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Finding & Citing Information<br />How to search for and find the research literature you need!<br />CELB20020 Perspectives...
What I will cover:<br /><ul><li>Plagiarism – what it is and what you need to know
The different sources of information
What are the best sources for your needs?
How to start searching
Using the Library’s catalogue & article searching functions</li></li></ul><li>Since my very unsuccessful journeyto the lib...
After the information gathering...<br />Once you have a sufficient (and relevant!) amount of information, it’s time to ana...
Avoid plagiarism!<br /><ul><li>What is plagiarism?
What is common knowledge?
How does plagiarism happen?
How to avoid plagiarism
Paraphrasing vs quotations
Referencing within a text
Citing secondary sources
Where to find further information</li></li></ul><li>What is it?<br />“The action or practice of taking someone else's work...
Forms of plagiarism<br /><ul><li>Using another person’s words or ideas without crediting the original source
Copying and pasting directly from a source into your document
Passing off someone else’s work as your own
Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks</li></li></ul><li>Forms of plagiarism<br /><ul><li>Summarising or paraphrasi...
Changing certain words or phrases but copying the ideas and sentence structure of the original source without crediting it
Citing sources you did not use or read</li></li></ul><li>UCD’s policy<br />Plagiarism is a serious academic offence. While...
Why so serious?<br /><ul><li>Plagiarism undermines the University’s reputation and the quality of degrees and research
Knowledge creation is a key element of researching
Ability to communicate in writing, researching, and learning to organise data is an essential part of life long learning
Undermines integrity</li></li></ul><li>examples of plagiarism<br />In journalism:  Jayson Blair, NYT reporter<br />In poli...
examples of plagiarism<br />
examples of plagiarism<br />
examples of plagiarism<br />
How does it happen?<br />Unintentional:<br /><ul><li>Poor study skills
Poor time management
Can’t find the information
Poor citation skills
Ignorance about plagiarism</li></ul>Intentional:<br /><ul><li>Pressure for good grades
Poor time management!
Dishonesty</li></li></ul><li>3 common misperceptions<br /><ul><li> It's not plagiarism if you paraphrase
Put anything in quotation marks - it's not plagiarism if you acknowledge that it's a quotation
 The Web viewed as the public domain</li></li></ul><li>Common knowledge<br />Definition: facts, dates, events and informat...
an author interprets the thoughts/ideas from another source (secondary source)</li></li></ul><li>Common knowledge<br /><ul...
A molecule of water contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms
Frogs are amphibians
The speed of light is 299,792,458 metres per second</li></ul>HOWEVER....if you’re not sure, GO AHEAD AND CITE!!<br />
Common knowledge quiz<br />Which one is considered common knowledge?<br />A. Charles Darwin had several theories, includin...
Writing your report<br />Watch out for the following:<br /><ul><li> Incorrect paraphrasing
 use of quotations
 use proper citation styles</li></li></ul><li>paraphrasing<br />When in doubt, cite!<br />incorrect paraphrasing: <br /><u...
When the source of information and ideas are not acknowledged</li></li></ul><li>paraphrasing<br />correct paraphrasing: <b...
When something is expressed in an unique way
When rewriting would cause loss of impact</li></li></ul><li>Citation styles<br />Various methods of citing references to t...
Gathering your resources<br />
So....where do I start?<br />
Different types of material<br /><ul><li>books!
 academic journals
databases – large searchable collections of journals or abstracts
newspapers
the Web! – though proceed with caution...</li></ul>Primary vs. secondary sources<br />
Books<br /><ul><li>Search in the library’s catalogue
Encyclopaedias and dictionaries are a good place to start for an overall view
Academic textbooks can also be a good place to start</li></li></ul><li>Journals<br />tip: <br />Journals that print review...
Databases<br /><ul><li>Databases are often large collections of full-text journals, or sometimes just abstracts of article...
Search many different journals/ other resources in one go</li></li></ul><li>Examples of Scientific Databases<br /><ul><li>...
BioMed Central
Science Direct
Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA)
Web of Science
SpringerLink</li></ul>ALL very large store of content<br />ALL available via the Library!<br />
Newspapers/ News magazines<br />Yes, newspapers! <br /><ul><li>Sometimes a good place to discover new research
Often gives a summary in layman’s terms of new research being done
 We have tools for searching many news media in one go</li></li></ul><li>And, yes, of course...the Web!<br />
...but, proceed with caution!<br />
Websites with scientific information<br />Liaison Librarians (subject specialists) compile lists of freely available Web r...
Subject Gateways on the Web<br />www.intute.ac.uk<br />
Subject Gateways on the Web<br />
Subject Gateways on the Web<br />
End result: a potentially useful resource!<br />
End result: (another) potentially useful resource!<br />
Websites of Organisations<br />
OK....NOW where do I start?<br />
Begin a literature search<br />Literature searching is the comprehensive study and interpretation of literature that is re...
Steps in the process<br />Define your need<br />Refine & revise search<br /> (if necessary)<br />Determine appropriate (sc...
Define your need<br /><ul><li>Look at your research question, topic or assignment and identify what the core concepts are
This will help guide your search in the right direction and provide a framework for searching
To do this identify the key words or synonyms that describe your core concepts</li></li></ul><li>Example:Find references o...
narrows your search<br />additives AND microorganisms<br />broadens your search<br />bacteria OR virus<br />narrows your s...
Other search techniques<br />To expand your search:<br /><ul><li>Use synonyms, related terms or broader terms
Use both American and English spellings, e.g., fetus OR foetus</li></ul>To narrow your search:<br /><ul><li>Limit by year,...
Use more specific search terms
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CELB20020 Library Workshop 26 Jan 2011

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Transcript of "CELB20020 Library Workshop 26 Jan 2011"

  1. 1. Finding & Citing Information<br />How to search for and find the research literature you need!<br />CELB20020 Perspectives in Cell Biology<br />Presented by Josh Clark, Science Librarian<br />Wednesday 26th January 2011<br />UCD James Joyce Library<br />Leabharlann UCD<br />
  2. 2. What I will cover:<br /><ul><li>Plagiarism – what it is and what you need to know
  3. 3. The different sources of information
  4. 4. What are the best sources for your needs?
  5. 5. How to start searching
  6. 6. Using the Library’s catalogue & article searching functions</li></li></ul><li>Since my very unsuccessful journeyto the library, I am now unsure about how effective research is going to be made in this project as there seems to be no written literature published yet. I know that an unbiased project can not be produced with information solely from the internetso I'm sort of confused as to what to do next.<br />From a real student!<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. After the information gathering...<br />Once you have a sufficient (and relevant!) amount of information, it’s time to analyse, draw your conclusions and write up your report/ presentation.<br />It’s very important to compile your bibliography – references to the material which has informed your own research<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Avoid plagiarism!<br /><ul><li>What is plagiarism?
  11. 11. What is common knowledge?
  12. 12. How does plagiarism happen?
  13. 13. How to avoid plagiarism
  14. 14. Paraphrasing vs quotations
  15. 15. Referencing within a text
  16. 16. Citing secondary sources
  17. 17. Where to find further information</li></li></ul><li>What is it?<br />“The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own”<br />“literary theft”<br />-Oxford English Dictionary definition<br />
  18. 18. Forms of plagiarism<br /><ul><li>Using another person’s words or ideas without crediting the original source
  19. 19. Copying and pasting directly from a source into your document
  20. 20. Passing off someone else’s work as your own
  21. 21. Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks</li></li></ul><li>Forms of plagiarism<br /><ul><li>Summarising or paraphrasing material without crediting the original source
  22. 22. Changing certain words or phrases but copying the ideas and sentence structure of the original source without crediting it
  23. 23. Citing sources you did not use or read</li></li></ul><li>UCD’s policy<br />Plagiarism is a serious academic offence. While plagiarism may be easy to commit unintentionally, it is defined by the act not the intention. <br />See the University’s policy on plagiarism!<br />http://www.ucd.ie/registry/academicsecretariat/plag_pol_proc.pdf<br />
  24. 24. Why so serious?<br /><ul><li>Plagiarism undermines the University’s reputation and the quality of degrees and research
  25. 25. Knowledge creation is a key element of researching
  26. 26. Ability to communicate in writing, researching, and learning to organise data is an essential part of life long learning
  27. 27. Undermines integrity</li></li></ul><li>examples of plagiarism<br />In journalism: Jayson Blair, NYT reporter<br />In politics: Obama speech<br />In music: <br />Madonna<br />George Harrison Coldplay<br />U2<br />
  28. 28. examples of plagiarism<br />
  29. 29. examples of plagiarism<br />
  30. 30. examples of plagiarism<br />
  31. 31. How does it happen?<br />Unintentional:<br /><ul><li>Poor study skills
  32. 32. Poor time management
  33. 33. Can’t find the information
  34. 34. Poor citation skills
  35. 35. Ignorance about plagiarism</li></ul>Intentional:<br /><ul><li>Pressure for good grades
  36. 36. Poor time management!
  37. 37. Dishonesty</li></li></ul><li>3 common misperceptions<br /><ul><li> It's not plagiarism if you paraphrase
  38. 38. Put anything in quotation marks - it's not plagiarism if you acknowledge that it's a quotation
  39. 39. The Web viewed as the public domain</li></li></ul><li>Common knowledge<br />Definition: facts, dates, events and information that are readily available<br />e.g., mitosis is one stage of the cell cycle<br />Common knowledge does not have to be cited!<br />You MUST cite a source when:<br /><ul><li>the idea/thought comes from another source
  40. 40. an author interprets the thoughts/ideas from another source (secondary source)</li></li></ul><li>Common knowledge<br /><ul><li>Tony Blair is the former UK Prime Minister
  41. 41. A molecule of water contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms
  42. 42. Frogs are amphibians
  43. 43. The speed of light is 299,792,458 metres per second</li></ul>HOWEVER....if you’re not sure, GO AHEAD AND CITE!!<br />
  44. 44. Common knowledge quiz<br />Which one is considered common knowledge?<br />A. Charles Darwin had several theories, including evolution and natural selection<br />B. Darwin's major work entitled Origin of Species was published in six different editions<br />
  45. 45. Writing your report<br />Watch out for the following:<br /><ul><li> Incorrect paraphrasing
  46. 46. use of quotations
  47. 47. use proper citation styles</li></li></ul><li>paraphrasing<br />When in doubt, cite!<br />incorrect paraphrasing: <br /><ul><li>Occurs when you only change a couple of words or phrases, or rearrange sentences
  48. 48. When the source of information and ideas are not acknowledged</li></li></ul><li>paraphrasing<br />correct paraphrasing: <br /><ul><li>Occurs when you put the ideas into your own words</li></ul>AND<br /><ul><li>you give full acknowledgment for the ideas in your BIBLIOGRAPHY</li></li></ul><li>Use quotations...<br /><ul><li>When the exact words are relevant to your argument
  49. 49. When something is expressed in an unique way
  50. 50. When rewriting would cause loss of impact</li></li></ul><li>Citation styles<br />Various methods of citing references to the information that informs your own research<br />Pick a style and stick to it! Common styles are the Harvard, APA, Chicago & Vancouver styles<br />See the Library’s guide on citing correctly!<br />
  51. 51.
  52. 52.
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Gathering your resources<br />
  56. 56. So....where do I start?<br />
  57. 57. Different types of material<br /><ul><li>books!
  58. 58. academic journals
  59. 59. databases – large searchable collections of journals or abstracts
  60. 60. newspapers
  61. 61. the Web! – though proceed with caution...</li></ul>Primary vs. secondary sources<br />
  62. 62. Books<br /><ul><li>Search in the library’s catalogue
  63. 63. Encyclopaedias and dictionaries are a good place to start for an overall view
  64. 64. Academic textbooks can also be a good place to start</li></li></ul><li>Journals<br />tip: <br />Journals that print review articles are excellent sources for starting your research<br />
  65. 65. Databases<br /><ul><li>Databases are often large collections of full-text journals, or sometimes just abstracts of articles pulled together in one place
  66. 66. Search many different journals/ other resources in one go</li></li></ul><li>Examples of Scientific Databases<br /><ul><li>Pubmed
  67. 67. BioMed Central
  68. 68. Science Direct
  69. 69. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA)
  70. 70. Web of Science
  71. 71. SpringerLink</li></ul>ALL very large store of content<br />ALL available via the Library!<br />
  72. 72. Newspapers/ News magazines<br />Yes, newspapers! <br /><ul><li>Sometimes a good place to discover new research
  73. 73. Often gives a summary in layman’s terms of new research being done
  74. 74. We have tools for searching many news media in one go</li></li></ul><li>And, yes, of course...the Web!<br />
  75. 75. ...but, proceed with caution!<br />
  76. 76. Websites with scientific information<br />Liaison Librarians (subject specialists) compile lists of freely available Web resources containing scientific information<br />
  77. 77. Subject Gateways on the Web<br />www.intute.ac.uk<br />
  78. 78. Subject Gateways on the Web<br />
  79. 79. Subject Gateways on the Web<br />
  80. 80. End result: a potentially useful resource!<br />
  81. 81. End result: (another) potentially useful resource!<br />
  82. 82. Websites of Organisations<br />
  83. 83. OK....NOW where do I start?<br />
  84. 84. Begin a literature search<br />Literature searching is the comprehensive study and interpretation of literature that is related to a particular topic<br />
  85. 85. Steps in the process<br />Define your need<br />Refine & revise search<br /> (if necessary)<br />Determine appropriate (scientific) resources<br />Evaluate information gathered<br />Search!<br />
  86. 86. Define your need<br /><ul><li>Look at your research question, topic or assignment and identify what the core concepts are
  87. 87. This will help guide your search in the right direction and provide a framework for searching
  88. 88. To do this identify the key words or synonyms that describe your core concepts</li></li></ul><li>Example:Find references on how food preservatives affect the growth of microorganisms<br />
  89. 89. narrows your search<br />additives AND microorganisms<br />broadens your search<br />bacteria OR virus<br />narrows your search<br />additives NOT emulsifiers<br />
  90. 90. Other search techniques<br />To expand your search:<br /><ul><li>Use synonyms, related terms or broader terms
  91. 91. Use both American and English spellings, e.g., fetus OR foetus</li></ul>To narrow your search:<br /><ul><li>Limit by year, language, type of publication...
  92. 92. Use more specific search terms
  93. 93. Use phrases, e.g., “drug therapy”</li></li></ul><li>Determine appropriate sources<br />BEFORE you start searching, make a list of where you might find information<br /><ul><li>Books – Library Catalogue(s) – reference material
  94. 94. Journal Articles – e-journals, review articles
  95. 95. Databases
  96. 96. Organisation – Library Subject Portals, Intute portal e.g.,(http://www.intute.ac.uk/agriculture/)
  97. 97. Professional experts (your lecturers!)</li></li></ul><li>Discovering the Library’s online resources<br />
  98. 98. www.ucd.ie/library<br />
  99. 99. Library catalogue<br />
  100. 100. Library catalogue<br />When searching the catalogue, think broadly in a particular subject area...<br />
  101. 101. Library catalogue searching<br />NOT<br />
  102. 102. Tip!<br />Textbooks often have many different editions<br />Use the “sort by” function to sort by date to see which is the latest edition…<br />
  103. 103. e-books!<br />
  104. 104. Reference titles – dictionaries, encyclopaedias<br />
  105. 105. A few examples….<br />
  106. 106. Electronic (online) resources<br />
  107. 107. Electronic (online) resources<br />
  108. 108.
  109. 109. Search journals by title...<br />
  110. 110. Exercise!<br />Log in to the Library’s findit system and search for the following journal:<br />Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology<br /><ul><li>access the journal via the Nature link (NOT EBSCOhost)
  111. 111. find review articles on apoptosis via the “web focuses” section of the journal’s website</li></li></ul><li>Browse journals by subject area...<br />
  112. 112.
  113. 113. Search databases by title...<br />
  114. 114. ...or browse by subject area<br />
  115. 115. ...or browse by subject area<br />
  116. 116. Exercise!<br />Search for the following database:<br />Genetics Abstracts<br />You are trying to find articles on programmed cell death or apoptosis in plants<br />You want your search terms to appear in the title of the article<br />Limit your search to journal articles published in the last 5 years only<br />Once located, get the full text of one of the articles by clicking on the button<br />
  117. 117.
  118. 118. Conduct a search of many databases by subject in one go<br />
  119. 119. Now let’s go back to our research question<br />
  120. 120. Example:Find references on how food preservatives affect the growth of microorganisms<br />
  121. 121. Exercise!<br />Consider this research question:<br />Do pathogens manipulate death responses in plant cells? <br /><ul><li>Identify the key concepts, consider synonyms, and compose a search query using connectors (AND, OR)
  122. 122. Do an advanced search in PubMed database and limit your search to the last 5 years
  123. 123. How many results do you find? </li></li></ul><li>
  124. 124. Feedback!<br />Please fill out this short evaluation form…be honest!<br />http://bit.ly/e1O26a<br />THANK YOU!<br />
  125. 125. Josh Clark, <br />Science Liaison Librarian<br />My Contact info:<br />Tel: 716 7646<br />Email: joshua.clark@ucd.ie<br />James Joyce Library<br />Level 4, Room 414 (just ask at the Information Desk)<br />University College Dublin<br />An Coláiste Ollscoil, Baile Átha Cliath <br />
  126. 126. A typical journal article…<br />
  127. 127. I’m trying to find…<br />
  128. 128. I’m trying to find…<br />CONNOLLY, H.C. JR, JONES, B.D. & HEWINS, R.H. 1997. The flash melting of chondrules: an experimental investigation into the melting history and physical nature of chondrule precursors. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 2725–2735.<br />
  129. 129. Anatomy of a journal reference 1<br />CONNOLLY, H.C. JR, JONES, B.D. & HEWINS, R.H. 1997. The flash melting of chondrules: an experimental investigation into the melting history and physical nature of chondrule precursors. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 2725–2735.<br />Author(s)<br />
  130. 130. Anatomy of a journal reference 2<br />CONNOLLY, H.C. JR, JONES, B.D. & HEWINS, R.H. 1997. The flash melting of chondrules: an experimental investigation into the melting history and physical nature of chondrule precursors. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 2725–2735.<br />Year of publication<br />
  131. 131. Anatomy of a journal reference 3<br />CONNOLLY, H.C. JR, JONES, B.D. & HEWINS, R.H. 1997. The flash melting of chondrules: an experimental investigation into the melting history and physical nature of chondrule precursors. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 2725–2735.<br />article title<br />
  132. 132. Anatomy of a journal reference 4<br />CONNOLLY, H.C. JR, JONES, B.D. & HEWINS, R.H. 1997. The flash melting of chondrules: an experimental investigation into the melting history and physical nature of chondrule precursors. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 2725–2735.<br />journal title<br />
  133. 133. Anatomy of a journal reference 5<br />CONNOLLY, H.C. JR, JONES, B.D. & HEWINS, R.H. 1997. The flash melting of chondrules: an experimental investigation into the melting history and physical nature of chondrule precursors. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 2725–2735.<br />volume no<br />
  134. 134. Anatomy of a journal reference 6<br />CONNOLLY, H.C. JR, JONES, B.D. & HEWINS, R.H. 1997. The flash melting of chondrules: an experimental investigation into the melting history and physical nature of chondrule precursors. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 2725–2735.<br />page no(s)<br />
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