Chapter 15.3


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Discussion of rising tensions in 1930's Europe through the Lend-Lease Program

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Chapter 15.3

  1. 1. The Road to Pearl Harbor<br />
  2. 2. Totalitarian Regimes<br />A modern dictatorial government in which the state involves itself in all aspects of society.<br />A totalitarian government seeks to control not only all economic and political matters but the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population<br />The citizen’s duty to the state becomes the primary concern of the community<br />Goal of the state is the replacement of existing society with a perfect society (return to past greatness)<br />What ideal societal goal could be created?<br />
  3. 3. Totalitarian Characteristics<br />A single party through which the people are mobilized to muster energy and support. The party is generally led by a dictator and, typically, participation in politics, especially voting, is required<br />The party leadership maintains monopoly control over the governmental system, which includes the police, military, communications, and economic and education systems. <br />Opposition is systematically suppressed and people terrorized by a secret police. <br />However, only with modern technology have governments acquired the means to control society; therefore, totalitarianism is a recent phenomenon.<br />
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  6. 6. What is Fascism?<br />The term fascism has come to mean any system of government resembling Mussolini&apos;s, that in various combinations:<br />exalts the nation and party above the individual, with the state apparatus being supreme.<br />stresses loyalty to a single leader, and submission to a single nationalistic culture.<br />creation of a Corporatist State, where the differing economic and social interests of different classes are combined with the interests of the State.<br />Differing social classes assumed – ALL working for greater nation!<br />
  7. 7. Nazi Ideology<br />Nazi Ideology combined the following beliefs:<br />Human history is nothing but racial struggle in which the strong survive and the weak die out, and the belief in the superiority of Germany over all other nations.<br />The Jews were thought to be the lowest form of humanity and most inferior race. <br />They had nevertheless gained control over both capitalism and communism <br />Needed to be eliminated.<br />Unquestioned obedience to Hitler (Führer) <br />Extreme glorification of militarism and war to achieve ends.<br />
  8. 8. Hitler&apos;s Rise to Power<br />Appealed to Germans burdened by reparations payments to the victors of World War I, and threatened by hyper-inflation, political chaos, and a possible Communist takeover.<br />Hitler offered scapegoats and solutions. <br />To the economically depressed he promised to ruin “Jew financiers,” to workers he promised security. <br />He gained the financial support of bankers and industrialists with his strong anti-Communism stance and promises to control trade unionism.<br />Hitler had a keen insight into mass psychology, and he was a master of political maneuver. <br />Nazis were elected the largest party in the Reichstag (July, 1932)<br />
  9. 9. Huge rallies like this one encouraged people to support the Nazis and their goals of expansion and domination.<br />
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  12. 12. “One People,<br />One Empire, <br />One Leader”<br />
  13. 13. “Long Live Germany”<br />
  14. 14. &quot;The Reich will never be destroyed if you are united and loyal.&quot; <br />
  15. 15. &quot;Through military will to military strength.&quot;<br />
  16. 16. &quot;This is how we fight. <br />You, too, must work for victory.&quot; <br />
  17. 17. &quot;Be true to the Führer.&quot;<br />
  18. 18. Hitler Youth<br />
  19. 19. &quot;Youth Serves the Führer. All 10-year-olds into the Hitler Youth.&quot;<br />
  20. 20. English Translation:<br />60000 RM (Reichsmarks)<br />Is the lifetime cost of this disabled person for the community.<br />Comrade this is also Your money.<br />Read &quot;Neues Volk“<br />The monthly issues of the Bureau for Race Politics of the NSDAP<br />
  21. 21. &quot;The Jew: <br />The inciter of war, <br />the prolonger of war.&quot;<br />
  22. 22. Children were taught at a young age to be prejudiced<br />
  23. 23. On April 1st, 1933, the boycott which was announced by the National socialistic party began. Placard reads, &quot;Germans, defend yourselves, do not buy from Jews,&quot; at the Jewish Tietz store.<br />
  24. 24. Hitler and the Nazisused the Jews as scapegoats for the economic problems the Germans were experiencing.<br />
  25. 25. 1936 Summer Olympics<br />The 1936 Summer Olympics were held in Berlin, Germany. <br />The government saw the Olympics as a golden opportunity to promote their Nazi ideology. <br />To ensure victories, the German government provided steroids to its athletes. <br />While Germany dominated the games, the many triumphs by citizens of other nations were seen as a rebuke to racist Nazi philosophies. In particular, the black sprinter and long jumper Jesse Owens won four gold medals.<br />
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  27. 27. Dealing with Militaristic Dictators<br />Failed Geneva Conference – proposed a reduction in offensive armaments<br />Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, 1937<br />Mandatory arms embargo against aggressor and victim<br />US citizens travel at own risk on belligerent vessels<br />Cash-n-Carry Policy added in ’37 <br />Cash only, and they must carry<br />
  28. 28. Appeasement<br />After Hitler’s retaking the Rhineland (near French border) and joining with Austria, Germany looked to Sudetenland<br />A German speaking area of Czechoslovakia<br />Hoping to avoid war, the British and French signed the Munich Agreement with Hitler<br />Germany could have the Sudetenland, promising to take NO MOREterritory<br />Allies hoped to avoid war at all cost & were militarily unprepared to stop Hitler at this point<br />
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  30. 30. “My good friends, for the second time in our history, a British Prime Minister has returned from Germany bringing peace with honour. I believe it is peace for our time.” <br />British Prime Minister<br />Neville Chamberlain<br />
  31. 31. Nazis<br />Nazis<br />Nazis<br />Nazis<br />Sudetenland<br />Neville Chamberlain<br />
  32. 32. Battle of Britain<br />April 1940<br />July-October 1940<br />Sept 1, &apos;39<br />Soviets Expand West<br />Sept &apos;38<br />March &apos;39<br />1938<br />Vichy<br />
  33. 33. Blitzkrieg – “lightning war”<br />German attack strategy of WW II<br />Coordinated attack using aerial bombardment and fast moving armored divisions supported by troops<br />SPEED was key<br />
  34. 34. Germany flanks the Maginot Line<br />Italy also declares war on France<br />Germans establish “puppet government” in Vichy<br />Resistance continues to fight<br />Great Britain now stands alone<br />Fall of France<br />
  35. 35. Hitler in Paris<br />after the fall <br />of France in <br />May 1940<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Battle<br />of <br />Britain<br />July-October 1940<br />
  38. 38. Eugenics<br />Buck v. Bell (1927)<br />
  39. 39. Battle of Britain<br />April 1940<br />July-October 1940<br />Sept 1, &apos;39<br />Soviets Expand West<br />Sept &apos;38<br />March &apos;39<br />1938<br />Vichy<br />
  40. 40. US Reaction to the War<br />Americans were still determined to remain neutral, even though public opinion was set against the Axis Powers<br />After France fell, the US began a significant military build-up preparing for invasion <br /> (1940 – 66% thought Nazis were US threat)<br />First peace-time draft in history began<br />US begins supplying British <br />Destroyers for Bases Deal – Sept 1940<br />50 WWI destroyers in exchange for 8 defensive sites from Newfoundland to South America – term 99 years<br />
  41. 41. Opponents of Action<br />The Nye Report - 1936<br />Senator Gerald Nye led investigation into profiteering during WWI<br />Many corporations made HUGE profits during war <br />Banks who had loaned money to Europe had encouraged Wilson to seek declaration<br />Charles Lindbergh, Father Coughlin<br />America First Committee<br />“England will fight to the last American”<br />
  42. 42. Presidential Election<br />F.D. Roosevelt <br />W. Willkie<br />v.<br />
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  46. 46. Lend-Lease April 1941<br />Due to German bombing of Britain support for more direct support of Allies grows<br />Newly elected FDR gives Four Freedom’s Speech (speech, religion, from want, from fear)<br />Congress responded with Lend-Lease<br />Authorized president to supply any nation he deemed, “ vital to the defense of the US”<br />UK out of cash – We “lent” supplies<br />