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ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop
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ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop

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Presentation to qualitative data analysis processes and software presented at the ISEOR-Academy of Management conference in Lyon France, June 2010.

Presentation to qualitative data analysis processes and software presented at the ISEOR-Academy of Management conference in Lyon France, June 2010.

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  • 1. Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research: A Practical Perspective of a Study Supported by Qualitative Data Analysis Software from Inception to Completion.
    ISEOR-RMD Joint Conference
    Lyon France
    June, 2011
    Dr. Joseph B. Baugh, PMP
    Baugh Group LTD
    University of Phoenix
  • 2. Agenda
    Why do Qualitative Research?
    Who will benefit from Qualitative Data Analysis Software (QDAS)
    Data Collection and Analysis Processes
    Describing QDAS
    QDAS (Atlas.ti®) demonstration
    Assigning primary documents
    Using codes and memos
    Producing reports
    Q & A
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    2
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
  • 3. Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research
    Coursework alone may not effectively prepare applied researchers.
    QDAS formerly disdained by many researchers (Morison & Moir, 1998).
    QDAS now acceptable and desirable
    Frees up time once spent in data management and encoding (Blank, 2004; Mangabeira, Lee & Fielding, 2004).
    Allows more time to understand the data, enhance analysis, improve the impact of the research.
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    3
  • 4. Why Use QDAS for Research?
    Unlike quantitative research with its heavy reliance on Likert surveys and other sterile instruments as primary data collection tools, qualitative research requires the use of a variety of field methods (Eaves, 2001; Robson, 2002) to capture rich data in its native context that will allow the researcher to adequately explore particular phenomena within the native environment and draw credible conclusions from the data.
    QDAS supports and enables exploration.
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    4
  • 5. QDAS Researcher Populations
    Baugh, Hallcom, and Harris (2009) identified three potential user groups
    Academic researchers
    Ex: Classic theory-driven researchers w/ extensive research experience
    Experienced in sound research methodologies, develop robust studies and results
    Market researchers
    Ex: Applied researchers w/ some research experience
    Studies driven by specific business constraints, which may strain study credibility
    Software adopters
    Ex: Project managers w/ little research experience
    Adopters of specific tools, may not use scientifically.
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    5
  • 6. Qualitative Research Continua
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    6
  • 7. Qualitative Data Collection Tools & Techniques
    Interviews
    Focus groups
    Facilitated workshops
    Group creativity techniques
    Questionnaires
    Surveys
    Observations
    Documentation
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    7
  • 8. Data Collection: Field Studies
    Get out in the field to collect data and study social phenomena in native environment
    Develop rapport with participants
    Be aware of researcher biases
    Researcher affects the case or the case affects the researcher (Miles & Huberman, 1994)
    Preconceived notions may skew analyses (Malterud, 2001; Robson, 2002)
    Seek disconfirming evidence (Creswell, 1998; Eisenhardt, 1989; Sadler, 1981)
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    8
  • 9. Data Collection: Questionnaires
    • Easy to study specific phenomena
    • 10. Purposeful sampling
    • 11. Easy to deploy
    Cheaper than a field study
    Internet questionnaires don’t require transcription services
    No travel expenses
    Minimal cost for Internet survey services
    • Not as much fun as a field study
    • 12. Response rates can be problematic
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    9
  • 13. Data Collection Processes
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    10
  • 14. Managing the Data
    "Qualitative data can easily become overwhelming, even in small projects . . . During and after data collection, you have to reduce the data mountain through the production of summaries and abstracts, coding, writing memos, etc." (Robson, 2002, p. 476)
    How can we accomplish this recommended reduction as we collect and analyze the raw data?
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    11
  • 15. Qualitative Data Analysis Software
    Encode qualitative data
    Allow multiple levels of encoding
    Develop emerging themes and patterns
    Attach memos to data segments
    Develop reports
    Use refined data to create narrative in the words of the participants (Creswell, 1998) who lived the experiences (Denzin, 2001; Kvale, 1996).
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    12
  • 16. Using QDAS in the Wild
    Use Qualitative Data Analysis Software (QDAS) to reduce the raw data to common themes and patterns through encoding.
    Provisional start list (Miles & Huberman, 1994)
    Create new codes as themes emerge
    Differentiate multiple levels of codes
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    13
  • 17. Data Analysis Processes
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    14
    QDAS is very useful for these processes
  • 18. QDAS Caveats
    QDAS can support well-designed and implemented studies:
    QDAS is very effective at organizing, managing, and tracking data, which allows the researcher to spend more time contemplating the data.
    Word frequency counts are not data analyses, they are just hints of the themes and patterns hidden in the raw data, the researcher still must dig them out.
    Remember that QDAS is just a tool, it can’t - and shouldn’t - do your thinking for you. (Morison & Moir, 1998).
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    15
  • 19. QDAS Packages
    Several popular programs are available to support qualitative data analysis:
    Atlas.ti from www.atlasti.com
    Ethno 2 from www.indiana.edu/%7Esocpsy/ESA/
    Ethnograph from www.qualisresearch.com
    NVivo from www.qsrinternational.com
    Qualrus from www.ideaworks.com/qualrus/index.html
    Most 3rd Generation QDAS packages have similar features, perhaps different naming conventions
    This demonstration will focus on Atlas.ti
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    16
  • 20. QDAS Example: Atlas.tiAssigning Primary Documents
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    17
  • 21. QDAS Example: Atlas.ti®Encoding Data
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    18
  • 22. QDAS Example: Atlas.ti®Managing Memos
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    19
  • 23. QDAS Example: Atlas.ti®Generating Code Reports
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    20
  • 24. QDAS Example: Atlas.ti®Generating Code Reports
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    21
  • 25. QDAS Example: Atlas.ti®Generating Code Reports
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    22
  • 26. QDAS Example: Atlas.ti®Developing Networks
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    23
  • 27. Using QDAS in the Wild
    Develop a thick description of the phenomena under study (Denzin, 2001; Geertz, 1973).
    Use participant quotes to place the findings back into context in the words of the participants (Creswell, 1998; Stake, 1995)
    Develop the final report.
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    24
  • 28. Conclusion
    Qualitative research studies can help uncover complex social phenomena that are beyond the reach of classic quantitative research methodologies
    Require a scholarly approach to develop credible results
    Use multiple tools and techniques to collect data
    Use QDAS to ease the pain of analyzing a mountain of data, which can improve the impact of qualitative research
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
    25
    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
  • 29. Questions
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
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    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh
    drjoe(at)baughgroup.com
  • 30. References
    Baugh, J. B., Hallcom, A. S., & Harris, M. E. (2010a). Computer assisted qualitative data analysis software: A practical perspective for applied research. Revista del InstitutoInternacional de Costos, (6), 69-81.
    Baugh, J. B., Hallcom, A. S., & Harris, M. E. (2010b, June). Changes that make a difference: Attaining a PhD while maintaining an active life. Proceedings of the ISEOR – Academy of Management International Conference and Doctoral Consortium on Organizational Development and Change (Vol. 1, CD-ROM). Lyon France: ISEOR.
    Blank, G. (2004). Teaching qualitative data analysis to graduate students. Social Science Computer Review, 22(2), 187-196.
    Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among the five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Denzin, N. K. (2001). Interpretive interactionism (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Eaves, Y. D. (2001). A synthesis technique for grounded theory data analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35, 654-663.
    Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. In A. M. Huberman & M. B. Miles (Eds.), The qualitative researcher's companion (pp. 5-35). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.
    Kvale, S. (1996). Interviews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Malterud, K. (2001, August 11). Qualitative research: Standards, challenges, and guidelines. The Lancet, 358, 483-488.
    Mangabeira, W. C., Lee, R. M., & Fielding, N. G. (2004). Computers and qualitative research: Adoption, use, and representation. Social Science Computer Review, 22(2), 167-178.
    Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Morison, M., & Moir, J. (1998). The role of computer software in the analysis of qualitative data: Efficient clerk, research assistant, or Trojan horse? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28, 106-116.
    Robson, C. (2002). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers (2nd ed.). Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing.
    Sadler, D. R. (1981). Intuitive data processing as a potential source of bias in naturalistic evaluations. In A. M. Huberman & M. B. Miles (Eds.), The qualitative researcher's companion (pp. 123-135). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
    Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France
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    © 2011 Joseph B. Baugh

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