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Research paper senior project

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  • 1. Bartley 1Josh BartleyMs. TilleryBritish LiteratureOctober 3, 2011 The History of Basketball From Germany to France, to England, and Africa the game of basketball is playedworldwide by many. The earliest basketball type game has been dated back to about 1500 AD. Ithave been understood that the early on Olmec natives of ancient Mexico were the first to play it.The Aztec, as well as Mayan cultures also had a game similar to basketball; just in its place of arubber ball they used a decapitated skull of their fallin foes. The basketball was created by inventor Dr. James Naismith. Dr Naismith was born in1861, in Ontario, Canada (Nelson). Dr Naismith attended both colleges McGill University, andPresbyterian college in Montreal, Quebec Canada (History of Basketball). After collegeNaismith became a teacher at McGill University, he taught physical education. After spending acouple years at McGill University, he transferred to Springfield College in Springfield,Massachusetts which was then the Y.M.C.A training school (Baker). During his time atSpringfield College he was given the task of creating a game during winter months which couldbe played indoors in a relatively small place by American phys-ed specialist Luther HalseyGulick (Belles). The first basketball game took place on January 20th, 1892 in Springfield, Massachusetts(History of Basketball). The first game consisted of 18 payers, with nine on each side. Naismithwrote 13 simply, and nailed up two peach baskets for hoops. Sense neither Naismith nor the
  • 2. Bartley 2YMCA had the money to create a new ball they used a soccer ball. Halfway through the gameWilliam R. Chase made the ball go into the peach basket, and became the first player to score ina basketball game. During this match it was someone who suggested the name of this sport becalled basketball. Within a few years the game began to grow in popularity and many facilities began toacquire more players. However within a decade of the creation basketball, numerous centersbegin to ban the game, because of the rough style used to play this game. Still while bannedmany other groups began to form basketball leagues such as, the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU)and Intercollegiate Athletic Association (IAA). The first professional basketball leagues whereall local leagues within the larger east coast cities. The original know game took place onNovember 7, 1896. The game was played in Trenton New Jersey between the Trenton YMCAand the Brooklyn YMCA. Trenton defeated Brooklyn 15-1 to win the first ever professionalbasketball game. A couple years after the first basketball was played, six teams fromPhiladelphia and New Jersey formed to create the National Basketball League (NBL). Manybasketball leagues throughout the time did not last that long, the NBL itself barely lasted 5seasons. During the year of 1901, colleges began to sponsor games. In the beginning only a fewcolleges participated and they were Yale, Minnesota, Dartmouth, Columbia, Chicago, Utah andNavy. Inspired by President Theodore Roosevelt in the summer of 1910, they formed theIntercollegiate Athletic Association (IAA). During this time the game of basketball wasconsidered a sport to watch, only when hockey or a football game wasn’t on. This all changed in1925 when the American basketball league (ABL) was formed. The ABL was a collection ofteams owned by small individual corporations, but with the great depression around a lot of the
  • 3. Bartley 3teams started to separate and drop out. After a couple of years, the ABL resumed to start of itsseason again. At first many fans could not afford to go to the games let alone eat, but under theadministration of Roosevelt the economy grew. Many fans could finally afford to go to gamesand cheer on their favorite teams. During the time the top team was the SPHAS. SPHAS stoodfor South Philadelphia Hebrew Association. Even though the top team, the SPHAS was facedwith many struggles. Various Americans felt that the Jewish bankers were accountable for theeconomic depression that hit America. Even while faced with many trouble the SPHAS as wellas other leagues continued on. Eventually the association began to grow in addition to economygetting better. A new group called the American Nazi party threatened to sue the SPHAS if theycontinued to play in the ABL. Many American who were apart of the American Nazi partyattended the games just to harass the SPHAS players but many were arrested during the games. During the 1930s, season many players came and went mainly, because they neededbetter paying jobs to feed their family. It was through the 1937-38, seasons the IntercollegiateAthletic Association (IAA) announced that they would hold a one and out eliminationtournament all march to determine the better team and who would be the champion. This wasnone as March Madness. Teams would be ranked according to the division and overall record.The IAA announced that it would change its name to National Collegiate Athletic Associationalso known nowadays as the NCAA. With the NBL on the rise, and the ABL declining owners from America’s largest cities(Lehman), as well as one Canadian owner decided to create a new league in the larger markets tocompete with the NBL and ABL. The league was called the Basketball Association of America
  • 4. Bartley 4(BAA). Players earned about $2,000 dollars’ month, and would get another $2,000 dollars if theywon the title. Over time many Owners from the NBL and BAA decided to meet after both theleagues had finished their seasons. Owners on both sides were concerned over teams and playersconstantly jumping leagues. On August 3rd, 1949 all the team owners had come to a satisfyingagreement; the six remaining NBL teams would join with the BAA, the resulting 17 team leaguewould be called the National Basketball Association (NBA) and have three divisions of five tosix teams. This would be the creation of the NBA. In the beginning the NBA took a lot of criticism for having too slowed a pace in thegame. Teams would usually walk the ball up the court so their big men could set up down low orteams with good guards would dribble out the clock. So the NBA came up with a solution tocounter this; the 24-second Shot clock (Rules of Basketball), even though it was not used inevery game, it increased the pace and speed of the game, as well as the scoring. The NBA alsoadopted new foul rules. This put teams in the penalty after its fifth foul of a quarter (Edelman). As the decade came to a close the NBA had made a full improvement and was on the rise(History of Basketball). With little as only nine teams being disbanded during a short 11 yearrun, the league still trailed Baseball in America’s favorite sport and in the markets (history ofbasketball). In little time the attendance of basketball began to rise higher then football in somecities. Thanks to our Forefathers we are now left with an exciting new game for guys such as BillRussell, Wilt Chamberlain, Michael Jordan, & Jerry West to enjoy, not to mention the millionsof fans worldwide.
  • 5. Bartley 5 CitationsBaker, William A. “Basketball.” Gail. Ed. Colin A. Palmer. N.P., 2006. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/ retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&inPS=true&prodId=GVRL&u serGroupName=cant48040&tabID=T003&searchId=R1&resultListType=RESULT_LIS T&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=1&contentSet=G ALE|CX3444700117&&docId=GALE|CX3444700117&docType=GALE&role=>. This article is about how basketball first got started.“Basketball Playing Tips.” Inside Hoops. N.P., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://www.insidehoops.com/gym/tips.shtml>. This article gives tips on Playing Basketball.Bellis, Marry. “Basketball - James Naismith (1861-1939).” inventors.about. N.P., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blbasketball.htm>. This article talks about the Inventor of the Basketball.Edelman, Rob. “National Basketball Association.” Gail. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. N.P., 2002. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/ retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&inPS=true&prodId=GVRL&u serGroupName=cant48040&tabID=T003&searchId=R3&resultListType=RESULT_LIS T&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=6&contentSet=G ALE|CX3425100364&&docId=GALE|CX3425100364&docType=GALE&role=>. This article is on the history of the national basketball association. (NBA)
  • 6. Bartley 6“The History of Basketball.” finding Dulcinea. N.P., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://www.findingdulcinea.com/guides/Sports/Basketball.pg_0.html#0>. This article talks about the Origins of Basketball. Along with how it first got started.“History of Basketball.” Kansas Heritage. N.P., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://www.kansasheritage.org/people/naismith.html>. This article talks about the Inventor of the Basketball.“History of Basketball.” think quest. N.P., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://library.thinkquest.org/10615/no-frames/basketball/history.html>. This article is on the History of Basketball.Lehman, Jeffrey. “Sports.” Gail reference library. Gail, 2006. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/ retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&inPS=true&prodId=GVRL&u serGroupName=cant48040&tabID=T003&searchId=R2&resultListType=RESULT_LIS T&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=1&contentSet=G ALE|CX3410400037&&docId=GALE|CX3410400037&docType=GALE&role=>. This article is about Basketball, and how it first got started.Nelson, Murry R. “Basketball.” Gale reference library. Ed. Gary S. Cross. Gail, 2004. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. This article talks about the history of basketball.“The Rules of Basketball.” finding Dulcinea. N.P., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <http://www.findingdulcinea.com/guides/Sports/Basketball.pg_00.html#00f>. This article explains all of the Rules of Basketball.