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NurseReview.Org - Antivirals Updates (teaching pharmacology terminology for lpn nursing students)
 

NurseReview.Org - Antivirals Updates (teaching pharmacology terminology for lpn nursing students)

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Visit NurseReview.Org for more medical / nursing slides that will surely help you in your nle, nclex and cgfns exams

Visit NurseReview.Org for more medical / nursing slides that will surely help you in your nle, nclex and cgfns exams

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    NurseReview.Org - Antivirals Updates (teaching pharmacology terminology for lpn nursing students) NurseReview.Org - Antivirals Updates (teaching pharmacology terminology for lpn nursing students) Presentation Transcript

    • Antiviral Agents
    • Understanding Viruses
      • Viral Replication
      • A virus cannot replicate on its own.
      • It must attach to and enter a host cell.
      • It then uses the host cell’s energy to synthesize protein, DNA, and RNA.
    • Understanding Viruses
      • Viruses are difficult to kill because they live inside our cells.
      • Any drug that kills a virus may also kill our cells.
    • Viral Infections
      • Competent immune system:
      • Best response to viral infections
      • A well-functioning immune system will eliminate or effectively destroy virus replication
      • Immunocompromised patients have frequent viral infections
      • Cancer patients, especially leukemia or lymphoma
      • Transplant patients, due to pharmacological therapy
      • AIDS patients, disease attacks immune system
    • Antivirals
      • Key characteristics of antiviral drugs:
      • Able to enter the cells infected with virus.
      • Interfere with viral nucleic acid synthesis and/or regulation.
      • Some agents interfere with ability of virus to bind to cells.
      • Some agents stimulate the body’s immune system.
    • Antivirals
      • Viruses killed by current antiviral therapy:
      • cytomegalovirus (CMV)
      • herpes simplex virus (HSV)
      • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
      • influenza A (the “flu”)
      • respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
    • Antivirals: Mechanism of Action
      • Inhibit viral replication
      • Inhibit viral attachment
      • Prevent genetic copying of virus
      • Prevent viral protein production
    • Antivirals Synthetic Purine Nucleoside Analogues
      • Two types of nucleosides:
      • Purine nucleosides
      • guanine
      • adenosine
      • Pyrimidine nucleosides
      • thymine
      • cytosine
    • Antivirals: Purine Nucleosides
      • Agent Antiviral Activity
      • guanines
      • acyclovir HSV 1 & 2, VZV
      • ganciclovir (DHPG) CMV retinitis and systemic CMV infection
      • ribavirin (RTCD) Influenza types A and B, RSV, LV, HV
      • adenosines
      • didanosine (ddl) HIV
      • vidarabine (Ara-A) HSV, herpes zoster
    • Antivirals: Pyrimidine Nucleosides
      • Agent Antiviral Activity
      • cytosines
      • lamivudine (3TC) HIV
      • zalcitabine (ddC) HIV
      • thymine
      • idoxuridine (IDU) HSV
      • stavudine (d4T) HIV
      • trifluridine HSV
      • zidovudine (AZT) HIV
    • Other Antivirals
      • amantadine (Symmetrel) and rimantadine (Flumadine)
      • influenza A
      • foscarnet (Foscavir)
      • CMV (retinitis and systemic)
      • Neuraminidase Inhibitors: oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza)
      • influenza types A and B
    • Antivirals: Side Effects
      • acyclovir
      • Burning when topically applied, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache
      • amantadine and rimantadine
      • Anticholinergic effects, insomnia, lightheadedness, anorexia, nausea
      • didanosine (ddl)
      • Pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathies, seizures
    • Antivirals: Side Effects
      • zidovudine (AZT)
      • Bone marrow suppression, nausea, headache
      • foscarnet (Foscavir)
      • Headache, seizures, acute renal failure, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
      • ganciclovir (Cytovene)
      • Bone marrow toxicity, nausea, anorexia, vomiting
    • Antivirals: Nursing Implications
      • Before beginning therapy, thoroughly assess underlying disease and medical history, including allergies.
      • Assess baseline VS and nutritional status.
      • Assess for contraindications, conditions that may indicate cautious use, and potential drug interactions.
    • Antivirals: Nursing Implications
      • Be sure to teach proper application technique for ointments, aerosol powders, etc.
      • Emphasize hand washing before and after administration of medications to prevent site contamination and spread of infection.
      • Patients should wear a glove or finger cot when applying ointments or solutions to affected areas.
    • Antivirals: Nursing Implications
      • Instruct patients to consult their physician before taking any other medication, including OTC medications.
      • Emphasize the importance of good hygiene.
      • Inform patients that antiviral agents are not cures, but do help to manage symptoms.
    • Antivirals: Nursing Implications
      • Instruct patients on the importance of taking these medications exactly as prescribed and for the full course of treatment.
      • With zidovudine:
      • Inform patients that hair loss MAY occur so that they are prepared for this rare adverse reaction.
      • This medication should be taken on an empty stomach.
    • Antivirals: Nursing Implications
      • Monitor for side effects:
      • effects are varied and specific to each agent
    • Antivirals: Nursing Implications
      • Monitor for therapeutic effects:
      • effects will vary depending on the type of viral infection
      • Effects range from delayed progression of AIDS and ARC to decrease in flu-like symptoms, decreased frequency of herpes-like flare-ups, or crusting over of herpetic lesions.