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    formative assessment formative assessment Document Transcript

    • Black & Wiliam (1998) Assessment in Education, p. 61 • “As an illustration of just how big these gains are, an effect size of .70, if it could be achieved on a nationwide scale, would be equivalent to raising the mathematics attainment score of an ‘average’ country like England, New Zealand or the United States into the ‘top five’ after the Pacific rim countries of Singapore, Korea, Japan and Hong Kong” (Beaton et al, 1996) 100 100 Increase of 49%ile 80 80 Increase of 34%ile to 99%ile %ile improvement increase %ile improvement increase to 84%ile 28%ile increase 13%ile increase to 78%ile 60 60 to 63%ile Starting percentile Starting percentile Starting percentile Starting percentile 50th 50th 50th 50th 40 40 20 20 0 0 Teacher Student Teacher Student assessment Achievement assessment Achievement effectiveness effectiveness Like most things in education, classroom assessment enhances John Hattie—reviewed 7,827 studies on learning and instruction. student achievement under certain conditions only. Conclusion… “The most powerful single innovation that enhances achievement • Feedback from classroom assessments should provide students with a clear picture of is feedback. The simplest prescription their progress on learning goals and for improving education must be how they might improve ‘dollops’ of feedback.” • Feedback from classroom assessment should encourage students to improve. • Classroom assessment should be formative in nature. • Formative classroom assessments should be quite frequent. 1
    • Tracking My Own Learning Student Name______________________ Date__________ Topic ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ My score at beginning:_______________ My goal:_________ by ______________ 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0 a b c d e f g h Pretest 2/12 (48%) a________________ e________________ Quiz 2/15 (60%) b________________ f_________________ Quiz 2/19 (60%) c________________ g________________ d________________ h________________ 2
    • • Feedback from classroom assessments should provide students with a clear picture of their progress on learning goals and how they might improve •Identify one grade level (or course) learning goal per quarter o r per Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan, 1991 semester for each of the following subject areas: mathematic, reading, # of studies Characteristic of Feedback from Percentile writing, science, and social studies. Classroom Assessment Gain/Loss •Construct a rubric, or other type of common scale, for each learning goal. 6 Right/wrong -3 •Have teachers formally and informally assess each learning goal at least once every two weeks keeping track of each student’ s score on each 39 Provide correct answers 8.5 learning goal. (Use of appropriate computer software is highly recommended) 30 Criteria understood by 16 student vs. not understood •Have students keep track of their progress on each goal and use the data as the basis for teacher/student interactions about student progress. 9 Explain 20 •Periodically (at least, once per quarter) aggregate the data by grade 4 Student reassessed until 20 level. Have teachers meet to discuss student progress and how it might correct be improved • Feedbackfrom classroom assessments should provide students with a clear A. Items 1-1 0 picture of Ten items that require recall of their progress on learning goals and Total for section= important but simpler content how they might improve that was explicitly taught Fuchs & Fuchs 1988 B. Items 11-14 # of studies Characteristic of Feedback Percentile 32 from Classroom Assessment Gain/Loss Four items that ask for 49 Evaluation by rule application of complex content Total for section= that was explicitly taught AND in 89 [uniform way of Displaying results 26 situations similar to what was graphically interpreting results taught. 49 of classroom Evaluation by rule 32 C. Item 15-16 assessments using [uniform way of interpreting results of a tight logic) Two items that asks for Total for section= classroom assessments application in novel situations using a tight logic) that go beyond what was explicitly taught Total /100 A. Items 1-1 0 A. Items 1-1 0 Ten items that require recall of Ten items that require recall of /40 /40 Total for section= Total for section= important but simpler content important but simpler content that was explicitly taught that was explicitly taught + All correct B. Items 11-14 B. Items 11-14 Four items that ask for Four items that ask for application of complex content application of complex content /40 /40 Total for section= Total for section= that was explicitly taught AND in that was explicitly taught AND in situations similar to what was situations similar to what was Two correct + taught. taught. C. Item 15-16 C. Item 15-16 Two items that asks for Two items that asks for /20 Total for section= Total for section= /20 application in novel situations application in novel situations None correct that go beyond what was that go beyond what was explicitly taught explicitly taught Total /100 Total /100 3
    • A. Items 1-1 0 Ten items that require recall of Total for section= 40/40 important but simpler content that was explicitly taught All correct + B. Items 11-14 Four items that ask for application of complex content Total for section= 20/40 that was explicitly taught AND in situations similar to what was Two correct taught. + C. Item 15-16 Two items that asks for Total for section= 0/20 application in novel situations None correct that go beyond what was explicitly taught Total 60 /100 4 A generic template for 3 The student’s responses rubric design demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes (THAT WERE EXPLICITLY TAUGHT) 2 1 0 4 4 The students responses demonstrate no major errors or ’ 3 omissions regarding any of the information and/or The student’s responses demonstrate no 3 processes major errors or omissions regarding any of The students responses indicate major errors or ’ the information and/or processes 2 omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes; however they do not indicate major errors or 2 The student’s responses omissions relative to the simpler details and processes indicate major errors or 1 The student provides omissions regarding the responses that indicate a more complex ideas and distinct lack of processes; however they do understanding of the not indicate major errors or knowledge. However, with omissions relative to the help, the student simpler details and demonstrates partial processes 1 understanding of some of the knowledge. 0 0 4
    • 4 In addition to exhibiting level 4 3 performance, the student’s The students responses demonstrate no major errors or ’ 3 responses demonstrate in- omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes depth inferences and The students responses indicate major errors or ’ 2 omissions regarding the more complex ideas and applications that go beyond processes; however they do not indicate major errors or omissions relative to the simpler details and processes what was taught in class The student provides responses that indicate a distinct 1 lack of understanding of the knowledge. However, with The students responses demonstrate no major errors or ’ 3 help, the student demonstrates partial understanding of omissions regarding any of the information and/or some of the knowledge. processes 0 The student provides little or The students responses indicate major errors or ’ 2 omissions regarding the more complex ideas and no response. Even with help processes; however they do not indicate major errors or omissions relative to the simpler details and processes the student does not exhibit The student provides responses that indicate a distinct 1 lack of understanding of the knowledge. However, with a partial understanding of help, the student demonstrates partial understanding of some of the knowledge. the knowledge. The student provides little or no response. Even with help 0 the student does not exhibit a partial understanding of the knowledge. Scale Three Types of Items In addition to exhibiting level 3 performance, in-depth inferences and applications 4 that go BEYOND what was taught in class. • Level 2 items: Simpler details and processes No major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes 3 (SIMPLE OR COMPLEX) that were explicitly taught that have been explicitly taught. No major errors or omissions regarding the SIMPLER details and processes BUT 2 • Level 3 items: Complex ideas and processes major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes 1 that have been explicitly taught. With HELP, a partial knowledge of some of the simpler and complex details and processes • Level 4 items: Inferences and applications that Even with help, no understanding or skill demonstrated. 0 go beyond what was taught Patterns of Responses Patterns of Responses • Student answers L2 items correctly but not • Student answers L2 items correctly but not L3 and L4 items. (2.0) L3 and L4 items. • Student answers L2 and L3 items correctly • Student answers L2 and L3 items correctly but not L4 (3.0) but not L4 • Student misses all items, but with help can • Student misses all items, but with help can answer some correctly (1.0) answer some correctly • Students misses all items even when • Students misses all items even when helped (0.0) helped 5
    • Scale In addition to exhibiting level 3 performance, in-depth inferences and applications 4 that go BEYOND what was taught in class. The complete scale allows for No major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes 3 (SIMPLE OR COMPLEX) that were explicitly taught half-point scores No major errors or omissions regarding the SIMPLER details and p rocesses BUT 2 major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes (3.5, 2.5, 1.5, .5) 1 With HELP, a partial knowledge of some of the simpler and complex details and processes Even with help, no understanding or skill demonstrated. 0 Scale A. Items 1-10 Level 2.0 Ten items that require recall of In addition to exhibiting level 3 performance, in-depth inferences and applications 4 that go beyond what was taught in class. important but simpler content 3.5 In addition to exhibiting level 3 performance, partial success at in-depth that was explicitly taught + All correct inferences and applications that go beyond what was taught in class. No major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes 3 B. Items 11-14 Level 3.0 (SIMPLE OR COMPLEX) that were explicitly taught Four items that ask for 2.5 No major errors or omissions regarding any of the simpler information and/or processes and partial knowledge of the more complex information and processes. application of complex content that was explicitly taught AND in No major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes BUT 2 major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes situations similar to what was Two correct + 1.5 Partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes, but majo r errors or taught. omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes. C. Item 15-16 Level 4.0 With help, a partial knowledge of some of the simpler and complex details and 1 processes. Two items that asks for .5 With help, a partial knowledge of some of the simpler details and processes but application in novel situations not of the more complex ideas and processes. None correct that go beyond what was Even with help, no understanding or skill demonstrated. 0 explicitly taught Rubric Score: Averages and Trend A. Items 1-10 Level 2.0 Scores Ten items that require recall of Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 important but simpler content 2.0 3.0 2.0 that was explicitly taught 1.5 2.0 1.0 + All correct 2.0 2.0 1.5 B. Items 11-14 Level 3.0 3.0 2.5 2.0 Four items that ask for 2.5 3.0 2.0 application of complex content 3.0 2.0 2.5 that was explicitly taught AND in 3.0 3.0 3.0 situations similar to what was Two correct + taught. 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.5 C. Item 15-16 Level 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 Two items that asks for application in novel situations Average 2.55 2.60 2.35 None correct that go beyond what was Trend 3.00 2.71 3.00 explicitly taught Score Rubric Score:2.5 6
    • In search of the “true score” Power Law 100 • True Score=Observed Score + Error 90 80 70 • SAT SEM= 33 points learning 60 50 •GRE SEM = 45 points 40 30 20 10 0 1 rep 10 20 100 1000 2000 3000 4000 reps reps reps reps reps reps reps 1.0 2.5 1.5 2.0 2.5 2.0 2.0 2.0 Making Standards-Based Reporting Work • 20 or fewer elements per subject, per grade level, per year • a residual category for teacher supplemental content • a uniform way of scoring assessments and assignments that is RIGOROUS 7
    • Language Arts Reporting Topics If you wanted to teach all of the standards in the national documents, you would have to change schooling from K-12 to K-22 . • Reading – Comprehension • 255 standards across 14 subject areas – Word analysis • 3,500 benchmarks – Genre and literary devices • 13,000 hours of class time available – The research process • 9,000 hours of instruction available – Information gathering and organization • 15,500 hours of instruction needed to – Technical material cover the 3,500 benchmarks Language Arts Reporting Topics Language Arts Reporting Topics • Writing • Speaking and Listening – The writing process – Structure and logic of presentations – Overall logic and complexity of thought – Delivery techniques – Adaptation to audience and purpose – Listening comprehension – Conventions – Group discussion – Use of writing formats Mathematics Reporting Topics Mathematics Reporting Topics • Number Operations and Concepts • Geometry – Basic number concepts and operations – Lines and angles – Fractions, proportions, decimals,& percents – Shapes and figures – Exponents, roots, & factors – Motion geometry, transformations, congruence, & similarity – Problem solving & mathematical reasoning 8
    • Mathematics Reporting Topics Mathematics Reporting Topics • Measurement • Algebra – Units and systems of measurement – Expressions, equations, & functions – Area, perimeter, circumference,& angles – Graphs and graphing systems – Capacity, weight, mass, & volume – Time Topic Grade 8: Atmospheric Processes & Water Cycle Mathematics Reporting Topics 4 An understanding of: 3 • Data Analysis and Probability •How the water cycle processes (condensation, – Data organization and display precipitation, surface run-off, percolation, evaporation) impact climate changes – Central tendency & dispersion •The effects of temperature and pressure in different layers – Probability and hypothesis testing of Earth’ s atmosphere 2 1 0 Topic Grade 8: Atmospheric Processes & Water Cycle Topic Grade 6-8: Assignments & Work Completion 4 4 An understanding of: •Hand in assignment that meet format requirements 3 3 •How the water cycle processes (condensation, precipitation, surface run-off, percolation, evaporation) impact climate changes •The effects of temperature and pressure in different layers of Earth’s atmosphere specified by teacher •Recognize and recall basic terms such as: climactic 2 •Develop and implement basic time management plan for patterns, atmospheric layers, stratosphere, troposphere. assignments •Recognize or recall isolated details such as: •Complete assignments on time and provide acceptable –Precipitation is one of the processes of the water cycle explanation when assignments not handed in on time –The troposphere is one of the lowest portions of the earth’s atmosphere 2 1 1 0 0 9
    • Topic Grade 6-8: Assignments & Work Completion 4 •Hand in assignment that meet format requirements specified by teacher 3 •Develop and implement basic time management plan for assignments •Complete assignments on time and provide acceptable explanation when assignments not handed in on time 2 •Be aware of format requirements for assignments •Be aware of elements of basic time management plans •Be aware of deadlines for assignments 1 0 Factors Mediating Leadership Leadership for Incremental Behavior Change • Emphasize relationships • Establish strong lines of communication Focus of the change • Be an advocate for the school and • Provide resources • Maintain visibility Order of the change • Protect teachers from distractions • Create culture of collaboration • Look for and celebrate successes Leadership for Second Order Change • Shake up the status quo • Expect some things to seem worse • Propose new ideas • Operate from strong beliefs • Tolerate ambiguity and dissent • Talk research and theory • Create explicit goals for change • Define success in terms of goals 10