Aral Sea Detailed Revision
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Aral Sea Detailed Revision

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Aral Sea Detailed Revision Presentation Transcript

  • 1. When will I see you again? The Three Degrees The Aral Sea Causes Impacts Solutions
  • 2. What can you remember about the Aral Sea?
  • 3. Location
    • Between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
    • Very arid region - the lowlands of Turan
    • Fed by the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers
    • It was the fourth largest lake in the world
  • 4. Causes
    • In the 1960s Central Asia was assigned the role of ‘supplier of raw materials’
    • Population doubled to 27 million by the 1980s
    • The Amu Darya delta was used to grow rice and cotton
    • Rapid irrigation development:
      • 4.5million ha in 1960
      • 7million ha in 1980
  • 5. Causes
    • Vast amounts of water were diverted from the the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers (Mississippi > small stream)
    • Huge use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides such as DDT
    • Rapidly constructed irrigation system was unlined and lacked decent drainage
  • 6. 1977 1989 2006 Problem 1: the Aral sea began to shrink
  • 7. Problem 2: Increased Salinisation. The mineral content of the lake went from 10g/L to 40g/L (sea water is 35g/L). This was poisonous to most species of fish and other wildlife. 60,000 people abandoned their livelihoods in fishing.
  • 8. Problem 3: Health issues
    • Chemicals and salts had contaminated the surface and ground water supplies
    • TB, Cancers, heart problems, asthma and blood diseases increased dramatically
    • Drinking water contains high concentrations of metals
    • Increased mortality rate (especially children)
  • 9. Problem 4: Desertification
    • The central planners had not foreseen the possibility of desertification: by 1990 95% of wetlands and marshes had become deserts.
    • The climate of the region was changed
    • Summers are shorter, but much hotter and with hardly any rainfall
    • Winters are longer, colder and without snowfall
    • Dust storms occur on 90 days per year
    • Exposed soils are erroded by strong NE winds: every year 100 million tonnes of chemical and salt laden dust is blown for thousands of miles
  • 10. Solutions
    • A dam was constructed across the Berg Strait allowing water levels in the North Aral Sea to increase. This was initiated by Kazakhstan and supported by the World Bank. Water is now heading back towards the northern port of Aralsk (at one point 80km away).
  • 11. Solutions
    • By repairing old canals and creating a collector-drainage network water is being returned to the Amu Darya Delta.
    • Flora and fauna have been reestablished and fish catches are rising.
    • With more fresh fish in people’s diets, health is also improving.
  • 12. Solutions
    • The UNDP attempted to provide clean water to 426 communities.
    • However many pumps were faulted or installed incorrectly.
    • 75% became contaminated within the first year
  • 13. Solutions
    • With US funding, the Agency for International Development has implemented two project
      • A reverse osmosis plant at Dashhowuz in Turkmenistan
      • Chlorination facilities in the Amu Darya Delta
  • 14. Solutions
    • The International Aral Sea Rehabilitation Fund (IFAS) and 55 Muslim countries have raised funds to begin a range of programmes to stabilise the ecosystem and improve water management.
    • So far 800 large water-pipe systems have been installed, bringing fresh water to 29 settlements.
    • In addition to this they have created hospitals, jobs and pension plans to assist those directly and indirectly affected by disease and unemployment.
  • 15. Solutions
    • Salt-tolerant crops introduced
    • Water fees and fines in some areas
    • MSF is implementing the UN DOTS programme to combat TB
  • 16. An annotated sketch map will help you to revise. North/South Aral Sea Berg Strait Amu Darya Syr Darya Amu Darya Delta Aralsk Dashhowuz