze by retreating Iraqi troops at the end of the
      Persian Gulf War.
      Image: Digital image © 1996 CORBIS; Original image courtesy of NASA/CORBIS
    • Clarence Thomas
      Second African-American Supreme Court Justice
      Accusations of sexual harassment
      Senate Hearings
      Anita Hill
      “ far as I'm concerned, it is a high-tech lynching…You will be lynched, destroyed, caricatured by a committee of the US Senate rather than hung from a tree. “
    • Clarence Thomas
    • President Clinton
      1992 Election
      3rd Party Candidate Impact
      Reversing Reaganomics
      Universal Healthcare Argument
      War in Kosovo
      Middle East Peace?
    • 1992 Presidential Election
      Incumbent President, Republican George Bush
      Democrat Bill Clinton, Arkansas governor
      Independent Ross Perot, a Texas businessman.
      Bush broke his 1988 campaign pledge against raising taxes
      The economy had sunk into recession
      Collapse of the USSR & the defeat of Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War made foreign policy, Bush’s strength, seemless important
    • “Read my lips…
      1988 Campaign pledge
      Forced to break promise with the 1990 Tax Act
      Critics argued that govn’t deficit was bloated and out-of-control
      Bush begrudgingly broke promise
      Contributed to his 1992 election loss
    • 1992 Presidential Election
    • Moderate
      1992 Presidential Election
    • Clinton Appointments
      Ruth Bader Ginsberg – Supreme Court Justice
      Janet Reno – Attorney General
      Henry Cisneros – Sec. Housing and Urban Affairs
      Madeline Albright – UN Ambassador
      Donna Shalala – Sec. Health and Human Services
      Dee Dee Myers – Press Secretary
    • Clinton and the Economy
      Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
      cut taxes low-income families
      made tax cuts available to 90% of small businesses
      raised taxes on the wealthiest 1.2% of taxpayers
      also mandatedthe government budget be balanced
    • NAFTA
      Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte
      Clinton strongly supported free trade measures
      The bill passed the House 234 to 200
      Eliminated trade tariffs between US, Canada and Mexico
      Impact: Is it good for the U.S. economy?
      Increased market for US products/greater competition
      US manufacturing jobs move north and south
      Mexican farmers must compete with US agri-business
    • Clinton and Healthcare
      Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
      Labor law allowing an employee to take unpaid leave due to a serious health condition
      employee unable to perform his job
      to care for a sick family member
      to care for a new son or daughter (including by birth, adoption or foster care)
      Employer must continue medical coverage and hold job for up to 12 months
    • Clinton and Healthcare
      Plan would have enforced mandate for employers to provide health insurance coverage to all of their employees through competitive but closely-regulated health maintenance organizations (HMOs).
    • Clinton and Healthcare
      Need to change system, increasing costs
      Need to cover everyone
      Current system creates high cost
      Too costly, would require HUGE tax increases
      Government programs are inefficient
      Would reduce consumer choice in free-market
    • Clinton Healthcare Critics
      This commercial was funded by the Health Insurance Association of America in opposition to President Clinton's proposed health care plan.
    • Foreign Policy Concerns
      In the former Yugoslavia ethnic cleansing/genocide of Albanians by nationalist Serbians
      Clinton used American troops in a 1999 NATO bombing campaign against Yugoslavia
    • Foreign Policy Concerns
      Kosovo was then brought under U.N. supervision
      U.N. Court ruled NO genocide BUT, "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments".
      Slobodan Milošević, President of Yugoslavia, was charged with "murders of about 600 individually identified ethnic Albanians" and "crimes against humanity."
    • Foreign Policy Concerns
      Clinton brought Israeli PM Ehud Barak and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafattogether at Camp David
      Barak and Arafat signed agreement for limited self-government for the Palestinians in the West Bank
      The situation broke down completely with the start of the Second Intifada.
    • Foreign Policy Concerns
      Democratically elected President Jean-Bertrand Aristide overthrown in 1991
      Haitian refugees fled to U.S. to escape new military gov’t
      U.S. trade embargo unsuccessful
      U.S. invaded in 1994
    • Clinton left office with an approval rating at 65%, the highest end of office rating of any President since World War II.