Antiviral Agents
Understanding Viruses <ul><li>Viral Replication </li></ul><ul><li>A virus cannot replicate on its own. </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Understanding Viruses <ul><li>Viruses are difficult to kill because they live inside our cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Any drug...
Viral Infections <ul><li>Competent immune system: </li></ul><ul><li>Best response to viral infections </li></ul><ul><li>A ...
Antivirals <ul><li>Key characteristics of antiviral drugs: </li></ul><ul><li>Able to enter the cells infected with virus. ...
Antivirals <ul><li>Viruses killed by current antiviral therapy: </li></ul><ul><li>cytomegalovirus (CMV) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Antivirals: Mechanism of Action <ul><li>Inhibit viral replication </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit viral attachment </li></ul><ul...
Antivirals  Synthetic Purine Nucleoside Analogues <ul><li>Two types of nucleosides: </li></ul><ul><li>Purine nucleosides <...
Antivirals: Purine Nucleosides <ul><li>Agent Antiviral Activity </li></ul><ul><li>guanines </li></ul><ul><li>acyclovir HSV...
Antivirals: Pyrimidine Nucleosides <ul><li>Agent Antiviral Activity </li></ul><ul><li>cytosines </li></ul><ul><li>lamivudi...
Other Antivirals <ul><li>amantadine  (Symmetrel) and rimantadine (Flumadine) </li></ul><ul><li>influenza A </li></ul><ul><...
Antivirals:  Side Effects <ul><li>acyclovir </li></ul><ul><li>Burning when topically applied, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, ...
Antivirals:  Side Effects <ul><li>zidovudine (AZT) </li></ul><ul><li>Bone marrow suppression, nausea, headache </li></ul><...
Antivirals: Nursing Implications <ul><li>Before beginning therapy, thoroughly  assess underlying disease and medical histo...
Antivirals:  Nursing Implications <ul><li>Be sure to teach proper application technique for ointments, aerosol  powders, e...
Antivirals:  Nursing Implications <ul><li>Instruct patients to consult their physician before taking any other medication,...
Antivirals:  Nursing Implications <ul><li>Instruct patients on the importance of taking these medications exactly as presc...
Antivirals:  Nursing Implications <ul><li>Monitor for side effects: </li></ul><ul><li>effects are varied and specific to e...
Antivirals:  Nursing Implications <ul><li>Monitor for therapeutic effects: </li></ul><ul><li>effects will vary depending o...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

NurseReview.Org - Antivirals Updates (teaching pharmacology terminology for lpn nursing students)

6,694 views

Published on

Visit NurseReview.Org for more medical / nursing slides that will surely help you in your nle, nclex and cgfns exams

3 Comments
10 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • This is real take it serious, who will believe that a herb can cure herpes, i navel believe that this will work i have spend a lot when getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy, what i was waiting for is death because i was broke, one day i hard about this great man who is well know of HIV and cancer cure, i decided to email him, unknowingly to me that this will be the end of the herpes in my body, he prepare the herb for me, and give me instruction on how to take it, at the end of the one month, he told me to go to the hospital for a check up, and i went, surprisingly after the test the doctor confirm me negative, i thought it was a joke, i went to other hospital was also negative, then i took my friend who was also herpes positive to the Dr Agumagu, after the treatment she was also confirm negative . He also have the herb to cure cancer. please i want every one with this virus to be free, that is why am dropping his email address, agumaguspelltemple@outlook.com or agumaguspelltemple@gmail.com do email him he is a great man. the government is also interested in this DR, thank you for saving my life, and I promise I will always testify for your good work call his number +233200116937
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • excellent information. for those of you who needs more detailed info, checkout www.RNpedia.com
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Fioricet is often prescribed for tension headaches caused by contractions of the muscles in the neck and shoulder area. Buy now from http://www.fioricetsupply.com and make a deal for you.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
6,694
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
228
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
3
Likes
10
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

NurseReview.Org - Antivirals Updates (teaching pharmacology terminology for lpn nursing students)

  1. 1. Antiviral Agents
  2. 2. Understanding Viruses <ul><li>Viral Replication </li></ul><ul><li>A virus cannot replicate on its own. </li></ul><ul><li>It must attach to and enter a host cell. </li></ul><ul><li>It then uses the host cell’s energy to synthesize protein, DNA, and RNA. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Understanding Viruses <ul><li>Viruses are difficult to kill because they live inside our cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Any drug that kills a virus may also kill our cells. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Viral Infections <ul><li>Competent immune system: </li></ul><ul><li>Best response to viral infections </li></ul><ul><li>A well-functioning immune system will eliminate or effectively destroy virus replication </li></ul><ul><li>Immunocompromised patients have frequent viral infections </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer patients, especially leukemia or lymphoma </li></ul><ul><li>Transplant patients, due to pharmacological therapy </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS patients, disease attacks immune system </li></ul>
  5. 5. Antivirals <ul><li>Key characteristics of antiviral drugs: </li></ul><ul><li>Able to enter the cells infected with virus. </li></ul><ul><li>Interfere with viral nucleic acid synthesis and/or regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Some agents interfere with ability of virus to bind to cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Some agents stimulate the body’s immune system. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Antivirals <ul><li>Viruses killed by current antiviral therapy: </li></ul><ul><li>cytomegalovirus (CMV) </li></ul><ul><li>herpes simplex virus (HSV) </li></ul><ul><li>human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) </li></ul><ul><li>influenza A (the “flu”) </li></ul><ul><li>respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Antivirals: Mechanism of Action <ul><li>Inhibit viral replication </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit viral attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent genetic copying of virus </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent viral protein production </li></ul>
  8. 8. Antivirals Synthetic Purine Nucleoside Analogues <ul><li>Two types of nucleosides: </li></ul><ul><li>Purine nucleosides </li></ul><ul><li>guanine </li></ul><ul><li>adenosine </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrimidine nucleosides </li></ul><ul><li>thymine </li></ul><ul><li>cytosine </li></ul>
  9. 9. Antivirals: Purine Nucleosides <ul><li>Agent Antiviral Activity </li></ul><ul><li>guanines </li></ul><ul><li>acyclovir HSV 1 & 2, VZV </li></ul><ul><li>ganciclovir (DHPG) CMV retinitis and systemic CMV infection </li></ul><ul><li>ribavirin (RTCD) Influenza types A and B, RSV, LV, HV </li></ul><ul><li>adenosines </li></ul><ul><li>didanosine (ddl) HIV </li></ul><ul><li>vidarabine (Ara-A) HSV, herpes zoster </li></ul>
  10. 10. Antivirals: Pyrimidine Nucleosides <ul><li>Agent Antiviral Activity </li></ul><ul><li>cytosines </li></ul><ul><li>lamivudine (3TC) HIV </li></ul><ul><li>zalcitabine (ddC) HIV </li></ul><ul><li>thymine </li></ul><ul><li>idoxuridine (IDU) HSV </li></ul><ul><li>stavudine (d4T) HIV </li></ul><ul><li>trifluridine HSV </li></ul><ul><li>zidovudine (AZT) HIV </li></ul>
  11. 11. Other Antivirals <ul><li>amantadine (Symmetrel) and rimantadine (Flumadine) </li></ul><ul><li>influenza A </li></ul><ul><li>foscarnet (Foscavir) </li></ul><ul><li>CMV (retinitis and systemic) </li></ul><ul><li>Neuraminidase Inhibitors: oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) </li></ul><ul><li>influenza types A and B </li></ul>
  12. 12. Antivirals: Side Effects <ul><li>acyclovir </li></ul><ul><li>Burning when topically applied, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache </li></ul><ul><li>amantadine and rimantadine </li></ul><ul><li>Anticholinergic effects, insomnia, lightheadedness, anorexia, nausea </li></ul><ul><li>didanosine (ddl) </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathies, seizures </li></ul>
  13. 13. Antivirals: Side Effects <ul><li>zidovudine (AZT) </li></ul><ul><li>Bone marrow suppression, nausea, headache </li></ul><ul><li>foscarnet (Foscavir) </li></ul><ul><li>Headache, seizures, acute renal failure, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>ganciclovir (Cytovene) </li></ul><ul><li>Bone marrow toxicity, nausea, anorexia, vomiting </li></ul>
  14. 14. Antivirals: Nursing Implications <ul><li>Before beginning therapy, thoroughly assess underlying disease and medical history, including allergies. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess baseline VS and nutritional status. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess for contraindications, conditions that may indicate cautious use, and potential drug interactions. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Antivirals: Nursing Implications <ul><li>Be sure to teach proper application technique for ointments, aerosol powders, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize hand washing before and after administration of medications to prevent site contamination and spread of infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients should wear a glove or finger cot when applying ointments or solutions to affected areas. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Antivirals: Nursing Implications <ul><li>Instruct patients to consult their physician before taking any other medication, including OTC medications. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize the importance of good hygiene. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform patients that antiviral agents are not cures, but do help to manage symptoms. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Antivirals: Nursing Implications <ul><li>Instruct patients on the importance of taking these medications exactly as prescribed and for the full course of treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>With zidovudine: </li></ul><ul><li>Inform patients that hair loss MAY occur so that they are prepared for this rare adverse reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>This medication should be taken on an empty stomach. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Antivirals: Nursing Implications <ul><li>Monitor for side effects: </li></ul><ul><li>effects are varied and specific to each agent </li></ul>
  19. 19. Antivirals: Nursing Implications <ul><li>Monitor for therapeutic effects: </li></ul><ul><li>effects will vary depending on the type of viral infection </li></ul><ul><li>Effects range from delayed progression of AIDS and ARC to decrease in flu-like symptoms, decreased frequency of herpes-like flare-ups, or crusting over of herpetic lesions. </li></ul>

×