World History II – March 2012
 Stalin is distrustful of the West
 U.S. and Great Britain had taken
so long to open the second front
against Germany (N...
 Truman Doctrine (March 12, 1947)
 We must contain communism and keep it from spreading by
sending money and troops to s...
 The Marshall Plan (1948)
 Based on the premise that communism thrives only in
economically backward countries
 Giving ...
 The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan establish an official
anti-communist policy for the U.S. and can be seen as the
be...
 Western Allies introduced new Deutschmark to stabilize
West Germany’s economy
 Stalin feared that this would threaten h...
 Resolution of
the Berlin
Crisis leads to
the formation
of NATO
(1949) and the
Warsaw Pact
(1955)
Dawn of the Cold War
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Dawn of the Cold War

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  • P, Cz, H, R, and B occupied by soviet troops when liberated from Nazis and forced to establish communist governments
    Y became communist on their own so avoided occupation
  • Greece: civil war between communist guerillas and democratic gov’t (supported by Brits but Brits are out of money).
  • Berlin is in Soviet zone. 3 land and 3 air routes into the city from Western zones.
  • Dawn of the Cold War

    1. 1. World History II – March 2012
    2. 2.  Stalin is distrustful of the West  U.S. and Great Britain had taken so long to open the second front against Germany (Normandy landing)  U.S. possession and use of atomic bomb against Japan  Deep ideological differences between communism and capitalism  Stalin wants to maintain a “buffer zone” in Eastern Europe  Winston Churchill describes this communist expansion as an “iron curtain”
    3. 3.  Truman Doctrine (March 12, 1947)  We must contain communism and keep it from spreading by sending money and troops to support any country in danger of falling under Soviet control “This is no more than a frank recognition that totalitarian regimes imposed upon free peoples, by direct or indirect aggression, undermine the foundations of international peace, and hence the security of the United States.”
    4. 4.  The Marshall Plan (1948)  Based on the premise that communism thrives only in economically backward countries  Giving large amounts of aid to European countries will  Deprive communist of poor countries to take over  Save Western Europe from Communism  Provide the U.S. with stable trade partners and markets  U. S. offered aid to any country (including USSR)  USSR and satellites in Eastern Europe refused aid
    5. 5.  The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan establish an official anti-communist policy for the U.S. and can be seen as the beginning of the Cold War  A period of hostility and competition between the U.S. and the USSR that always stopped short of direct war between them
    6. 6.  Western Allies introduced new Deutschmark to stabilize West Germany’s economy  Stalin feared that this would threaten his dominance in East Germany and throughout Eastern Europe  Stalin cut utilities in West Berlin and closed western routes into the city  Western Allies must decide:  Abandon West Berlin and risk more communist aggression?  Crash blockade and risk war with the Soviets?  Third option: air lift all supplies to West Berlin  Continue round-the-clock flights only 30 seconds apart for 11 months  Stalin lifts the blockade, and the crisis ends
    7. 7.  Resolution of the Berlin Crisis leads to the formation of NATO (1949) and the Warsaw Pact (1955)
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