State of Cassandra, 2011
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  • 1. State of Cassandra 2011Jonathan EllisApache ChairCTODataStax
  • 2. Job Trends from Indeed.com 2  
  • 3. Customer and Verticals•  Financial•  Social Media•  Advertising•  Entertainment•  Energy•  E-tail•  Health care•  Government 3  
  • 4. Why?Why?   4   4  
  • 5. 5  
  • 6. Why Cassandra?Why  Cassandra?   6   6  
  • 7. Better technology•  Multi-master, multi-DC•  Linearly scalable•  Larger-than-memory datasets•  Best-in-class performance (not just writes!)•  Fully durable•  Integrated caching•  Tuneable consistency 7  
  • 8. Tunable Consistency WRITE READ Level Level ANY ONE ONE LOCAL_QUORUM LOCAL_QUORUM QUORUM QUORUM ALL ALL
  • 9. Generalizes Easily to Multi-DC 9  
  • 10. 0.7•  CREATE COLUMN FAMILY•  Expiring columns (TTL)•  Secondary (column) indexes•  Efficient streaming 1 0  
  • 11. 0.8•  CQL•  Counters•  Automatic memtable tuning•  New bulk load interface 1 1  
  • 12. A performance retrospective 1 2  
  • 13. October 8, 2011Road to 1.0 13  
  • 14. Theme: polish•  Repair•  Compaction•  Optimize reads for update-heavy workloads•  CQL 1.1 1 4  
  • 15. Repair•  Consistency is checked per-ColumnFamily but data is transferred per-Keyspace•  Merkle trees requests are sent en masse, but may not execute start at the same time 1 5  
  • 16. Compression•  Rows-per-block or blocks-per-row 1 6  
  • 17. Read Performance: Compaction 1 7  
  • 18. Level-based Compaction•  SSTables are non-overlapping within a level•  Bounds the number that can contain a given row L2: 1000 MB L1: 100 MB L0: newly flushed 1 8  
  • 19. Read performance: maxtimestamp•  Sort sstables by maximum (client-provided) timestamp•  Only merge sstables until we have the columns request•  Allows pre-merging highly fragmented rows without waiting for compaction 1 9  
  • 20. CQLcqlsh> SELECT * FROM users WHERE state=UT AND birth_date > 1970;!
        KEY | birth_date |         full_name | state |
 bsanderson |       1975 | Brandon Sanderson |    UT |   2 0  
  • 21. CQL 1.1•  ALTER•  Counter support•  TTL support•  Compound columns•  Prepared statements 2 1  
  • 22. Post-1.0•  Ease of use• Ease of use• Ease of use 2 2  
  • 23. Post-1.0 features•  “Native” CQL transport•  Triggers•  Entity groups•  Smarter range queries 2 3  
  • 24. Brisk•  Analytics for your realtime data without ETL•  Widens scope of Cassandra’s applicability•  Also: Solandra 2 4  
  • 25. QuestionsQues/ons?   25   25