Nmsa Integrated Curriculum Handout

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Nmsa Integrated Curriculum Handout

  1. 1. 11/23/09 +Using + GOALS: Participants will be able to … Understanding by Design   …use concepts to find authentic connections among content areas to Integrate   …create integrated curriculum that attends Curriculum equally to all subject matter   …construct learning experiences that foster student understanding and motivation Kristina J. Doubet, Ph.D.   …create performance assessments that James Madison University encompass standards DoubetKJ@jmu.edu And, in the process, address NMSA Standards 3,4,5 + + PROs and CONS Requirements – NMSA SPAs   Standard 3 Middle Level Curriculum and Assessment – Middle level masters candidates understand and analyze the major concepts, principles, theories, and research related to middle level curriculum and assessment, and they  Whyis Integrated apply that knowledge in the practice.   K1. Understand that middle level curriculum should be relevant, inviting, Curriculum important? challenging, integrative, and exploratory. K3. Understand the interdisciplinary nature of knowledge and how to explore   and make connections among subject areas and life situations.  Whatare its P2. Use current knowledge and standards from multiple subject areas in   planning, integrating, and implementing middle level curriculum. drawbacks? What   P4. Develop and implement an integrated and integrative curriculum. makes it difficult to Standard 4 Middle Level Teaching Fields: Middle level masters candidates understand and analyze the major concepts, principles, theories, standards, create/ implement? and research related to their teaching field(s), and they apply that knowledge in their practice.   K1. Possess a depth and breadth of knowledge in one or more teaching fields.   K2. Know how to use content knowledge to make interdisciplinary connections.   P4. Teach in ways that help young adolescents understand the integrated nature of knowledge. 1
  2. 2. 11/23/09 + +  Integrate curriculum through What is a more authentic connections “Concept”?  Make sure one content area does not control the others  Combine the study of integration An “big idea” word – usually an abstract noun – that acts as a with the study of assessment and “lens” through which to view content. Concepts can serve as planning “umbrellas” to unite related ideas. Paraphrased from Lynn Erikson, 2003 Sample Concepts How is Perspective Important to…   Math:   Perspective/perception   Graphs and charts give us a visual perspective of numerical   Judgment/Decision-making relationships.   Style/Uniqueness   English:   Connectedness/connection   Interdependence   The perspective from which a story is told affects all other parts of the story.   Big Picture   Community   Communication   Social Studies:   Unity   Relationships   To fully understand a conflict or event, we must examine it from   Inquiry   Reflection multiple perspectives.   Voice   Tolerance   Power   Collaboration/sharing   Science:   Conflict   Survival   “Scale” brings our perspectives closer to reality.   Variation   Compensation/adaptation 2
  3. 3. 11/23/09 + Concepts in Action Each content area has its unique challenges and concerns, however they share uniting concepts. Using these concepts, we can find meaningful POWER ways to integrate curriculum. Where do you have it? Where do you lack it? “Expert teachers know the structure of their disciplines, and this knowledge provides them with cognitive roadmaps that guide the assignments they give students, the assessments they use to gauge students’ progress, and the questions they ask in the give and take of “Shrew” Characters “Shrew” Characters who classroom life. In short, their knowledge of the who had it (and why): lacked it (and why): discipline and their knowledge of pedagogy interact.” They are, therefore, able to anticipate the ‘conceptual barriers’ that may keep students from understanding the content, and proactively develop methods for helping students to circumvent these roadblocks.” The degree of power we have is determined by both ourselves and our contexts. Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. + Basic UbD Template + Standards  Goal: Lesson, Unit, or Course Level Big Ideas with Transfer Power  Role: Those that fall under this “Umbrella” Related Facts and Skills  Audience: Authentic/ Performance Ongoing Summative and Formative  Situation: -Based and Assessments formative (GRASP)  Product/Performance: Lesson Plans Put “wheels on” the KUDs 3
  4. 4. 11/23/09 + Planning a focused curriculum means clarity about what students should:   Goal: To assemble the best short fiction available to young UNDERSTAND: readers into one volume   “Big Idea” statements   Contain concepts   Role: Editor of a Short Fiction Anthology   Hold “Transfer Power”   Principles/Generalizations   Audience: Publisher KNOW:   Situation: You are compiling an anthology entitled, Now and Then: A   Facts Collection of Short Fiction from Established and Emerging Authors. You must decide which stories you will include. You can draw from   Vocabulary stories read in class other stories of your choosing, and/or stories written by your classmates. You must advertise your inclusion- BE ABLE TO DO: Skills   Basic Skills (Read non-fiction text) criteria, which should reflect our unit’s UKDs and EQ-s.   Thinking Skills (analyze, solve, compare/contrast, discriminate fact/ fiction)   Product: An annotated Prospectus explaining and defending your   Skills Of the Discipline (What does an mathematician do? Engineer?) inclusion choices   Planning (Goal setting, use of time)   Social (cooperation, sharing) + + Understandings: “Understand” Objectives These are the conceptual objectives you have for your students. They are statements that…   Essential truths that give meaning to the topic •  …Usually revolve around and contain important   Statements that have “transfer power” or allow students to concepts investigate content through a variety of modes or on a variety of levels •  …Represent big ideas that have enduring value   Stated as a full sentence beginning with the phrase, beyond the classroom. “Students should understand THAT…” (not “how” or “why”) •  …Reside at the heart of the discipline and are worthy of exploration   Examples: Students will understand that…   …multiplication is another way to do addition. •  …Require “uncoverage” rather than coverage (of   …people migrate to meet basic needs. abstract or often misunderstood ideas)   …all cultures contain the same elements.   …entropy and enthalpy are competing forces in the natural world. •  …Offer potential for engaging students   …voice reflects the author’s perspective & background. Tomlinson ‘03 Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. 4
  5. 5. 11/23/09 + Examples of Understandings + “Know” Objectives Students will understand that… English  …fiction is a reflection (or refraction) of fact.   Facts, names, dates, places, information and  …the fiction of a given time period reflects peoples’ values during that time period. vocabulary; also includes procedural aspects  …one’s writing is a reflection of him/her self   Examples: Math:   There are 50 states in the U.S.   …the dimensions of a shape exist in an interdependent relationship with its other dimensions; change to one dimension results in changes in it other dimensions.   Thomas Jefferson – the third president of the United   …mathematical patterns help up decode the universe. States (and other biographical data).   1492 – the year that Columbus is reported to have Social studies: discovered the Americas  …all cultures have beliefs, roles, traditions, economies, and technologies.   “The Continental Divide” – a divide separating river  …a people changes and is changed by its culture.*  …a people’s cultural norms reflects its beliefs and values. systems that flow to opposite sides of a continent   The multiplication tables Science:   The steps of the scientific method  …life is organized into systems (ecosystem, respiratory system, cell system, etc.)  …systems are comprised of interdependent parts; change to one part of an   We can usually find these in our state standards system results in change in its other parts.* Tomlinson ‘03 + + These Understands, Knows, or Dos? Are “Be-Able-To-Do” Objectives Based on Virginia’s SOLs  Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, (Find the concepts in the Understandings) skills of independence, social skills, skills of production)   SCIENCE •  Design an experiment in which one variable is manipulated over  Verbs or verb phrases (not the whole activity) many trials. •  An experiment is a structured test of a hypothesis.  Examples: •  Accurate observations and evidence are necessary to draw realistic and plausible conclusions.   Analyze text for meaning   Solve a problem to find perimeter   HISTORY   Write a well-supported argument •  Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and interpretation.   Evaluate work according to specified criteria •  Exploration and colonization results in the redistribution of   Contribute to the success of a group or team population.   Use graphics to represent data appropriately •  The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and German-speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and   We can usually find these in our state standards economic opportunity. Tomlinson ‘03 5
  6. 6. 11/23/09 + These Understands, Knows, or Dos? Are Based on NC’s EOG’s (Find the concepts in the Unders.) Ancient Egypt   ENGLISH UNDERSTAND THAT: •  An author’s voice reflects his/her perspective. • A culture is defined by its government, religion, geography, customs, technologies, and products. •  Point of view refers to the authors choice of narrator for his/her • Clues about one part of a culture provides insight into other its story. other aspects. •  Project the student’s voice into his/her work through reflective interpretation of prior events KNOW: • Specific aspects of Egyptian Culture (government, religion,   MATH geography, technologies, products, customs) •  Apply geometric properties and relationships, including the Pythagorean theorem. BE ABLE TO: •  The formula for the area of a triangle is (½)bh. • Formulate and confirm theories about how ancient Egyptians built pyramids •  The dimensions of a figure exist in an interdependent • Make connections among pyramids and other aspects of Egyptian relationship with the figure’s perimeter, area, and volume. culture (government, religion, geography, technologies, products, customs) Also – Identify the concepts present in the Understandings. + + Concepts in Action Concept INTRODUCING INTERDEPENDENCE Understandings Interdependence: A situation in which the parts of a = system depend upon and are affected by all of the other Big Idea parts; change to or action by one part of an "Knows" Statements interdependent system brings about change in/action = by the other parts of that system. Facts "Be able to Dos" • Music • Science Pick one of the systems listed on = • Relationships the left, and discuss with a Skills partner how the parts of that • Dance system work together in an • Self-Reflection interdependent fashion. • Sports 6
  7. 7. 11/23/09 + + Interdependence Interdependence Understanding: Understanding: Change to one element of a Change to one component of story will result in change to an ecosystem will bring about the other elements. change in the other parts. Facts: Facts: Definitions of Definitions of setting, plot, point Skills: ecosystem, Skills: of view, conflict...  Analyze the impact of historical habitat, predator,  Determine the make up of a particular perspective on a piece of writing. prey, scarcity, etc. ecosystem.  Determine the effects of a story’s  Analyze cause and effect relationships point of view. within an ecosystem (etc.). Science Example Language Arts Example   Concept: Perspective   Concept: Perspective   Lesson Topic: Characterization   Topic: Solar System   Understand:   Understand that… We figure out what characters are like by perceiving their   The human perspective does not necessarily reflect the reality of words and actions; different people may perceive the spatial relationships. same character in different ways.   “Scale” brings our perspectives closer to reality.   Know:   Know: Definition of characterization; different ways to describe   Distance between planets and their moons, other planets, and the characters earth; what causes the seasons; ratio, scale   Do:   Characterize a main and supporting character.   Do:   Discover and analyze distances and convert to ratios   Describe a character from 2 different characters’   Create scale models, illustrations, etc. of solar system perspectives and note/explain differences.   Analyze the impact of distance on other natural phenomena. 7
  8. 8. 11/23/09 + Math Example Courtesy of Chicopee HS Teachers History Example  Concept: Perspective  Concept: Perspective  Lesson Topic:World Leaders  Lesson Topic: Graphing Linear Inequalities  Understand:   Understand: We can figure out what leaders are like by perceiving their words and actions; different people may perceive the same   The solutions of linear inequalities provide a visual leader in different ways. perspective on coordinate planes.  Know:   Know:   Coordinate plane (def.); linear inequality (def. and sample Important national and world leaders; different solutions); linear inequalities have an infinite # of solutions biographical facts and contributions of different leaders   Do:  Do:   Graph the appropriate line   Describe a national or world leader.   Choose a point on either side of the line   Distinguish how that leader would appear from 2 different   Test the point to determine if it satisfies the inequality characters’ perspectives   Shade the side that contains the solutions   Analyze the effects of perspective on description + + UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN “Understand” Objectives BACKWARDS DESIGN   Essential truths that give meaning to the topic IAL   Statements that have “transfer power” or allow students ENT to investigate content through a variety of modes or on a ESS variety of levels OUT S? T AB STION   Stated as a full sentence beginning with the phrase, WH A “Students should understand THAT…” (not “how” or QUE “why”)   Examples: Students will understand that…   …the human perspective does not necessarily reflect the reality of spatial relationships.   … different people may perceive the same leader in different ways.   …graphs and charts give us a digestible perspective of large amounts of data; we choose a certain graph to present a certain perspective.   …authors employ literary techniques in order to manipulate the reader’s perspective of characters, conflicts, etc. 8
  9. 9. 11/23/09 + + Essential Questions: “Understand” Objectives Deep questions that will help students “unpack”   Essential truths that give meaning to the topic the understandings   Statements that have “transfer power” or allow students to investigate content through a variety of modes or on a  Students will understand THAT…the human variety of levels perspective does not necessarily reflect the reality   Stated as a full sentence beginning with the phrase, of spatial relationships. “Students should understand THAT…” (not “how” or  What about our human perspective is limiting? “why”)  How do we judge the accuracy of our   Examples: Students will understand that…   …the human perspective does not necessarily reflect the reality of perceptions? spatial relationships.   … different people may perceive the same leader in different ways.  In what ways can we discern the truth?   …graphs and charts give us a digestible perspective of large amounts of data; we choose a certain graph to present a certain perspective.   …authors employ literary techniques in order to shape the reader’s perspective of characters, conflicts, etc. + + Essential Questions: “Understand” Objectives Deep questions that will help students “unpack”   Essential truths that give meaning to the topic the understandings   Statements that have “transfer power” or allow students to investigate content through a variety of modes or on a Students will understand THAT…different variety of levels people may perceive a leader in different ways.   Stated as a full sentence beginning with the phrase, “Students should understand THAT…” (not “how” or   What colors our perceptions of leaders? “why”)   Are these perceptions constant or can they change?   Examples: Students will understand that…   Whatmight change someone’s perspective of a   …the human perspective does not necessarily reflect the reality of spatial relationships. leader?   … different people may perceive the same leader in different ways.   Why do different people perceive the same leader in   …graphs and charts give us a digestible perspective of large amounts of data; we choose a certain graph to present a certain perspective. different ways?   …authors employ literary techniques in order to shape the reader’s perspective of characters, conflicts, etc. 9
  10. 10. 11/23/09 + + Essential Questions: “Understand” Objectives Deep questions that will help students “unpack” the understandings  Students will understand THAT… …graphs and charts give us a digestible perspective of large amounts of data; we choose a certain graph to present a certain perspective.   Whatare the advantages of each type of graph? What perspectives do they afford?   How do we determine which graph to use?   Is manipulating our graph choice the same as manipulating the truth? Why or why not? + + Essential Questions: “Understand” Objectives Deep questions that will help students “unpack”   Essential truths that give meaning to the topic the understandings   Statements that have “transfer power” or allow students  Students will understand THAT… authors to investigate content through a variety of modes or on a variety of levels employ literary techniques in order to shape the reader’s perspective of characters,   Stated as a full sentence beginning with the phrase, “Students should understand THAT…” (not “how” or conflicts, etc. “why”)   How can literary techniques influence our perspectives?   Are some literary techniques more effective than others in   Examples: Students will understand that…   …the human perspective does not necessarily reflect the reality of shaping perspective? spatial relationships.   How do authors select the proper tool for the appropriate   … different people may perceive the same leader in different ways. purpose?   …graphs and charts give us a digestible perspective of large amounts of data; we choose a certain graph to present a certain perspective. .   Can different readers emerge with different perspectives   … authors employ literary techniques in order to shape the reader’s of the same character, conflict, etc.? If so, why? perspective of characters, conflicts, etc. 10
  11. 11. 11/23/09 + + Unit consists of both Team and Individual components:   TEAM – Representatives from each content area developed the  How do we following:   Concepts which ALL parties agreed were central to their disciplines (e.g., conflict, change, power) put this into   Understandings – containing these concepts –which all parties agreed were central to their disciplines (e.g., “Conflict produces change.”) action?   INDIVIDUALS   Standards-based, content-specific unit topics that would revolve around the concepts and understandings developed by the group   Associated facts and skills for each individual’s content area and the state/national standards to which they corresponded + + Basic UbD Template Standards (Continued) Lesson, Unit, or Course Level Big Ideas with Transfer Power   TEAM designed a “Group GRASP” Performance Assessment that would… Those that fall under this “Umbrella” Related Facts and Skills   …assess the general understandings developed by the team   …assess the facts and skills from each individual unit were naturally addressed by the Group Grasp   …be assessed by a common rubric (which the team developed) Authentic/ Ongoing Summative and Formative Performance and Assessments   EACH INDIVIDUAL developed… -Based formative   … his/her own complete UBD unit for his/her content’s topic, complete with Stage 3 “Learning Plan”(lesson plans with formative assessments) Lesson Plans   … a test which measured all of the Understandings, Facts, and Skills which were NOT assessed by the Group GRASP Put “wheels on” the KUDs 11
  12. 12. 11/23/09 + X + Those addressed by both individual and group portions (*= Group) Subject-Specific Subject-Specific Understandings Essential ?s Understandings w/ Essential Questions common to all 4 common to all 4 same concepts as Disciplines Disciplines Group portion Facts/Skills from each discipline that fit All Facts/Skills addressed by both What does the under these conceptual umbrellas What did the individual and group portions (*=Group) TEAM portion Group GRASP INDIVIDUAL Summative Test look like in UbD Performance portion look like and key (to address Formative X UKDs and Assessments used Assessment and in each Lesson Format? Rubric which addressed all of in UbD Format? standards not addressed by (described in “Learning Plan”) Group Grasp) the above. 5-7 days of lesson plans in prescribed X design format (Hook, etc.) + +   Goal  To protect endangered wildlife. Questions to Consider:   Role  Local environmentalist or specific animal advocate   Does each unit use concepts to find authentic connections   Audience  Congressmen and Virginia state representatives, wildlife among content areas? experts, chemical engineers who specialize in pollution control   Do the integrated curriculum units attend equally to all content   Situation  Choose one local plant and one local animal from same areas (or are three in service to one)? location (land area or water). Consider how a change in the environment regarding pollution/litter could affect how this plant and   Does each GRASP present students with learning experiences animal have their needs met. Persuade the community and state that foster student understanding, inquiry, and motivation representatives to help protect these organisms   Does each performance assessments encompass standards?   Performance Task  Design a campaign and create a bill. The campaign and bill will incorporate research about selected plant and   Does this assignment address NMSA Standards 3,4, and 5? animal – including statistics (in the form of graphs) – as support in its effectively and persuasively written prose. It will include documentation to reflect all stages of the lawmaking process. 12

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