WEWF COMENIUS PROJECT FRENCH PREPARATOTY TASK 3RD MEETING RISTIINA FINLAND
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WEWF COMENIUS PROJECT FRENCH PREPARATOTY TASK 3RD MEETING RISTIINA FINLAND

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WEWF COMENIUS PROJECT FRENCH PREPARATOTY TASK 3RD MEETING RISTIINA FINLAND Presentation Transcript

  • 1. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 1 1) WHO DOES WATER BELONG TO? 2) WATER QUALITY? 3) WHAT DO WE DRINK? b) WHAT DO WE DO WITH WASTE WATER? a) HOW DO WE GET DRINKABLE WATER?
  • 2. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 2 1) WHO DOES WATER BELONG TO? DRINKABLE WATER PUBLIC SERVICE An action for the population organized by the government DISTRIBUTION PURIFICATION 14217 water services 17 228 water services In France: 36 000 city councils More than 31 000 water services!!!75% of the city councils are together. 44% of the city councils are together. 60,9 million inhabitants 57,3 million inhabitants
  • 3. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 3 1) WHO DOES WATER BELONG TO? A PUBLIC SERVICE BUT 2 KINDS OF ADMINISTRATIONS DIRECT ADMINISTRATION DELEGATE ADMINISTRATION The city council manages by itself the whole or a part of the production, the distribution and the purification of water. The city council asks a private company to manage the whole or a part of the production, the distribution and the purification of water, but the city council is very involved in the decision. DIRECT ADMINISTRATION DELEGATE ADMINISTRATION Distribution services Number of services 9 809 4 408 Population (in million inhabitants) 24,8 36,1 Purification services Number of services 13 320 3 908 Population (in million inhabitants) 33,2 24,1
  • 4. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 4 2) WATER QUALITY? a) HOW DO WE GET DRINKABLE WATER? Illustration of a typical drinking water treatment process.
  • 5. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 5 2) WATER QUALITY? a) HOW DO WE GET DRINKABLE WATER? Illustration of a typical drinking water treatment process. Step 1: Coagulation. First, dirt and other particles must be removed from the water. Flocculants are chemicals such as alum (aluminum potassium sulfate) that cause the dirt and other particles to stick together; flocculants are added to the water, which creates larger particles called floc.
  • 6. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 6 2) WATER QUALITY? a) HOW DO WE GET DRINKABLE WATER? Illustration of a typical drinking water treatment process. Step 2: Sedimentation. As the water moves through the sedimentation tanks, the floc particles settle to the bottom of the tank. The clear water then flows to a filtration unit.
  • 7. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 7 2) WATER QUALITY? a) HOW DO WE GET DRINKABLE WATER? Illustration of a typical drinking water treatment process. Step 3: Filtration. Filtration removes small particles from the water by passing it through layers of sand, gravel and charcoal. The water then moves to disinfection before storage.
  • 8. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 8 2) WATER QUALITY? a) HOW DO WE GET DRINKABLE WATER? Illustration of a typical drinking water treatment process. Step 4: Disinfection. Water is disinfected with chlorine or other chemicals, called disinfectants, to kill any bacteria and other harmful organisms. The amount of disinfectants added to the water has to be carefully adjusted, because too much may be harmful to humans, but too little will not kill the harmful organisms.
  • 9. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 9 2) WATER QUALITY? a) HOW DO WE GET DRINKABLE WATER? Illustration of a typical drinking water treatment process. Step 5: Storage. After disinfection, the water is stored in storage tanks until it is needed for distribution to homes, businesses, and other water users.
  • 10. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 10 2) WATER QUALITY? b) WHAT DO WE DO WITH WASTE WATER?
  • 11. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 11 2) WATER QUALITY? b) WHAT DO WE DO WITH WASTE WATER? Step 1: Pumping. Wastewater treatment facilities are usually located on low ground so that gravity will move sewage from homes to the treatment plant. Usually, pumps are needed to lift the sewage as it enters the treatment facility. The treatment facility uses gravity to move the wastewater through the treatment process.
  • 12. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 12 2) WATER QUALITY? b) WHAT DO WE DO WITH WASTE WATER? Step 2 : Bar screen. As it enters the treatment plant, wastewater may contain large items such as plastic bottles, cans, sticks, rocks, and even dead animals. These items are removed by the bar screen and sent to a landfill. If they are not removed, they will damage equipment in the treatment plant. Step 3 : Grit chamber. After screening, wastewater enters the grit chamber in which larger particles (such as sand or dirt) settle out of the water. Often, the water is aerated (air is bubbled through it) to keep smaller particles from settling out. Aeration causes some of the gases that are dissolved in the water (e.g. hydrogen sulfide that smells like rotten eggs) to be released.
  • 13. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 13 2) WATER QUALITY? b) WHAT DO WE DO WITH WASTE WATER? Step 4 : Sedimentation tank. In the sedimentation tank (also known as the primary clarifier), solids settle to the bottom as sludge and scum floats to the top. The sludge is pumped out of the primary clarifier and sent to the solids processing facility. The scum is composed of lighter materials such as grease, oil, soap, and so forth. Slow-moving rakes are used to collect the scum from the surface of the wastewater.
  • 14. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 14 2) WATER QUALITY? b) WHAT DO WE DO WITH WASTE WATER? Step 5 : Secondary aeration and clarifier. The wastewater is exposed to air in an aerator, which provides oxygen for microorganisms that help break down contaminants in the water. This may be done by spraying the wastewater into the air or by bubbling air through the wastewater. The aerated effluent is passed into a secondary clarifier, which is a large tank or pond; in the clarifier, microorganisms decompose organic material and absorb nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The microorganisms and remaining solids settle out of the effluent as activated sludge. Most of the activated sludge is pumped to the solids processing facility, while the remaining sludge is pumped into the wastewater entering the aerator. This introduces additional microorganisms to the wastewater to hasten the breakdown of organic matter.
  • 15. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 15 2) WATER QUALITY? b) WHAT DO WE DO WITH WASTE WATER? Step 6: Filtration. Filtration may be used to further reduce the organic matter in the water. The water is filtered through a substance, usually sand and rocks. During this filtration process, most bacteria are removed, turbidity and color in the wastewater are reduced, odors are removed, the amount of iron content in the wastewater is reduced, and any other solids that may have remained in the water are also removed. This water may subsequently be filtered again through a carbon filter such as charcoal to remove organic particles.
  • 16. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 16 2) WATER QUALITY? b) WHAT DO WE DO WITH WASTE WATER? Step 7 : Disinfection. To kill remaining harmful bacteria and other pathogens in the processed wastewater, chlorine and other chemicals are added in a disinfection tank. The chlorine can be harmful if added in excess quantities. (You may have noticed the smell of chlorine or have had irritated eyes when you were exposed to chlorine in a swimming pool.) Therefore, in some cases, the chlorine must be neutralized with other chemicals after it has killed the bacteria to protect marine organisms
  • 17. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 17 2) WATER QUALITY? b) WHAT DO WE DO WITH WASTE WATER? Step 8 : The treated water that is released by the plant is called effluent. The effluent is usually released into a local river or the ocean. In some places, this water may be used for landscaping (e.g. to water lawns or golf courses), but not for drinking purposes.
  • 18. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 18 2) WATER QUALITY? b) WHAT DO WE DO WITH WASTE WATER? Step 9 : Solids processing. Solids include the sludge and scum removed in the sedimentation tank and the activated sludge removed from the secondary clarifier. These solids may be processed further in devices called digesters, which are heated and enclosed tanks. The solid wastes are kept in these tanks for 20–30 days to reduce the volume of the material, reduce odors, and also destroy any organisms that have the potential to cause disease. Depending on the source and composition of the wastewater, the digested solids are either sent to a landfill or used as fertilizer for crops. The use of the processed solid wastes as fertilizers is usually done only after careful testing for any potential dangerous contamination.
  • 19. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 19 3) WHAT DO WE DRINK? Marque nature Price for 1 litre type Tap water tap water water: 0,019€ (water+ purification): 0,036€ Plain water Label 1 BADOIT An 1 litre bottle 0,85€ Sparkling water Mineral water from 2 to 3 litres per day for a 5 person family Label 2 CONTREX An 1 litre bottle 0,39€ Plain water Mineral water Label 3 EVIAN An 1 litre bottle 0,43€ Plain water Mineral water Label 3 CRISTALLINE An 1 litre bottle 0,33€ Plain water Spring water
  • 20. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 20 Badoit Country France Source St. Galmier Type still/sparkling pH 6 Calcium (Ca) 190 Chloride (Cl−) 40 Bicarbonate (HCO3) 1300 Fluoride (Fl) 1 Magnesium (Mg) 85 Potassium (K) 10 Silica (SiO2) 35 Sodium (Na) 150 Sulfates (SO) 40 TDS 1200 All values in milligrams per liter (mg/l)
  • 21. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 21 Country France Source Contrexéville Société Nestlé Waters Type still Elements Proportion in mg/L Calcium (Ca2+) 486 Magnesium (Mg2+) 84 Sodium (Na+) 9,1 Potassium (K+) 3,2 Sulfate (SO42-) 1187 Hydrogencarbonate (HCO3-) 403 Nitrate (NO3-) 2,7 Fluorides 0,33 Chlorides 10
  • 22. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 22 Country France Source Évian-les-Bains Type still pH 7.2 Calcium (Ca) 80 Chloride (Cl−) 6.8 Bicarbonate (HCO3) 360 Magnesium (Mg) 26 Nitrate (NO3) 3.7 Potassium (K) 1 Silica (SiO2) 15 Sodium (Na) 6.5 Sulfates (SO) 12.6 Website http://www.evian.com All values in milligrams per liter (mg/l)
  • 23. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 23 Spring water Sainte-Cécile Sainte-Sophie Calcium 39 67 Magnesium 25 26 Sodium 19 84 Potassium 1,5 20 Fluorides < 0,3 0.9 Hydrogencarbonates 290 473 Sulfates 5 61 Chloride 4 32 Résidu sec à 180 °C 270 564 pH 7,7 7,4
  • 24. MIKKELI, 12th-16th MAY 2014 24 PAGES 2&3 : adapted from http://www.eaufrance.fr/IMG/pdf/spea2009_201202_synthese.pdf PAGES 4-9 : By CK-12 Foundation (File:High_School_Engineering.pdf, page 73) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons PAGES 10-18 : By CK-12 Foundation (File:High_School_Engineering.pdf, page 75) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons PAGES 20 : CC-BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.fr) Source : Article Badoit of Wikipédia in English (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Badoit). PAGES 21 : By CC-BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.fr) Source : Article Contrex de Wikipédia en anglais (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contrex), PAGES 22 : By CC-BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.fr) Source : Article Evian de Wikipédia en anglais (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evian). PAGES 23 : By CC-BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.fr) Source : Article Cristaline de Wikipédia en français (http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cristaline).