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Herps patterns liceo_mar2011

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  • 1. 1
  • 2. Diversity Patterns and the Conservation of Amphibians and Reptiles in the Philippines Arvin C. Diesmos National Museum of the Philippines Mae Lowe L. Diesmos University of Santo Tomas Rafe M. Brown University of Kansas 2
  • 3. Rediscoveries Taylor’s Igorot Frog Rana igorotaBalbalasang-Balbalan Natural Park, Luzon Island. March 2000. Photo by RMB. 3
  • 4. RediscoveriesPhilippine Flat-headed Frog Barbourula busuangensisPuerto Princesa, Palawan Island. January 2002. Photo by ACD. 4
  • 5. RediscoveriesMindanao Caecilian Ichthyophis mindanaoensisMt. Kitanglad, Mindanao Island. April 2003. Photo by ACD. 5
  • 6. RediscoveriesPhilippine Forest Turtle Siebenrockiella leytensis Dumaran, Palawan Island. April 2002. Photo by ACD. 6
  • 7. New Discoveries Southern Luzon Limestone Frog Platymantis biakBiak-Na-Bato National Park, Luzon Island. January 2009. Photo by ACD. 7
  • 8. New DiscoveriesSouthern Luzon Limestone Forest Gecko Gekko carusadensis Biak-Na-Bato National Park, Luzon Island. March 2010. Photo by ACD. 8
  • 9. New DiscoveriesNorthern Sierra Madre Forest Monitor Lizard Varanus bitatawa Isabela Province, Luzon Island. April 2005. Photo by ACD. 9
  • 10. New DiscoveriesNorthern Sierra Madre Forest Monitor Lizard Varanus bitatawa Isabela Province, Luzon Island. April 2005. Photo by ACD. 10
  • 11. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions New Species Discoveries Endemic Non-endemicBrown & Diesmos 2002; Brown, Diesmos & Alcala 2008. 11
  • 12. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions New Species Discoveries Morphological (traditional techniques) Bioacoustics Genetics 12
  • 13. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Asian amphibian diversity & endemism: Present Timor Pakistan Singapore Taiwan endemics Napal Nepal nonendemics Laos Sri Lanka Philippines Thailand Indonesia China 0 100 200 300 0 100 200 300Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA; www.globalamphibians.org); Stuart et al. 2008. 13
  • 14. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Projected diversity and endemism Timor Pakistan Singapore Taiwan endemics Nepal Napal nonendemics Laos Sri Lanka Philippines Thailand Indonesia China 0 0 100 100 200 200 300 300Brown & Diesmos 2002; Brown 2004; Brown, Diesmos & Alcala 2008. 14
  • 15. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Projected diversity and endemism Timor Pakistan Singapore Taiwan endemics Nepal Napal nonendemics Laos Sri Lanka Philippines Thailand Indonesia China 0 0 100 100 200 200 300 300Brown & Diesmos 2002; Brown 2004; Brown, Diesmos & Alcala 2008. 14
  • 16. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Habitat loss/DeforestationThe primary cause of biodiversityloss and extinction of species in the Tropics.e.g., Simberloff 1986; Wilson 1988; Whitmore & Sayer 1992; Myers et al. 2000; Laurance & Peres 2006. 15
  • 17. Legal and illegal logging.Image by RM Brown, Mt. Busa, Sarangani Province, Mindanao, 1993. 16
  • 18. Intensive and extensive kaingin farming.Image by AC Diesmos, San Mariano, Isabela Province, Luzon, 2006. 17
  • 19. Destructive mining is the greatest threat to remaining forests.Image from flickr.com/photos/storm-crypt/. 18
  • 20. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion ConclusionsForestOriginal & secondary(natural) forestDENR 2003; FAO 2007; Conservation International Philippines GIS Program. 19
  • 21. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Deforestation rates (%) among selected Southeast Asian countries 1990–2000 2000–2005 Philippines 2.8 2.1 Indonesia 1.7 2.0 Cambodia 1.1 2.0 Malaysia 0.4 0.7 Thailand 0.7 0.4Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 2007. 20
  • 22. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions General Question How does habitat destructionimpact herpetofaunal biodiversity? 21
  • 23. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Objectives Describe the patterns of distribution of amphibians and reptiles in terms of biogeography, elevation, and habitat preference Correlate the observed patterns with species richness, endemicity, distribution of threatened species and their habitats 22
  • 24. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Databases Habitat data: based on Forest Management Bureau (2003) and FAO (2007) Topography: based on Forest Management Bureau (2003); NAMRIA maps; literature Amphibians and reptiles: Global Amphibian Assessment (www.globalamphibians.org); Global Reptile Assessment (unpublicized); HerpWatch Philippines (www.herpwatch.org); literature; own field data 23
  • 25. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Data Analyses Gradient analysis; non-metric multidimensional scaling, NMDS (PC-ORD) Parametric and non-parametric tests: ANOVA, χ2 , correlation, regression (JMP ver. 5.1) Excluded marine & introduced species Conservation status of species from IUCN (2010)McCune & Mefford 1999; MjM Software, Oregon, USA; SAS Institute, NC, USA; <www.iucnredlist.org> 24
  • 26. Results & Discussion 25
  • 27. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 1 BiogeographyInger 1954; Heaney 1985; Brown & Diesmos 2002, 2009. 26
  • 28. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 1 Biogeography Herpetofauna is generally distributed according to paleo-islands: Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complex (PAIC)Inger 1954; Heaney 1985; Brown & Diesmos 2002, 2009. 26
  • 29. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion ConclusionsPAICPleistocene AggregateIsland ComplexInger 1954; Heaney 1985; Brown & Diesmos 2002, 2009. 27
  • 30. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion ConclusionsPAICPleistocene AggregateIsland ComplexInger 1954; Heaney 1985; Brown & Diesmos 2002, 2009. 28
  • 31. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions 1Centers of 2biodiversity &endemism 3 4 6 5 8 7 9Inger 1954; Heaney 1985; Ong et al. 2002; Brown & Diesmos 2002, 2009. 29
  • 32. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 1 Biogeography Herpetofauna is generally distributed according to paleo-islands: Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complex (PAIC)Brown & Diesmos 2002; Brown & Guttman 2002; Evans et al. 2003; Esselstyn et al. 2008; Brown & Diesmos, 2009. 30
  • 33. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 1 Biogeography Herpetofauna is generally distributed according to paleo-islands: Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complex (PAIC) Significant exceptions: dispersal events have also occurred INTO, WITHIN, and OUT OF the Philippines well before the Pleistocene and PAIC landmass formations (i.e., Eocene or Oligocene, > 30 million years ago)Brown & Diesmos 2002; Brown & Guttman 2002; Evans et al. 2003; Esselstyn et al. 2008; Brown & Diesmos, 2009. 30
  • 34. WITHIN The Philippines 31
  • 35. 32
  • 36. 32
  • 37. 33
  • 38. 33
  • 39. INTO & OUT OF The Philippines 34
  • 40. More ancient dispersal eventsBlackburn et al. 2010. 35
  • 41. More ancient dispersal eventsBlackburn et al. 2010. 36
  • 42. More ancient dispersal eventsBlackburn et al. 2010. 37
  • 43. More ancient dispersal eventsBlackburn et al. 2010. 38
  • 44. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion ConclusionsSpeciesrichness Patterns of Distribution 2 Richness & geography *(r = 0.18, df = 209, p = 0.008) 39
  • 45. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion ConclusionsSpeciesrichness Patterns of Distribution 2 Richness & geography *(r = 0.18, df = 209, p = 0.008) 39
  • 46. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 3 Richness vs. elevation 300Richness 150 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 40
  • 47. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 3 Richness vs. elevation Reptiles 300Richness 150 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 40
  • 48. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 3 Richness vs. elevation Reptiles 300 AmphibiansRichness 150 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 40
  • 49. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 3 Endemicity vs. elevation 400 Non-endemic Endemic 300No. of species 200 100 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 41
  • 50. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Stratified distribution pattern in elevationDiesmos et al. 2002; image by AC Diesmos, Mt. Mayon, Albay Province, Luzon, 2004. 42
  • 51. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Stratified distribution pattern in elevationDiesmos et al. 2002; image by AC Diesmos, Mt. Mayon, Albay Province, Luzon, 2004. 42
  • 52. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Stratified distribution pattern in elevation Species F Species E Species D Species C Species B Species ADiesmos et al. 2002; image by AC Diesmos, Mt. Mayon, Albay Province, Luzon, 2004. 42
  • 53. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Stratified distribution pattern in elevation Species F Species E Species D Species C Species B Species ADiesmos et al. 2002; image by AC Diesmos, Mt. Mayon, Albay Province, Luzon, 2004. 42
  • 54. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 4Reproductive mode vs. elevation Direct development Oviparous 60 No. of species 40 20 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 43
  • 55. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Direct development vs. elevation Species(direct developers) 0 500 1000 1500 Elevation 44
  • 56. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Direct development vs. elevation Species(direct developers) 0 500 1000 1500 Elevation 44
  • 57. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion ConclusionsPlatymantis DirectPhilautus DevelopersOreophryne 45
  • 58. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions 46
  • 59. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion ConclusionsPatterns of Distribution 5 Ecological variables 47
  • 60. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion ConclusionsPatterns of Distribution 5Taxa & ecological variables 48
  • 61. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 6Threatened & endemic species 400 Endemics Threatened species 300No. of species 200 100 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 49
  • 62. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 7 Richness vs. elevation per PAIC 200Richness 100 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 50
  • 63. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 7 Richness vs. elevation per PAIC Luzon 200Richness 100 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 50
  • 64. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 7 Richness vs. elevation per PAIC Luzon 200 MindanaoRichness 100 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 50
  • 65. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 7 Richness vs. elevation per PAIC Luzon 200 Mindanao West VisayasRichness 100 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 50
  • 66. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 7 Richness vs. elevation per PAIC Luzon 200 Mindanao West Visayas MindoroRichness 100 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 50
  • 67. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 7 Richness vs. elevation per PAIC Luzon 200 Mindanao West Visayas MindoroRichness 100 Palawan 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 50
  • 68. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion ConclusionsForestOriginal & secondary(natural) forestDENR 2003; FAO 2007; Conservation International Philippines GIS Program. 51
  • 69. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Numbers of species predicted tobecome extinct with current habitat loss Batanes Babuyan Luzon Mindoro Romblon–Sibuyan Palawan Predicted extinctions West Visayas Gigante Camiguin Mindanao Jolo–Tawitawi 0 40 80 120 Number of species 52
  • 70. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Numbers of species predicted tobecome extinct with current habitat loss Batanes Babuyan Luzon Mindoro Romblon–Sibuyan Palawan Predicted extinctions 19–55% West Visayas Gigante Camiguin Mindanao Jolo–Tawitawi 0 40 80 120 Number of species 52
  • 71. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Top PAICs with highest proportions andnumbers of predicted species extinctions Rank PAIC Predicted extinct 1 West Visayas 55.1% (42 species) 2 Mindoro 41.2% (38 species) 3 Gigante 36.1% (3 species) 4 Batanes 33.7% (5 species) 5 Luzon 33.5% (38 species) 53
  • 72. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion ConclusionsSynopsis 54
  • 73. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Synopsis Biogeography is generally understood but recent studies indicate high complexity and needs resolution through fine-scaled studies 54
  • 74. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Synopsis Biogeography is generally understood but recent studies indicate high complexity and needs resolution through fine-scaled studies Low elevation habitats are species-rich 54
  • 75. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Synopsis Biogeography is generally understood but recent studies indicate high complexity and needs resolution through fine-scaled studies Low elevation habitats are species-rich Species influenced by distribution of key microhabitats and other environmental variables 54
  • 76. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Synopsis Biogeography is generally understood but recent studies indicate high complexity and needs resolution through fine-scaled studies Low elevation habitats are species-rich Species influenced by distribution of key microhabitats and other environmental variables Hotspots of herpetofaunal conservation: West Visayas, Mindoro, Batanes, Gigantes 54
  • 77. Introduction Methods Results Discussion ConclusionsConservation Implications 55
  • 78. Introduction Methods Results Discussion Conclusions Conservation Implications Significant implications to current conservation management efforts because of heavy focus on protection of high-elevation forests and intact (pristine) habitats 55
  • 79. Introduction Methods Results Discussion Conclusions Conservation Implications Significant implications to current conservation management efforts because of heavy focus on protection of high-elevation forests and intact (pristine) habitats ➡ Palawan Strategic Environment Plan (SEP) ➡ National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) 55
  • 80. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 7 Richness vs. elevation per PAIC Luzon 200 Mindanao West Visayas MindoroRichness 100 Palawan 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 56
  • 81. Introduction Methods Results & Discussion Conclusions Patterns of Distribution 7 Richness vs. elevation per PAIC Luzon 200 Mindanao West Visayas MindoroRichness 100 Palawan 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Elevation 56
  • 82. Introduction Methods Results Discussion Conclusions Conservation Implications Significant implications to current conservation management efforts because of heavy focus on protection of high-elevation forests and intact (pristine) habitats ➡ Palawan Strategic Environment Plan (SEP) ➡ National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) 57
  • 83. Introduction Methods Results Discussion Conclusions Conservation Implications Significant implications to current conservation management efforts because of heavy focus on protection of high-elevation forests and intact (pristine) habitats ➡ Palawan Strategic Environment Plan (SEP) ➡ National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Conservation efforts should embrace protection of remaining natural habitats and ecological restoration 57
  • 84. Introduction Methods Results Discussion ConclusionsConservation Implications 58
  • 85. Introduction Methods Results Discussion Conclusions Conservation Implications Hotspots cannot afford to lose more habitat. A critical threshold has already been reached, especially in the Western Visayas and Mindoro, and in small island centers of endemism of Batanes and Gigante island groups. 58
  • 86. Introduction Methods Results Discussion Conclusions Conservation Implications Hotspots cannot afford to lose more habitat. A critical threshold has already been reached, especially in the Western Visayas and Mindoro, and in small island centers of endemism of Batanes and Gigante island groups. Lack of basic survey, natural history information, and autecological data undermines our ability to accurately assess conservation status of many species. 58
  • 87. Acknowledgments Thank you very much! • Liceo de Cagayan University • Funding and logistical support: Rufford Small Grant for Nature Conservation, National University of Singapore, Turtle Survival Alliance, Conservation International Philippines, National Museum of the Philippines, University of Kansas, US National Science Foundation • Permits: Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (DENR) • Valuable advice from: Angel Alcala • Numerous colleagues from the Philippines and US • Wildlife Conservation Society of the Philippines • Our families 59
  • 88. 60