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Mr. Hodge's Powerpoint on Feudalism

Mr. Hodge's Powerpoint on Feudalism

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    Hodge powerpoint Hodge powerpoint Presentation Transcript

    • FEUDALISM & the MANORIAL SYSTEM
    • Feudalism
      Within 100 years of Charlemagne’s death
      Large-scale government in Europe had disappeared
      By 900’s most Europeans were government by small, local leaders
      Most often by lords
      The political organization these leaders represented is known as feudalism
    • Feudalism
      The system
      A powerful noble granted land to a lesser noble
      The actual land remained with the noble who made the grant
      Grant allowed the lesser noble to maintain himself and his family
      Lesser noble promised loyalty, military assistance and other services to the lord who granted the land
    • FEUDALISM
      The person who granted the land was a lord
      The grant of land was known as a fief
      The person who received the fief was a vassal
      The vassal could further grant this land to others such as knights
      The vassal was now a lord as well
      Primogeniture – system of inheritance from father to eldest son
    • FEUDALISM
      Women’s rights regarding legal property were limited
      Women could have fiefs in their dowry
      When they married the land passed to their husband
      Women usually gained control of the property if her husband died
    • FEUDALISM
      Kings also bound by the customs and obligations of feudalism
      The medieval church was part of the system
      Owned vast amounts of land
      Had many vassals who were granted fiefs in return for military service and protection
    • FEUDALISM
      Warfare – common during the Middle Ages
      Fights between feudal lords, or vassals and lords
      These were local conflicts that include only a few nobles and their knights
      A few were large scale events involving large regions and were very destructive
    • FEUDALISM
      Knights wore armor in battle and were heavily armed
      Armor
      Chain mail – small inter-locking metal links stitched to a knee length shirt
      Iron helmet and carried a sword, a large shield and a lance
      Later overlapping metal plates replaced metal links
    • FEUDALISM
      Knights had to have a crane lift them on their horses – Clydesdales
      Wars for nobles meant an opportunity for glory and wealth
      For most people war caused great suffering and hardship
    • FEUDALSIM
      The church tried to limit hardship by issuing several degrees banning violence near churches
      Forbade violence against
      Cattle and agricultural equipment
      Clergy, women, merchants and pilgrims
      Fighting on weekends and holy days
      Private wars continue until kings became strong
    • FEUDALISM
      Feudal justice
      Trail decided in one of three ways
      Trial by battle; could be a duel between accuser and accused or their representative
      Compurgation; oath taking by witnesses
      Trial by ordeal; determined on how the accused survived the ordeal
    • THE MANORIAL SYSTEM
      Manorial System shaped the economy of Europe during the Middle Ages
      Manors were large farming estates
      Manor houses, cultivated lands, woodlands, pastures and villages
      Provided central authority and organized trade
      People were self-sufficient
      Produced food, clothing and shelter
      Purchased iron, salt, wine and manufactured goods
    • The Manorial System
      A lord and several peasant families shared the land of the manor
      Lord kept 1/3 of the manor for himself (Domain)
      Peasants farmed the remaining 2/3’s
      In return they gave the lord
      Some crops
      Helped farm his land
      Provided other services and paid many kinds of taxes
    • THE MANORIAL SYSTEM
      Manor village located on a stream or river which provided waterpower for the village mill
      For safety small cluster of homes near the manor house or castle
      Land surrounding the manor house
      Village
      Vegetable plots and cultivated fields
      Pastures and forests
      Only two of the three fields would be planted
    • THE MANORIAL SYSTEM
      Peasant life
      Spend long hours at backbreaking work in the fields
      See primary source on p 297
      Called serfs – could not leave the land without permission
      Meals
      Black bread
      Lentils
      Some veggies
      Ale
      Rarely had meat
    • THE MANORIAL SYSTEM
      Peasant life
      Life spans short
      Disease
      Starvation
      Frequent warfare
      Most lived, worked and died in the village they were born in
    • THE MAORIAL SYSTEM
      Nobles’ lifestyles
      Generally did not live in luxury as one might think
      Castle
      Usually built on hills
      Early structures were made of wood – later stone
      If on flat land a moat was constructed to protect it
      Keep
      Main part of castle
      Lord lived here
      tower
    • THE MANORIAL SYSTEM
      Nobles’ lifestyles
      Lord or head of a peasant family depended on his wife and children for help
      Marriage viewed as a way to advance one’s fortune
      Lord would provide dowries
      Among peasants children were often welcomed as a source of labor
    • THE MANORIAL SYSTEM
      Chivalry – a code of conduct which brought changes to the Middle Ages
      System of rules that dictated knights’ behavior towards others
      Courageous fighter
      Loyal to his friends
      Fight fairly
      Be courteous to women and less powerful
      Treat conquered foes gallantly
      Only required to extend courtesy to his own class
      Could be rude and bully others